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MAN, F.S. A., AND G. H. BIRCH, F.S.A., 




|IR CHRISTOPHER WREN, the only son 
of Dr. Christopher Wren, Dean of Windsor, 
was born at East-Knoyle in Wiltshire, on the 
2oth day of October in the Year of our Lord 
1 632. His Mother was Mary Daughter and 
Heir of Mr. Robert Cox of Founthill in the 
, same County. 

His first Education in Classick Learning was 
(by reason of a tender Health) committed to 
the Care of a Domestick Tutor, the Rev. Wil- 
liam Shepheard, M. A. excepting that for some short Time before his 
Admission in the University, he was placed under Dr. Busby at West- 
minster School. 

In the Principles of Mathematicks,upon the early Appearance of an un- 
common Genius, he was initiated by Dr. William Holder, before-men- 
tion'd; some Time Sub-Dean of the Royal Chapel; Canon-Residentiary 
of St. Paul's and Ely, &c. (This Gentleman was a great Virtuoso and a 
Person of many Accomplishments, fam'd for his wonderful Art, in mak- 
ing a young Gentleman named Alexander Popham, who was born deaf 
and dumb to speak: He wrote an ingenious Discourse of the Elements of 
Speech 1669: had good Skill in the Theoretick and Practical Parts of 
Musick; and published a Treatise of the 'Natural Grounds and Princi- 
ples of Harmony,' 1 694; and of the ancient Greek Musick. Also a Dis- Edit 3. 
course concerning Time, 17 12, with Application of the Natural Day, 
Lunar Month, and Solar Year, as Natural ; & of such as are derived from 
them: as Artificial Parts of Time, for Measures in Civil and Common 
Use, for the better Understanding of the Julian Year and Calendar.) 
At the Age of Thirteen, this young Mathematician had invented a new 
Astronomical Instrument, of general Use, which (together with an Ex- 
ercise in Physicis, De Ortu Fluminum, founded on some Hints, & Prin- 
ciples suggested by his Father,) he dedicated in this Manner, 

Kvfi' 1645. 

Si licet, & cessent rerum {pater alme) tuarum 

Pondera, devota respice prolis opus. 

b I I 

Hie ego sidereos tentavi pingere motus, 

Coelicaque in modulo s conciliare breves. 

Quo {prolapsa diti) renoventur tempora gyro, 

Seculaque, & menses, imparilesque dies. 

Quomodo solabeat, redeatque, & temper et annum, 

Et {raptum contra) grandeperennetiter. 

Cur nascens gracili, plena or be refulget adulta. 

Cur gerat extinctas menstrua luna faces. 

His ego numinibus diim lito, atque ardua mundi 

Scrutor, & arcanas conor inire vias, 

Adsis O IJaveasque pater, succurre volanti 

Suspensum implumis dirigeprolis iter, 

Ne male,pracipiti, nimiumprae viribus audax 

{Sorte sub Icared) lapsus ab axe ruam: 

Te duce,fert animus, studiis sublimibus hisce 

Pasci, dum superas detur adire domos. 

Dedicatio, a^Patrem, Tractatus De Ortu Fluminum. 

Jur^e accepta Tibi refero mea Flumim; pulchre 
Derivata suum respicit Unda caput. 

About the same Time, he invented a Pneumatick Engine; the Descrip- 
tion of which, with the Schemes, he thus introduced to his Father ; 

Permitte mihi obsecro (Reverende Pater) prolusiones meas tuae semper 
paternitati vovere ; & si arrideant quae olim in Physicis, De Ortu Flumi- 
num: quaeque nuper in Opticis, nova tentavi; solita nunc etiam indul- 
gentid, Pneumaticum Hoc (quod ante inter otia excogitavi, jamque ad 
incudem reduxi) excipias rogo. 

He contrived also a peculiar Instrument of Use in Gnomonicks, which 
He explained in a Treatise, intitled Sciotericon Catholicum: the Use & 
propos'd End of which, was the Solution of this Problem, viz. "On a 
" known Plane, in a known Elevation, to describe such Lines with the 
" expedite turning of Rundles to certain Divisions, as by the Shadow of 
" the Style may shew the equal Hours of the Day." 
In the Year 1646, and Fourteenth of his Age, Mr. Wren was admitted 
a Gentleman-Commoner at Wadham College, in the University of Ox- 
ford; where he soon attracted the Friendship, & Esteem of the two most 
celebrated Virtuosi, and Mathematicians of their Time, Dr. John Wil- 
kins. Warden of Wadham, (afterwards Bishop of Chester) and Dr. Seth 
Ward, Savilian Professor of Astronomy, (afterwards Bishop of Sarum ;) 
which continued with Intimacy and Affection during their Lives. By 
the Means of Dr. Wilkins, who was Chaplain to his Royal Highness 

Charles Elector Palatine, while resident in England, he had the Honour 
to be introduced to the Acquaintance and Favour of that Prince, a great 
Lover and Encourager of Mathematicks, and useful Experiments. 
There is extant an Epistle to his Royal Highness, introductive of a Pre- 
sent to Him on those Subjects, which is here inserted from the first 
rough Draught. 

To his Most Illustrious Highness CHARLES, Prince Elector Palatine of 

the Rhine, &c. 

Most Illustrious Prince, 

When of old a Votive-Table was hung up to some Deity or Hero, a few 
small Characters, modestly obscuring themselves in some shady Corner 
of the Piece (as yet the modern Custom is) were never prohibited from 
revealing the poor Artist, and rendering him somewhat a Sharer in the 
Devotion: Indeed I was almost prompted to such a Presumption, out of 
my own Zeal to a Prince, so much mercurialium custos virorum, but the Supposed 
learned Votary who consecrates these Tables to your Highness (being Dr. Wil- 
one who suffers me to be a most addicted Client of his) civilly obstetri- kins 
cated my Affection to your Highness, by adding his Commands to me 
to tender this Oblation: And had not my too indulgent Patron by unde- 
servedly thinking them not unfit for his own presenting, (tho' exceed- 
ingly beneath your Highness's Acceptance) robb'd me of my Humility, 
and taken away the extreme low Thoughts I should otherwise have had 
of them, I must needs have called the first Device, but a rustick Thing 
concerning Agriculture only,* and therefore an illiberal Art, tending 
only to the saving of Corn, improper in that glorious prodigal Soil of 
your's where every Shower of Hail must necessarily press from the Hills 
even Torrents of Wine. The other Conceipt I must have deplor'd as a 
tardy Invention, impertinently now coming into the World, after the 
Divine German Art of Printing. Of the third Paper I cannot say any 
Thing too little, 'tis Extenuation enough to say that they are two Mites, 
two living Nothings, nay, but painted Nothings, the Shadow of No- 
thing; and this Shadow rarified too, even to forty thousand Times its for- 
mer Extension; if it presents you with any Thing in Nature, 'tis but with 
a pair of Atoms. Now if it be possible for your Highness to force your 
self to accept such extreme Littlenesses as these, you will therein imitate 
the Divinity, which shews it %€iimaxime in minimis, 2S\.d. preserve that De- 
votion towards your Highness, which I conceived while yet a Child, 

* A Planting-Instrument, which being drawn by a Horse over a Land ready 
plow'd and harrowed shall plant Corn equally without Want and without 

b 2 -J 

when you was pleased to honour my Father's House by your Presence, 
for some Weeks,* who therefore must eternally retain a Sense of being 

Tour Highnesses most humble and 
most devoted Servant, 

Of his Tract above mentioned, intitled ' Sciotericon,' and other Inven- 
tions, and Experiments, at the Age of Sixteen, relating to Gnomonicks, 
is a memorable complimental Account from an eminent Mathematician 
of that Time, as follows : 

Spectatissime Juvenis, 
Sciotericon tuum AKPIBOZ concinnatum, cursusque heliaci fidelem 
interpretem accepi equidem, & summi lustravi cum voluptate ; cae- 
terum haereo, utrum artificis ingenium, an authoris munus magis con- 
gratuler; utrumque stupens demiror, deosculor ; ubi Solis diurna conver- 
sio,atque accessu, decessuque annuo intra solstitialesterminosdimetitur; 
quin & ipsa coeli facies, & variegatae plagae uno intuitu contemplandae 
exponuiltur. OPFANON OPFANnN nonaliodelectugaudensquamproprio, 
& si magneticae acus invento minus aequale, certe magis infallibile, 
quod illud alienum superbiens ductum tuo subdis dictamini, & sine is- 
tius adminiculo veraci concilias concordia, jubesque (tua manu dimota) 
ad institutum tuum subsistere. Insuper non infra hujus ^olarii circulum 
tua admiranda compinguntur. In paternis aedibus solertiae tu^e speci- 
mina, & limatae Philosophiae AElfANA omnibus aulaeis anteferenda 
appenduntur; & pro re natS., in cameris, in tricliniis, & per quascunque 
fenestras sol radios immittit,eos gnomonicorum subjicis regulis. Neque 
coelestis motus contrario dispositu (qualis inter analemma, & horolo- 
gium solet dirigi) sed (retorti luminis beneficio) ipsissimi Solaris cir- 
cuitus projectione aemuld. Ut sol de sphaera sua deductus tanquam 
sponsus procedens de thalamo exultat ut gigas ad currendum viam. O te 
faelicem! qui ipsum Phoebum ante conspectum provehis. Quantam 
messem spondent haec tenuioris aetatis semina? Nee male auguror te id 
genus studiorum TAMEIA, & Eleusinia ingressum, ad illorum delicias 
provehendas natum, terrasque adhuc in hoc globo incognitas tua dis- 
quisitionis clave adaperiendas; adeo in id nervos intendis tuos. Quodque 
vortattibifaelicitersummopere adprecor. Vale Mathematicorum ocelle, 

tui observantissimum, 
De salutiferae passionis, THOMAS AYLESBURY. 

I o April, 1649. 

* The Deanry-liouse at Windsor, which his Highness occasionally made use of 
for Retirement, and Benefit of the Air. 

At the Age of Sixteen, he contrived, and modelled on Pasteboard, illus- 
trated with curious Astronomical Delineations in proper Colours, a new 
Hypothesis, entitled, ' Hypotyposis Prosthaphaereseseon Lunae, in qua 
Circulationes ejus secundum Rationes Tyconianas, nova hac Hypothesi 
exacte demonstrantur.' 

About the same Age, he translated into Latin, a Tract of Mr. Oughtred's 
Clavis Mathematicae, (clavis vere aurea) viz. of Geometrical Dialling; 
which that eminent and learned Mathematician published with his 
other Works, inserting this memorable Remark in his Preface. 
Partem autem illam quae geometricam horologiorum sciotericorum ra- 
tionem tradit,ex Anglico idiomate in Latinum vertit Dominus Christo- 
phorus Wren, CoUegii Wadhamensis commensalis generosus, admiran- 
do prorsus ingenio juvenis,qui nondum sexdecim annos natus, Astrono- 
miam, Gnomonicam, Staticam, Mechanicam, praeclaris inventis auxit ; . 
ab eoque tempore continue augere pergit; & revera is est a quo magna 
possum, neque frustra prope diem expectare. 

An Essay of his Skill in Gnomonicks, at that Age, was a very curious 
Reflecting-Dial, designed on the Cieling of a Room, with this Inscrip- 
tion embellished with divers Devises, particularly two Figures represent- 
ing Astronomy, and Geometry, and their Attributes, artfully drawn with 
his Pen, viz.: 

Chr. Wren. 

Angustis satagens his laquearibus 

Ad coeli methodum tempora pingere 

A Phoebo obtinuit luminis ut sui 

Idaeam, speculo, linqueret aemulam. 

Quae coelum hoc peragret luce vicaria, 

Cursusque effigiem fingeret annui; 
Post annos Epochae — 

VIrglneo qVIbVs 
Vere faCtVs ho Mo est eX Vtero DeVs, 
etatlsqVe sVae nVperae. 

An early Proficiency in Learning and Mathematicks, may be further dis- 
cerned by the following Specimens of some few of his Juvenile Studies, 
the ' Dawnings of a bright Day,' viz. An Epistle to his Father, inform- 
ing him of the Friendship he had obtained of Dr. Scarborough, (after- 
wards Sir Charles Scarborough, a celebrated Physician, and Mathema- 
tician:) of his Invention of a Weather-Clock; and an Instrument to write 
in the Dark: Of a Treatise of Spherical Trigonometry, in a new Method; 
with an Epitome of the same, engraved on a small circular Brass Plate: 
Of his Proposal to translate Part of Mr. Oughtred's ' Clavis Mathema- 

b3 5 








Edit. 2 



Scil. 1648 
Mtat. suae, 

Seethe poeti- 
cal Descrip- 

ticae of Geometrical Dialling,' and his epistle to the Reverend Author 
upon that Occasion. — ^To which are added some poetical Essays; one, 
'^ particularly, to reform the Fables of the Zodiack. 

Anno 1647. ^^*^*- ^"^^ ^^' 
[Scil. Caroli DOctoris Clarissimi consortio (Reverende Pater,) supra modum mihi 
Scarbo- amicissimi utor ; nee dedignatur afFabilis & humillimus vir, plurima quae 

roughs in mathematicis multo cum plausu egit, meae (non dicam judicio) sed 

M.D.] phantasiae ineptae subjicere, & quid sentiam lenissima aure attendere; 

saepe etiam imparibus meis ratiociniis inniti, dum ipse vicissini quic- 
quid in Organicis, Mechanicisve pulchrum inveni, aut a te accepi, mag- 
na cum illius delectatione profero; quorum aliqua, ut ex aere, sibi suis 
fabrefieri impensis curarem, heri a me impetravit; ^therocriticon scili- 
Extat cet; & Memoriale Cylindrum, cujus ope, noctu & in tenebris scribitur. 

in M.S. Composui nuperTrigonometriaeTractatum,qui method© nova,totam, 

puto, Trigonometriae Sphaericae Theoriam, paucis quibusdam regulis 
-^Beside- brevissime complectitur: *Cujus epitomen ipse rursus in rotula aenel, 

ratur Jacobi circiter Aurei magnitudine, descripsi ; multumque in ea, propria 

manu, arrepto artificis stylo sculpsi: Hac visi a doctore rotula, non ac- 
quievit donee sibi similem acquisierit, Extare ndsti in lingua vernacula 
laudatissimum Oughtredi de Horologiographia Geometrica tractatum, 
quem ut lingu^ Romana vestiret, Doctorem [Scarborough] saepissime 
(senio fatigatus) author rogaverat; Ille vero majoribus implicatus nego- 
tiis, in me laborem transtulit, Cui jam pene finem imposui: Epistolam 
quoque authori additurus, ut hoc modo, in magnum mei commodum; 
(talia promittente Doctore) Senis conciliem favorem simulque totius 
studiosorum in Mathesi chori, qui Oughtredum, quasi patrem&magis- 
trum agnoscunt. 

The Epistle abovementioned to the Rev. Mr. Oughtred, was in this 
Scil. Mathe- Venerabili Authori 

maticae CLAViS vere Aureae; 

Saeculi sui 

(Si quis unquam ab ApoUonio & Diophanto 


Magno Geometrae, 

^terno Oramento. S. 

Tam apposite hoc nostr6 aev6 (vir ornatissime) efFulsit, e mathemati- 

carum artium sphaera, Clavis Tua, ut illamvel ipsi peritiores cynosuram 

fidelem agnoverint; nee immerit6, quum jam, te duce, turbidum latum- 

que algebrae oceanum, cert6, tut6que remigi6 exercent, ut reliqua ilia 

Matheseeos adhuc incognita paulatim detegant. Sed erant e trivio, lippi 

quidam, qui Stellam Hanc Eximiam, tanquam obscuram & nebulosam 
culpabant, veluti scintillulas illas in coelo minores, quae licet vere im- 
mensae sint & fulgidae, nee magnitudine nostro huic cedunt globo, im6 
nee caeteris forsan ejusdem chori,cum tamen vastissimd sphaerae abysso 
lateant, nimia sublimitate suam adimunt gloriam, & vulgarem omnem 
efFugiunt aciem. Optime igitur auction operis tui splendori consulens, 
tam nostro quam Romano horizonti (in secundis editionibus) conspicu- 
um magis efficisti Hoc pulcherrimum sidus : At tamen in Romano hemi- 
sphaerio, a facula ilia incomitatum apparuit, quae horologiographicam 
artem tam eleganter illustravit. Quocirca ut in digniori quoque lingua 
clavi tuae (ut gemmae margarita pensilis) annexa prodeat, huic me rei, 
tenues conatus adhibere jussit clarissimus Doctor Scarborough ; vir, cujus 
non ita tibi aliena est amicitia, non ita literatis ignotus est ingenii splen- 
dor, ut mihi necesse sit, Ilium non minus in medicina, & penitioribus 
harum artium adytis, quam omnimoda fere politiori literatura versatis- 
simum dicere; cujus humanitati, & apertissimo genio, non minimum e 
tenui (si quem habeo) Matheseoos gustu debeo; imo cujus & arti vitam 
ipsam dum nuper morbo languescerem, quasi ©EOT XEIPl debeo. Parce 
igitur, vir optime, quod ex illius obsequio tantis nominibus sacro, in ves- 
tram peccarem gravitatem, dum pueri stylum tuis aptare scriptis conna- 
tus sum, quae verborum lenocinia non ambiunt, sed propria magis brevi- 
tate conspicua renident, brevitate, inquam, ilia tam satura, sensuque ad 
apices usque literarum referta: merito enim in Clavi Tua,usitatum mor- 
talibus, sed mysteriis ineptum, ratiocinium rejecisti, & symbolis, no- 
tisque, sine perplexa verborum farragine, legentium animis uno fere in- 
tuitu mirandos conceptus tuos inseris. Ardua sane methodus, sed eo ma- 
gis divina; hoc enim, ut mihi videtur, est caelites imitari, qui locutionis 
humanae mori non impediti, reserando tantum animum mysteria invi- 
cempandunt. Religiose igitur in hacHorologiographi^Tuaverbum fere 
verb6 reddere connatus sum; (licet hanc fortasse quum adpraxin magis 
pertineat, laxius uti decebat, aliquanti scripsisti) nempe verebar, ne in- 
scitia mea vel unus istius scientiae pereat apex, cujus ego me vel tyronem 
esse satis docilem, plurimum gloriae duco, & hoc summe ambio, ut (licet 
adhuc ignotum) annumeres inter cultores tui observantissimos. 


This famous Mathematician, Mr. William Oughtred, in his Preface 
abovenoted, to his 'Clavis Mathematicae ' where he had given a just 
Character of Mr. Christopher Wren, makes this Encomium on the in- 
comparable Anatomist, Physician & Mathematician, Dr. Charles Scar- 
borough, before-mentioned, viz. : Accessit & alter *hortator vehemens, * Dr. Seth 
dominus Carolus Scarborough, doctor mediciniae, suavissimis moribus. Ward 
b4 7 

perspicatissimoque ingenio vir, cujus tanta est in mathesi sojertia, & s 
pra fidem foelix tenaxque memoria, ut omnes Euclidis, Archimedis, ano- 
rumque nonnuUorum ex antiquis propositiones & demonstrationes reci- 
tare ordine, & in usum proferre potis sit. . , t^ o u ^rk ;« 

Mr. Christopher Wren was an Assistant to the said Dr. Scarborougn m 
anatomical Preparations and Experiments, especially upon the Muscles 
of human Bodies, during their Studies at Oxford and elsewhere; and par- 
ticularly he explained by Models formed on Pasteboards, the Anatomical 
Administration of all the Muscles of an human Body, as they naturally 
rise in Dissection, &c. for the Use of Dr. Scarborough s celebrated Lec- 
tures in the publick Theatre in Surgeon's-Hall. — These Models, by 
credible Report, were deposited in the said Theatre, and destroyed at the 
Fire of London. Hence came the first Introduction of Geometrical and 
Mechanical Speculations into Anatomy. 

Zodiacus Reformatus. 

Atria multiplici radian tia lumine coeli 
Stellarumque sacros usus, quoscunque, vetusti 
Vana superstitio foede detorserat aevi, 
Pangere fert animus. Tu, quem purissima vestit 
Gloria circumdans, oculis impervia nostris. 
Qui solo in numeros cogis vaga sidera nutu, 
Mundi magne parens, regni coelestis origo, 
Annue conanti, devotumque accipe carmen : 
Nil mihi Castali6 sapiunt de fonte liquores. 
Nil mihi Pierides,& inania nomina Musae 
Dulce sonant, tu solus ades, placideque faveto, 
Dum tua facta canam, vastumque ingentis Olympi 
Dum populo modulabor opus; gens nescia veri 
Ut fatuum,longaque animum caligine mersum 
AttoUat coelo, & flammantia lumina mundi 
Dum stupet, authori solum tibi ponat honores, 
Codicis & sacri varios conformet ad usus. 

Hos ergo aethereos ignes sub nocte micantes, 
Indigenas coeli, numerosumque agmen Olympi, 
Nominibus,numerisque suis distinguere primi 
Coepere Assyrii,studiis gens dedita sacris; 
Hi solis,lunaeque vices, metasque vagantum 
Stellarum,liquidasque vias inquirere docti 
(Ne nimium confusa forent,quaerentibus astra, 
Aut forsan coelo sua ne mensura deesset) 
In species varias animantum,& nomina certa 
Disposuere; novis ornantes astra fieuris. 
8 ^ 

Faelices animae ! (prim6 ratione sagaci 
Quae detexistis coeli secreta; docentes 
Terrarum populos, in coeli limina certos 
Ferre gradus; primasque suas agnoscere sedes;) 
Non vos incuso (coeli prosapia!) quorum, 
Nee caeca ambitio, nee lucri insana libido, 
Fictorumque unquam veneratio stulta deorum. 
Sublimes animos formis pellexerit istis, 
Fallere mortales miseros ; sed degener orbis, 
Et fictis ludens, vatum fanatica turba, 
Falsidici vates, temerant qui carmine verum, 
(Spurca superstitio postquam possederat urbes 
Niliacas, mentesque leves) inventa Parentum 
In nugas torsere suas,coeloque pudenda 
Monstra intruserunt; nam quae non horreat auris 
Pasiphaen Tauro junctam? Vaccaeque Tonantem? 
Incestoque toros infandaque crimina divum, 
Quaeque Thyestaeas absolvant fercula mensa«?* 
At licet aeternae genslegis nescia,veri 
Contemtrixque Dei,stolide erravere poetae, 
Haeccine adhuc decuit servari nomina stellis 
Christicolas inter? Patriae coelestis alumnos 
His decuit sedem maculis foedare futuram? 
Cur nos alterius coelestia regna patere 
Quam Veri Artificis, tacite pateremur honori? 
Cumque sub astrorum formis, celebrare poetae 
Divorum soleant, praeclaraque gesta virorum, 
Cur non fas nobis potius dispersa per orbem 
Inclyta facta Dei canere, & miracula dextrae? 
Immensam & quo ties aulam stellantis Olympi 
Suspicimus, sancto Scripturae a fonte petitis 
Historiis, veteres astrorum aptare figuras. 

Aries ## 

Hie mihi Zodiaci princeps,& janitor anni 

(Qua secat Aequatrix obliquam linea zonam, 

Et monet aequales cum lucibus esse tenebras,) 

Dux gregis occurrit stellato vellere fulgens. 

Hunc, quia Phryxum olim vexit, Phryxique sororem, 

Trans mare, cum fugerent iram fraudemque novercae, 

Jupiter in coelo (sic mendax fama) locavit: 

At quonam hoc merito? Pecori debebat honores, 

(Qu6d profugi vector) tantos, ut ad aethera toUat? 

* Saturni 
suos devo- 

Vah steriles nugae ! quid enim haec deliria tanti ? 
Sed tu, quam melius, fulgentia lumina coeli 
Christicola aspiciens, feriis Paschalibus ortum 
Cum Phoebo, Domini Paschalem dixeris Agnum? 
Gen. xxii. 1 3 Ceu fuit ille Aries, Patriarcha sacra parante, 

Obtulit Isaaco qui se (vadis instar) ad aras; 
Dignus ob hoc coeli nitidas augere figuras, 
Qu6d Christo, Christique typo se praestitit arrham. 
Ipse (Rubo quasi adhuc latitans) vix cernitur illic 
Ter sex exiguis ubi ducit sidera stellis: 
Et, licet ocdduum rapiatur pronus in orbem, 
Flectit in ortivum remeantia lumina solem. 

Taurus Wl^ 

Proxima Lanigero, roseum conversus ad ortum, 
Lucida, procumbens, jactat sua sidera Taurus; 
Sive sit Europae Cretaeas vector ad oras, 
Infamisve tu6 scelerat6 Taurus amore 
Pasiphae; nostrum non est aspergere tantis 
Criminibus sacrum (mult6 minus aethera) carmen. 
Aut si peccantum populorum crimina coelo 
Inscribi fas sit, cur non hie jure legendus, 
^Exod. Aureus iste fuit vitulus,* cui turba rebellis 

xxxii. 4 Isacidum quondam (divino foedere rupto) 

Montibus Horebi stolidos celebrabat honores: 
At nunc subvectus coelo (memorabile signum 
Foedifragae gentis) medio spectatur in orbe, 
Ter denis de nocte micans, stellisque duabus; 
Quarum quae dextro nitidissima splendet ocello 
■\-Act. vii. Stella dei Remphan Pharii-f- est, in cujus inanem 

43 Descivit foede cultum sine mente popellus, 

Flevit & exilium merit6 Babylonis in oris. 
Apparent Hyades per frontem & cornua sparsae, 
Et quae collustrant septen^ lampade dorsum; 
Isacidum lachrymae, scelerisque piacula tanti ; 
Jamque rigare solent efFusis imbribus orbem. 
Cum primum madido Phoebum comitantur ab ortu, 
X Hyades ab Indicioque docent qua sint ab origine natae, 

'uavpluere Hactenus imbrifero Gratis cognomine dictae.]: 

Gemini *X 
Succedunt Tauro, Geminorum sidera, (Phoebi 
Exurit Lybicas ubi scandens currus arenas; 

Quaque novas secat aestates a vere Colurus ;) 

Haec erat (ut veterum commenta est fabula vatum) 

Laedae progenies, & Cygni furta Tonantis, 

Quorum promeruit,vitique & morte vicissim 

Divis^, pietas coelum, aethereasque choreas : 

Scilicet ex istis Pollux Jovis agnita proles, 

Interitusque expers, mortali semine cretum 

Alternatim ornat, partito numine fratrem. 

Nobile par fratrum ; nisi nobis pagina foetam 

Nobiliore pari, memorasset sacra Rebeccam ;* * Gen. xxv. 

E quibus, Aeterno selectus Judice, Jacob, 2 1 

Pro PoUuce magis, pro Castore convenit Esau. 

Votigenae fratres, dubiae discordia matris. 

Pondera, primatumque ipso captantia partu; 

(Dum pater Isaacus senior, sterilisque stupescit 

Conjux, dividuo turgentia viscera foetu) 

Nunc quoque siderea nudi spectantur arena, 

Arcto stringentes luctantia pectora nexu; 

Implicitumque jubar ter seno lumine vibrant. 

Cancer cig 

Pallor? An aequorci jam nactus brachia Cancri 

Cynthius, assiduis nostrum fervoribus orbem 

Torret, nocturnas vix admissurus habenas. 

Hunc pede (non alio merito, vel origine) pressum 

Alciden referunt coelo posuisse, quod illi 

Forcipibus calcem, missus Junone, momordit ; 

Quin potius terrS. sineret periisse sepultum, 

Quam coelo inscribi, quem vivum senserat hostem. 

Siccine coelorum splendentia regna patere 

Futilibus nugis patietur dia poesis? 

At mihi priscorum ratio non displicet ilia. 

Qui Cancri speciem stellis donasse videntur, 

Rursus in humentes, quia sol cum pervenit illuc 

Cancri more means retro, delabitur austros: 

Visurus nunquam flammis propioribus arcton : 

Cur non & nobis parili sub imagine, vates-f* -fl. Regum 

Devius, & similis Cancro, dicatuf % ladon ? XIII. 22 

Quem j ussi immemorem, (nimium dum credulus ori X Joseph. 

Mendaci auscultans, tulerat vestigia retro) hoc nomine 

A Domino immissi leto dedit ira leonis : appellatur 

Hinc trux ilia ferae prope stat frendentis imago, 

1 1 

^Duae stel- 
lae in signo 

xiv. 5, 6, 8 


V. 5. 

Qua tribus atque decern (non multi luminis) ardet 
Sideribus Cancer, (delusi emblema prophetae) 
Ne tamen hie Geminos nimimum mireris Asellos,* 
Quos medii Cancri cernis considere testa; 
Hie deceptoris vector, vectorque prophetae 
Alter deceptijjuncto augent lumine sidus. 

Leo Sb^ 

Ne mirere trucem pecudes comitare Leonem, 
Indomitamque feram veteres posuisse furores; 
Pacificum, varia sphaerae testudine, coelum 
Ingeminare melos agnosce, modosque potentes, 
Harmonicoque choros ducentia sidera gyro; 
Attamen ingenitae nondum satis immemor irae, 
Spirat adhuc ignes,& pectore flagrat anhelo, 
Praecipue tunc, cum rabientem Syrius urget. 
HunCjSylvis olim Nemeaeis, vulnere clavae 
Herculeae cecidisse ferunt,quem ad sidera Juno 
Transtulit occisum,praeclara quinque minores 
Praeter ter denas, accendens lampade flammas. 

Quid tantijhaec? Majora cano (nee ficta) Leonem 
Herculae plusquam prostratum robore dextrae; 
Scilicet hunCjimberbis adhuc quem-f- Sairipsonis ira 
Faucibus elisis,vastinec vulnere trunci, 
Sed manibus solum jugulavit inermibus, Hyblae 
Florileges aptam prebens cultoribus alvum. 
Seu fuit ex illis unus, quorum ora;|: prophetes 
Clausa specu medio intrepidus mulcebat, atroces 
Quem stupuere ferae, nee jam discerpere pectus 
Angelicis totidem plenum virtutibus ausae. 
Sitve emblema|| Leo sceptrum-gestantis Jiidae, 
Quem fore Messiae stirpem, sobolisque futurum 
Salviscae proavum, sancti cecinere prophetae. 

Virgo ^ 

Quod si virgineis mansuescere velle leones 
Sub manibus constet,praegressum Virgo Leonem 
Non inconcinne sequitur; quam supplice voto 
Jam Vertumnus adit, gravidis oneratus aristis, 
Frugibus ut bene sit, satagens, dum Virginis astra 
Spiciferae refugum excipiunt Hyperionis axin. 
Seu fuit ilia Ceres, quae late prospicit arvis 

Frugiferis, avidi fortunans vota coloni: 

Sive Isis totum furiis agitata per orbem, 

De bove, jam Pharium numen: seu Candida, sedem 

Vendicet banc potius, terras, Astraea, relinquens, 

Ter denis ubi cincta micat, stellisque duabus. 

At mihi, prae reliquis, placet, haec illustria coeli, 
Virginis eximias consignent, sidera, laudes 

Jepthiadis ; * castae primo quam flore j uventae, *Judicum 

Intentam choreis, temere devovit ad aras xi. 30, 

Infaelix genitor, vittis nee tempora virgo 3 1 , 34, 

Funestis cingi, patrii victrice, recusat. 
Gloria foeminei sexus miranda; minorem 
Ni faculam, mult6 majori lumine, obumbres 
Tu genetrix, tu sponsa Dei, tu palmitis ilia 
Divini radix, virgo intemerata Maria; 
Numinis afflatu solo, maris inscia, cujus 
Sancta salutifero tumuerunt viscera foetu, 
lUaesoque Deum peperisti virgine flore ; 
Tu sine pulchra tuae haec splendescant sidera laudi, 
Et tremulis, prae se, vibrent tua nomina flammis. 

Libra 5% 

At jam signiferi medio sub tramite circi, 
Libra pari, lucis mensurans tempora, lance. 
Cum tenebris, rigido nimios cum frigore soles, 
Occurrens jactat bis quatuor astra novemque. 

Virginis Astraeoe trutina est (sic fama poetis) 
QuS. terrestris adhuc hominum discernere facta 
Consuevit parili lancis libramine Virgo ; 
Jamque polo dominae pedibus subjecta (colurus 
Signifero in partes qua sese dividit aequas) 
Autumni a calido confinia seperat aestu; 
Aetnaeumque deum, siculis qui praesidet antris, 
Artificem agnoscit, puro nam cuderat auro, 
Fabrilisque sui monumentum insigne laboris 
Sideribus Libram inseruit: Tu loripes astra 
Splendida conflasti squallens? credamne, Cyclopum 
Fumosis coeli partem radiare favillis? 

His consignetur potius sapientia stellis 
Summa Creatoris, magnaeque potentia dextrae. 
Quae regit immensum justo moderamine mundum, 
Noctivagasque faces, quae dat sua lumina soli ; 


Acre quae medio libratam sistere molem 
Telluris, pelagique jubet; vastumque capaci 
Continet oceanum palma; spatiosaque coeli 
Atria circumdat manibus; parilique supinos 
Pondere suspendit montes; quae nubila fraenat; 
Irrigat optatis sitientes imbribus agros; 
Temperat & prudens structurae cuncta biformis, 
Non secus ac justo pendens libramine lancis. 

Scorpio ih 

Quae nova jam coeli facies? Quisve horridus annum 
Declivem Boreas contristat, & asperat auras ? 
Scilicet auratas Phoebi jam tardat habenas 
Scorpius, atque hebetes radios, gelidoque veneno 
Lethiferi tinctos stimuli, vix sustinet ultro 
Extendi efFaetis marcentialumina terris. 
Monstrum ingens late protendit brachia, caudae 
Nigraque circuitu sinuat curvamina longo; 
Undique bis denis, trinisque aspersa favillis; 
Quas fertur posuisse Jovem, memorabile victi 
Orionis signum; nam cum sua roborajactans 
Omnia derisit, terraeque animalia sprevit; 
Hoc monstrum objecit tellus irata, superbam 
Saevo urinigenae domuit quod cuspide linguam. 

Si documenta viris temere deducat ab astris 
Vana superstitio, meliori emblemate nobis 
Hoc placet inventum; mundi fabricator, olympo 
Sidus hoc inferuit, discant ut ad aethera duros, 
DifEcilesque aditus, & vix penetrabile, sedes 
Ad superas quod ducit iter; per monstra ferarum, 
Scorpium & horrendum, diri qui cuspide caudae 
Vulnerat in venas, subitum insinuatque venenum : 
Haud aliter justos tenebrosi tortor averni 
Subdolus infestat, sidum, Christique ministrum, 
Undique inexpleto quaerit, quem devoret ore. 

Ite procul timidi, sacraque absistite sede. 
Quels fixus Stat corde paver, procul ite fugaces: 
At vos heroes! Vos sancta in bella, piorum 
Fortunata phalanx, Christo auctorata magistro; 
Pergite magnanimi, fidoque umbone salutis 
Muniti, sanctique armati flaminis ense. 
Horrida inaccessum per monstra, per ardua, coelo 

Quaerite iter; mundi transite obstacula; tandem 
Eveniet tempus, quand6 haec super astra dabuntur 
Aeternae sedes, requies & certa laborum; 
Qui sanctas, nee telum hostile, neve aspidis ira, 
SoUicitent animas, nee mortis causa, metusve, 
Nee Satanae rabies; tuti gradiemini in atrum 
Scorpium, & ardentes Erebi calcabitis angues, 
Gaudentes Christi aeternos celebrare triumphos, 
Altitonans postquam descenderit aethere Judex, 
Carne triumphali victricia signa reportans : > 

Tunc mortem absorptam, tunc caeco carcere clausum 
Luciferum, eniti frustra cernetis, averni 
Sulfureos nigris spumantem faucibus ignes. 

Sagittarius -^ 

Aspice ut intentus cursu venatur anhelo, 
Stelliferasque plagas vasti perlustrat olympi 
Arcitenens jaculis, in coeli monstra minaci 
Missurus nervo volucrem, diramque Sagittam, 
Et certo letum tibi, Scorpio, destinat ictu; 
Jam pede sanato, jam saeva tabe sagittae, 
Herculeae lacerum miseratus Jupiter, astris 
Chironem inseruit, dum morbo fractus atroci, 
Et vitae impatiens miserae, crudelia saepe 
Fata vocat, Parcas surdas, nimiumque morantes; 
Jussus at Autumni humiferam jam claudere metam, 
Sidere triceno decoratus splendet, & uno. 

Tantos Centaurus, pedibusque citatus equinis 
Saturni incesti spurius meruisset honores, 
Dedecus! impure coelum ut contaminet Astro? 
Planius & melius (nisi me sententia fallit) 
*Ipse est aurato diademate tempora cinctus, *ApocaL 

Et niveo portatus equo, fortemque sagittis i;/, 2 

Armatus dextram, (sic visio sacra) Johanni 
Spectandum qui se dederat dilapsus Olympo. 

Capricornus siSS 

Jamque Magellanicas linquens Australibus oras 
Flammis, auricomus nostrum meditatur ad orbem 
Scandere paulatim Phoebus, tardeque morantem, 
Lucibus extentis, cogit decrescere noctem, 


Aegocerota intrans : 

Pan deus, Arcadiae qui currere gaudet in altis 
Montibus, hunc coelo ascivit, quod forte gigantes 
Immanes fugiens, variis cum quisque deorum 
(Terrore anguipedum) formis laturere ferarum. 
Ipse sub hirsuti velatus tegmine capri 
Illusit rabidas hie fraude Typhoeos iras, 
Imposuitque sui stellis monumenta pericli. 

Sunt quoque qui Capram, puerum quae lacte tonantem 
Desunt caetera. 

Alia tentamina poetica, stylo variato. 
In Domini Natalem. 

En qui supremS. luce prognatus, patris 
Splendor coruscus gloriae; qui sydera 
Fraenis coercet, quem decemplex machina 
Coeli pavescit, & tremunt fundamina 
Mundi loquelis quassa fulminantibus; 
In exoleti nasciturjam infans casa; 
Hospes jumentis; brumae adustus frigore;. 
Dum mandra cunas praebet, & m?mbris sacri 
Culmus puelli gaudet agrestis premi ; 
Circumque floccis purae ab insolentibus 
Nives tenelli provocantur pectoris; 

An natus isto vilius quis principe? 
At ecce pennata hinc epheborum cohors 
(Pompa superbi major omni Caesaris) 
Tantis ministrat sedula in natalibus; 
Et non nocivo gloriae dum fulgure 
Squallentis antri dissipat caliginem, 
Dat nesciente splendidissimam diem 
Sole, exuitque noctis obscurae peplum: 
Nascentis illinc solis a cubilibus 
Ducit sabaeos stella natalis sophos, 
Qui purpurato provoluti poplite, 
lUustri fulvi e ponderosis offerunt 
Gazis metalli munus,& quicquid tulit 
(Phoebi renascentis jubar fragantius 
Experta) tellus, thuris & myrrhae ferax. 

An natus isto ditius quis Paupere? 
Cum Bethlemiacis, nato, in praesepibus, agnos 
OfFerrent agno rustica turba Dei. 

Eximii cepit species Corydona puelli, 

Et qui divino fulsit in ore decor: 

Arripuitque leves, (queis vincere suetus) avenas, 

Talibus & laudes caepit inire modis. 

O nix! O niveo candor qui fronte relucet! 

O niveo aspersum vellere moUe caput ! 

O mitis tenero residet quae pectore bruma! 

O manus! O puri roscida coUa nive! 

Audiit hunc pendens, nivibus gravis, acre nubes, 

Candoresne, inquit, neperit iste meos? 

Nee plura, illimes difFundit credula floccos 

Coelo multiforae qua patuere casae: 

Sistite cui Corydon, crudeles sistite plumae. 

Membra nee audaci laedite sacra gelu; 

Non vestri hie candor generis, nix ista calescit, 

Nempe empyraei de regione venit. 

De Pomo-Punico immenso, quod, strenae loco, Jani kalendis exhibuit 
Optimo viro amico suo charissimo E. F. Christophorus Regulus; cujus 
in cortice erat fissura, ut solet, per quam grana apparuerunt,& circa cor- 
ticem scriptus erat hie versiculus. Uteris aureis — 

Natum est in titulos crescere rite tuos. 

Accipe quae mitto (num dicam Punica?) dona; 
Nescio quid falsi Punica dona sonent. 
At nihil hie falsi, nil fuci ; ni male forsan 
Gentilem sapiant Punica Poma fidem. 
Candidus hie amor est, & amici pectoris ardor, 
Votaque ab officio scripta, dicata, pio. 
Tot tibi faelices concedat Jupiter annos, 
Tot tibi Nestoreos mitia fata dies; 
Candida tot facili surgant tibi sidera cursu 
Grana quot extremo cortice tecta latent. 
*Grana jacent intus positi velut ordine denies, *Scu. per 

Sic oris speciem Punica Poma gerunt: fissuram 

Os istud tibi, si gustes, mea vota loquetur, 
Nempe potest proprio dulcius ore loqui. 

c I 17 


Extract of a Letter written, as it seems, in the Tear 1 649, Gf 1 7M ofhts Age. 
To my Reverend Father Doctor Wren. 

Reverende Pater, 

HUmanissimo summorum amicorum hospitio receptus ferias hascepas- 
catis transegi, & quantjl cum jucunditate, ex hoc brevissimo loci elogio 
conjicere licet: Domus praeclara (vel potius palatium principe non in- 
dignum, sive amplitudinem, sen fabricae pulchritudinem, seu supellec- 
tilis splendorem (respicias summo paene montis altissimi clivo insidet; 
horti circumjacent amaenissimi, innumeris ambulacris referti, tarn sab- 
ulo quam cespite montano stratis: Nee desunt piscinae ingentes,nec luci 
altissimi, quorum summitates, clamosissimae cornicum respublicae, ni- 
dorum suorum pagis, seu potius civitatibus integris onerant: Vivarium 
quoque adjacet satis amplum & amaenum; foris sane paradisum esse ter- 
restrem, intus autem coelum ipsum dixeris, (& quidem verius quam de 
Caesaris palatio poeta, "par coelo domus est at melior dominus.") 
Quid ni enim beatissimum hunc locum. Coelum vocem? In quo prisca 
pietas & religio terris fugatae sceleratis, latibulum hie tandem invenisse 
dicantur, in quo virtutes omnes, non ut alibi saepe, degunt, sed hie ineo- 
lere amant; gratiaeque tergeminae (divinae scilicet) hunc sibi locum, 
quasi Parnassumsuumaut Find um evangelieumelegerunt; Quodenique 
matres sanetae, & virgines, cantica divina psallendo, aut orationum thura 
castissima ofFerendo, aut sacra legendo, meditando, eonfabulando, diem 
fere integram in beatissimo dei & angeldrum consortio absumunt. Inter 
tot delicias,tibiquod bene valeam scribere,quid erit nisi TATTOAOrEiN ? 
Tantae faelicitati meae vix certe quicquam amplius desiderari potest, 
modo valeas ipse, & benedicas 

Filio tuo obsequentissimo. 


5 Cal. April. 


Vide notas 
MS. ad 

At the Age of Nineteen he compos'd a short Algebraic Tract, relating 
to the Julian Period, of great Use in Chronology ; which was *inserted in 
the Fifth Edition of Helvicus's ' Theatrum Historicum Chronologieum ;' 
after the Prolegomena. Printed at Oxford, Ann. 1 65 1 . 
Opus hoc noATXPHrrON, dilueidum, & rebus ehronologicis appositiss- 
imum, (quo annus periodi Julianae e datis eyclis indagari, & erui doce- 
tur) editioni quinta Helvici assutum, ab Authore aegre efflagitavit Ty- 


pographus, utpote quod egregius ille juvenis annorum novendecim haud Helvici 

adeo dignum Helvici Theatre spectaculum verecunde censebat. — De Theatrum 

qua re insuper hanc notam Pater ejus Reverendus memoriae tradidit. — Chrono- 

" Deniqui Filio meo modeste renitenti incentivum adhibui, ut tractatu- Iogicum,per 

" lum ilium algebraicum Julianae periodi (e cyclis in historia datis) ex- Decanum 

" piscandae, accommodatissimum, sudante hocpraelo Oxoniensi, prefigi Chr. Wren 
" sineret." 

In 1650 he proceeded Bachelor of Arts at Wadham College; in 1653, 
Master of Arts; and in the same Year was elected into a Fellowship of 
All Souls. 

In 1 657, he was chosen Professor of Astronomy in Gresham College in 
London; and in 1 660, Savilian Professor of Astronomy in the University 
of Oxon, (upon the Resignation of Dr. Seth Ward, afterwards Bishop of 
Sarum). In 1 661, he took his Degree of Doctor of Civil Law at Oxon; 
and was some Time after admitted to the same Degree at Cambridge. In 
1680, he was elected President of the Royal Society. 

[Christophorus Wren, A.M. coUegii omnium animarum socius electus Hist. & 

erat in professorem Astronomiae Savilianum in Academia Oxon. Feb. 5 Antiq. 

1660, admissus 15 Maii sequentis. Doctoratum postea injure civili sus- Univer. 

cepit; & regiae majestati rei architectonicae procurator supremus, sive Oxon. Lib. 

generalis, meritissimus audit.] II. p. 42 

Some Space after the Conclusion of the Civil Wars, Dr. Wilkins's Dr. Sprat's 
Lodging at Wadham-CoUege in Oxford, was made the Place of Resort Hist, of 
for virtuous and learned Men, of JPhilosophical Minds, where the first the Royal 
Meetings were held which laid the Foundation of the Royal Society Society 
for improving of natural Knowledge : The principal and most constant 
at the Assemblies were Dr. Seth Ward, the Bishop of Exeter, Mr. Eldest Son 
Boyle, Dr. Wilkins, Dr. Wallis, Dr. Willis, Sir William Petty, Mr. of Mat. 
Matthew Wren*, Dr. Godard, Dr. Bathurst, Dr. Christopher Wren, Bishop 
and Mr. Rook. of Ely 

Here they continued without any great Intermissions, till about the 
Year 1658; but then being called away to several Parts of the Nation, 
and the greatest Number of them coming to London, they usually 
met at Gresham College, at the Wednesday's and Thursday's Lectures 
of Dr. Wren (Professor of Astronomy) and Mr. Rook, (Professor of 
Geometry) . This Custom was observed once if not twice a Week, in 
Term-Time; 'till they were scattered by the miserable Distractions 0/ 
that fatal Year, when the Continuance of their Meetings there might 
have made them run the Hazard of the Fate of Archimedes: For then 



"the Place of their Meeting was made a Quarter for Soldiers. But upon 
"the Restoration of the King, Philosophy had its Share in the Benefits 
"of that glorious Action: For the Royal Society had its Beginning in 
"the wonderful pacifick Year 1 660, and as it began in that Time, when 
" the Kingdom was freed from Confusion and Slavery; so in its Progress, 
"its chief Aim hath been to redeem the Minds of Men from Obscurity, 
" Uncertainty, and Bondage." 

Preamble of a Charter to incorporate the Royal Society, [from a first 
Essay, and rough Draught, by Mr. Christopher Wren.] 


WHEREAS amongst our regal hereditary Titles (to which by divine 
Providence, and the Loyalty of our good Subjects, We are now happily 
restored) nothing appears to Us more august, or more suitable to our 
pious Disposition, than that of Father of our Country, a Name of Indul- 
gence as well as Dominion; wherein we would imitate the Benignity of 
Heaven, which in the same Shower yields Thunder and Violets, and no 
sooner shakes the Cedars, but dissolving the Clouds, drops Fatness. We 
therefore, out of a paternal Care of our People, resolve, together with 
those Laws which tend to the well Administration of Government, and 
the People's Allegiance to us, inseparably to join the supreme Law of 
Salus Populi, that Obedience maybe manifestly not only the publick but 
private Felicity of every Subject, and the great Concern of his Satisfac- 
tions & Enjoyments in this Life. — The Way to so happy a Government, 
we are sensible is in no Manner more facilitated than by the promoting 
of useful Arts and Sciences, which, upon mature Inspection, are found to 
be the Basis of civil Communities and free Governments, and which 
gather Multitudes, by an Orphean Charm, into Cities, and connect them 
in Companies; that so, by laying in a Stock, as it were, of several Arts, and 
Methods of Industry, the whole Body may be supplied by a mutual 
Commerce of each others peculiar Faculties; and consequently that the 
various Miseries, and Toils of this frail Life, may, by as many various 
Expedients, ready at Hand, be remedied, or alleviated; and Wealth and 
Plenty diffused in just Proportion to every one's Industry, that is, to 
every one's Deserts. 

And there is no Question but the same Policy that founds a City, doth 
nourish and increase it; since these mentioned Allurements to a Desire 
of Cohabitation, do not only occasion Populosity of a Country, but ren- 
der it more potent and wealthy than a more populous, but more barbar- 


ous Nation; it being the same Thing, to add more Hands, or by the As- 
sistance of Art to facilitate Labour, and bring it within the Power of the 

Wherefore our Reason hath suggested to us, and our own Experience in 
our Travels in foreign Kingdoms and States, hath abundantly confirmed, 
that we prosecute effectually the Advancement of Natural Experimen- 
tal Philosophy, especially those Parts of it which concern the Encrease 
of Commerce, by the Addition of useful Inventions tending to the Ease, 
Profit, or Health of our Subjects; which will best be accomplished, by a 
Company of ingenious and learned Persons, well qualified for this sort of 
Knowledge, to make it their principal Care and Study, and to be consti- 
tuted a regular Society for this Purpose, endowed with all proper Privi- 
leges and Immunities. 

Not that herein, we would withdraw the least Ray of our Influence from 
the present established Nurseries of good Literature, and Education, 
founded by the Piety of our Royal Ancestors, and others, to be the per- 
petual Fountains of Religion, and Laws; that Religion, and those Laws, 
which, as we are obliged to defend, so the holy Blood of our martyr'd 
Father hath inseparably endear'd to us; but, that we purpose to make fur^ 
ther Provision for this Branch of Knowledge likewise. Natural Experi- 
mental Philosophy; which comprehends all that is required towards 
those Intentions we have recited; taking care in the first Place for Reli- 
gion, so next,for the Riches and Ornament of our Kingdoms; as wewear 
an Imperial Crown, in which Flowers are alternately intermixed with 
the Ensigns of Christianity. 

And whereas we are well informed, that a competent Number of Per- 
sons of eminent Learning, Ingenuity, and Honour, concording in their 
Inclinations and Studies towards this Employment, have for some Time, 
accustomed themselves to meet weekly, and orderly to confer about the 
hidden Causes of Things; with a Design to establish certain, and correct 
uncertain Theories in Philosophy; and by their Labours in the Disqui- 
sition of Nature, to approve themselves real Benefactors to Mankind: 
And, that they have already made a considerable Progress, by divers use- 
ful and remarkable Discoveries, Inventions, and Experiments, in the 
Improvement of Mathematicks, Mechanicks, Astronomy, Navigation, ' 
Physick,andChymistry; we have determin'd to grant our Royal Favour, 
Patronage, and all due Encouragement, to this illustrious Assembly, and 
so beneficial and laudable an Enterprise. — Know therefore, &c. 



Ex auto- 

*See Mu- 
seum of the 
Dr. Grew 

A 371 

A Catalogue of New Theories, Inventions, Experiments, & Mechanick 
Improvements, exhibited by Mr. Wren, at the first Assemblies at 
Wadham-College in Oxford, for Advancement of Natural and Ex- 
perimental Knowledge, called then the New Philosophy: Some of 
which, on the Return of thepublick Tranquillity, were improved 
and perfected, and with other useful Discoveries, communicated to 
the Royal-Society. 

Picture of the Pleiades. 

Hypothesis of h in Solid. 

Hypothesis of the Moon's Libration, in Solid. 

Illumination of the < and Planets, in a dark Room. 

A New Projection Goniscope. 

New facile exact Ways of Observation. 

To find whether the Earth moves. 

The Weather-Wheel. 

The Libra Expansionis Aeris. 


Perpetual Motion, or Weather- Wheel & Weather-Clock compounded. 

The Ballance, to weigh without Weights. 

Strainer of the Breath, to make the same Air serve in Respiration. 

Artificial Eye, with the Humours truly and dioptically made. 

The like Eye made with one Humour only. 

To write in the Dark. 

To write double by an Instrument. 

A Scenographical Instrument, to survey at one Station. 

A Perspective Box, to survey with it. 

Several new Ways of graving and etching. 

Many curious and new Ways of turning. 

To weave many Ribbons at once with only turning a Wheel. 

Divers Improvements in the Art of Husbandry.* 

Divers new Engines for raising of Water. 

A Pavement harder, fairer, and cheaper than Marble. 

To grind Glasses. 

A Way of Imbroidery for Beds, Hangings, cheap and fair. 

New Ways of Printing. 

Pneumatick Engines. 

New Designs tending to Strength, Convenience, & Beauty in Building. 

Many new Designs in Sciography. 

Divers new Musical Instruments. 

A Speaking Organ, articulating Sounds. 

New Ways of Sailing. 


The best Ways for reckoning Time, Way, Longitude, and observing at 

Probable Ways for making fresh Water at Sea. 
Fabrick for a Vessel for War. 
To build in the Sea, Forts, Moles, &c. 
Inventions for better making and fortifying Havens, for clearing Sands, 

and to found at Sea. 
To stay long under Water. 
Ways of submarine Navigation. 
Easier Ways of Whale-fishing. 
New offensive, and defensive Engines. 
Secure and speedier Ways of attacking Forts than by Approaches and 

New Ways of Intelligence, new Cyphers. 
Some Inventions in Fortification. 
To pierce a Rock in Mineing. 
To purge or vomit, or alter the Mass by Injection into the Blood, by 

Plaisters, by various dressing a Fontanell. 
Some Anatomical Experiments. 
To Measure the Basis and Height of a Mountain, only by journeying 

over it. 
To Measure the straight Distance, by travelling the winding Way. 
A Compass to play in a Coach, or the Hand of the Rider. 
To perfect Coaches for Ease, Strength and Lightness, &c. 

§ In Automaton AI0EPOK.PITIKON. 

Chordd Musica animatum, 

Authore & Inventore Chr. Wren. 

Grandior, Italici solito modulamine plectri. 
Quae tremuit nuper, poUice tacta fides.* 
Cum coelo taciturn servat nunc foedus, & ausu 
Indicat aethereos, nobiliore, modos : 
Quicquid vis gelidae regionis, in aera nostrum 
Imprimit, oblata machina fronte refert; 
Sive leoninum,-)- rabies canis augeat, aestum; 
Quo gravis exhaustum fervor hiulcat humum; 
Sive sub hydrophoro situlum vertente, procellas 
Depluat imbriferi roscida barba noti: 

mentio supra 
in epistola 

* The great 
Base Springs 
of Viols 
calCd Cat- 
lings^ be- 
cause made 
of Cats- 
bus sole 




%Cum caput 
pede tergit 
post aures 

lb ^j, who 
was then 
about 2^ 
Tears of 

Aerios quocunque modo,vaga sydera, tractus 
Nutibus officiant, nocte, dieve, suis ; 
Sphaerarum studiosa fides discernit, & index 
Impiger in scripto protinus orbe notat: 
Tantane vis nervo est? Despectae viscera felis 
Concinere aethereis sic potuisse choris? 
An quae vis felis vivae [predicere nimbos|:] 
Extinctae servant viscera sicca parem? 
Quis neget harmonicis volvi coelestia gyris, 
Ludere qui fidibus sydera & ipsa videt? 

Mr. Henry Oldenburg, the first Secretary to the Royal Society, with 
Disingenuity, and Breach of Trust, communicated, and clandestinely 
convey'd into foreign Parts, particularly Germany and France, divers 
of the Inventions, and original Experiments of the Author; which were 
afterwards unfairly claim'd by others, as the true Inventors, and pub- 
lish'd abroad under other Names. 

As the first Ideas and Essays of ingenious Minds, have their peculiar 
Weight, with the candid and judicious Virtuosi; the following Papers 
are here inserted, appearing to be the original Sketch, in an English 
Dress, of an Inauguration Speech, deliver'd by Mr. Wren in Latin, at 
Gresham-Colle"ge,from the Astronomy-Chair, upon his Election to that The Oration is extant, and may have a Place among his 
compleater Works: However the Extract subjoin'd, containing some 
Particulars omitted in hispublick Speech, also divers Variations from it, 
and some Things (it may be) explanatory thereof, is of further Use or 
Entertainment to the Curious. 

The Speech. 

Looking with respectful Awe on this great and eminent Auditory, while 
here, I spy some of the politer Genii of our Age; here, some of our Patrici- 
ans ; there many choicely learned in the Mathematical Sciences, & every- 
where, those that are more Judges than Auditors; I cannot, but with 
Juvenile Blushes, betray that which I must apologize for. And indeed I 
must seriously fear, lest I should appear immaturely covetous of Reputa- 
tion, in daring to ascend the Chair of Astronomy, and to usurp that big 
Word of Demonstration, Dico; with which (while the humble Orator 
insinuates only) the imperious Mathematician commands Assent: When 
it would better have suited the Bashfulness of my Years, to have worn 
out more Lustra in a Pythagorean Silence. 

I must confess I had never designed any Thing further, than to exercise 
my Radius in private Dust, unless those had inveigh'd against my Sloth 

and Remissness, with continual but friendly Exhortations, whom I may 
account the great Ornaments of Learning and our Nation, whom to obey 
is with me sacred, and who, with the Suffrages of the worthy Senators of 
this honourable City, had thrust me into the publick Sand. That accord- 
ing to my slender Abilities, I might explain what hath been delivr'd to 
us by Ancients, concerning the Motions and Appearances of the Celes- 
tial Bodies, and likewise what hath been found out of new by the Mod- 
erns; for we have no barren Age; and now in this Place, I could point to 
Inventors; Inventors, aTitle so venerable of old, that it was Merit enough 
to confer on Men Patents of Divinity, and perpetual Adoration. 
Nor need I therefore to so knowing an Auditory, relate to what End, or 
praise Hercules (as they say) by troubling you with a tedious Encomium 
of Astronomy: We shall leave this to the Dutch Writers, whose swell- 
ing Title-Pages proclaim that their Books are useful to Theologians, 
Philosophers, Philologers, Mathematicians, Grammarians, and who not? 
— It were frivolous to tell you, how much Astronomy elevates herself 
above other Sciences, in as much as her Subject, the beauteous Heavens 
(infinite in Extension, pure and subtile, and sempiternal in Matter, glori- 
ous in their starry Ornaments, of which every one affords various Cause 
of Admiration, most rapid, yet most regular, most harmonious in their 
Motions, in every Thing, to a wise Considerer, dreadful and majestick) 
doth precede either the low or the uncertain Subjects of other Sciences: 
It were pedantick, to tell you of the Affinity of our Souls to Heaven, of 
our erected Countenances, given us on purpose for Astronomical Specu- 
lations; or to acquaint you, that Plato commended it to his Common- 
wealth's- Men, while he says, " Ex ejusmodi disciplinis, instrumentum 
"quoddam animi expurgatur, reviviscitque, quod antea ex aliis studiis 
"infectum,occaecatumquefuerat, solo enim hoc inspicitur Veritas :"Tho' 
truly elsewhere he gives us this great Truth — " Animadvertisti eos, qui 
"naturS. mathematici sunt, ad omnes fere disciplinas acutiores apparere; 
*' qui autem ingenio hebetiores sunt, si in hoc erudiantur, etiamsi nihil 
"amplius utilitatis assequantur, seipsis tamen ingeniosiores effici solere." 
I might be too verbose should I instance this particularly in shewing how 
much the Mathematical Wits of this Age have excell'd the Ancients, 
(who pierc'd but to the Bark and Outside of Things) in handling partic- 
ular Disquisitions of Nature, in clearing up History, and fixing Chrono- 
logy : For, Mathematical Demonstrations being built upon the impreg- 
nable Foundations of Geometry and Arithmetick, are the only Truths, 
that can sink into the Mind of Man, void of all Uncertainty; & all other 
Discourses participate more or less of Truth, according as their Subjects 
are moreorless capable of Mathematical Demonstration. Therefore, this 
rather than Logick is the great Organ Organoon of all infallible Science; 
altho' I will not exclude Logick from being an Instrument of Reasoning, 


but rather include it in Geometry ; for, the technical, & most useful Part of 
it, concerning Syllogism, and the Art of Reasoning, is but a geometrical 
Ordering the data per media proportionalia to determme the quesitum. It 
would be endless to run through the whole Encyclopaedy, & shew you 
in every Part the great Use of Astronomy; even Queen Theology hath 
been much beholding to the trusty Service of this ancilla, in settling the 
sacred History by theHelpof Chronology, which as it is a Part of Astro- 
nomy, is built chiefly upon the unerring Chronicles o£ the gesta superum 
& coelorum. Observations of Eclipses, great Conjunctions, and the like 
Appearances; without which Indexes of Times, all sacred and profane 
History were but indigested Heaps, and Labyrinths, where Men are at a 
Loss either to begin or end. But Chronology (a Thing too much neg- 
lected by the Ancients) hath given an Ichnography of this Labyrinth, 
and describ'd Times, as it were in a Map, by which we may run back se- 
cure to many Chyliads of Years, conversing with those of remote Ages, 
and there finding new Discoveries, as by Navigation we converse with 
those of distant Climates. 

Some, it may be, will knit the Brow, if I should say, that even Holy- 
Scripture itself, sometimes requires an astronomical Interpreter; who 
else shall give a good Account of the Hexaemeron, or decide the Con- 
troversy about the Retrocession of the Shadow upon the Dial of Ahaz? 
When without a Miracle that might be many Ways done by the meer 
Fabrick of the Dial; for it is easy to frame a Dial with such a Stile, that 
every Day at such a Time, the Shadow shall seem to return; but what 
the Dial was, we know, if we believe the Hebrew Writer, who describes 
it obscurely, yet so that I can easily fancy it to be the same with that 
which the Eastern Nations used, and which Vitruvius tells us, Berosus 
Chaldaeus brought into Greece — Hemicyclium excavatum ex quadrato, ad 
enclimaque succisum, hoc est, ad elevationem poll. — ^The Retrocession must 
therefore be real, either in the Sun or Shadow only; but what if it were 
in neither truely, but from a Parelion? the Sun returned ten Degrees by 
which it had gone down; might not a Parelion suddenly appear at ten 
Degrees distance from the Sun, the Sun being just set underthe Horizon, 
or being hid by a Cloud.? (for, Parelions are Refractions made in nitrous 
Vapours higher than the Clouds) so the Shadow of this Parelion would 
make an Appearance as if the Sun had started back; 'tis what Cada- 
mustus,and other Describers of the East Indies say, happens ofteain the 
Island Sumatra, in the month of April ; for ten or fifteen Degrees the Sun 
seeming to start back, and then to return again, where otherwise he 
would have appear'd. This may be done either by a Parelion, or a strong 
Refraction through a Vapour in an angular form, like a Glass Prism, 
passing between the Eye and Sun; for, if you gently pass a Prism of Crys- 
tal before any Objects, the Objects will appear to start out of their Places. 

Neither need we fear to diminish a Miracle by explaining it; this Retro- 
cession of the Sun was given as a Sign, so was the Rainbow, which had it 
appear'd never since, had been miraculous. 

I might ask the Theologian, who shall explain to me, how our Saviour, 
who was buried on Friday-Night, and rose again before Day on Sunday, 
could be said to be three Days and three Nights in the Sepulchre, when 
his Stay there was but a full Day and two Nights? The World hath 
hitherto shifted off this Difficulty with a Synedoche,by taking in Parts 
of Friday and Parts of Sunday, but yet they want a third Night; neither 
doth Grotius, with an Acceptation sometimes of any Part of a Day or 
Night, for a whole Nycthemeron, in the Civil Law, much mend the 
Matter: Here seems to be need of an Astronomer, who thus possibly may 
explain it. — While there was made by the Motion of the Sun, a Day and 
two Nights in the Hemisphere of Judaea, at the same Time in the con- 
trary Hemisphere was made a Night and two Days; join these together, 
you have three Days and three Nights; for Christ suffisr'd not for Judaea 
alone, but for the whole World, and in Respect of all the Inhabitants of 
the Earth conjunctim, he rested three Days and three Nights, tho' in 
Respect of Judaea, or any particular Horizon, but one Day and two 

Who but the Astronomer shall explain to us how many hundred Times 
one of the great Luminaries exceeds the other, which yet is but one of 
some Thousands as great as itself, or bigger? Who can better magnify 
the Arm that expanded the Heavens, than he who tells you, that Seven 
thousand Miles will fall short of the Diameter of this Earth, and yet that 
this Diameter repeated a thousand Times will not reach the Sun ; or this 
Distance between the Sun and us, repeated a thousand Times, reach the 
nearest fix'd Star? And yet in probability some are infinitely more re- 
mote than others. — Certainly as Secretaries of Princes are they only, 
from whom true Histories of those Princes are to be expected; so he 
only can truly describe the World, whose Skill in Astronomy hath given 
him right to the glorious Title of Hipparchus, to be conciliorum naturae 
particeps & interpres. 

But not to inlarge in extending the Dition of Astronomy to the Empy- 
raeum; her Influence is great over sublunary Sciences; among which, 
should I say that even Physick hath its use of Astronomy, I might seem 
to patronize the ungrounded Fancies of that Sort of astrological Medi- 
casters, who do nothing without the Favour of their Archaeus, and in- 
title one Planet or other to every Herb, or Drug, which they suppose in- 
valid, unless mystically tim'd with this or that Aspect; ceremoniously 
numbering the critical Days,not considering that neitherTime or Num- 
ber hath any reality extra intellectum humanum. But, tho' with Contempt 
of these Follies, let me seriously ask the most rational philosophical En- 


quirer into Medicine, whether those Aphorisms, wherein Hippocrates 
hath marshal'd Diseases under the Seasons of the Year, and the several 
Winds, and the Varieties of Weathers, have not as much of the Aphor- 
ism in 'them, as the rest; and were not as diligently collected from the 
Brasen-Tables, from Experiments deriv'd in Succession from his aged 
Preceptors before him, and from his own unerring Industry, as the rest? 
But it may be objected, that these astrological Aphorisms savour much 
of the Chaldean & Syrian, from whom it appears the Graecians receiv'd 
much of their Art of healing, as they did almost all their other Learn- 
ing: And indeed we find by Herodotus, that the Knowledge of Physick 
by way of Aphorism was proper to the Babylonians, who recorded pub- 
licity the History of the Disease, and Method of Cure of every particu- 
lar Patient that recover'd, to which Records others resorted in difficult 
Cases, that had the like Diseases, & the great Learning of these Nations 
being Astrology, we may imagine that they made good Observations of 
epidemical Diseases from the Distempers of the- Air, from the coelestial 
Influxes, which are now either wholly lost, or deprav'd,or useless, as not 
suited to our Climate: What other Subject those medicinal Books of the 
Friend&Contemporary of Hippocrates, Democritus riEPl AICAIPQN KAI 
zniKAlPinN, reckon'd in the Catalogue of his Works by Laertius, should 
contain, I know not, sure I am, that if we dissected Animals of the same 
Species, in various Changes of Weather, we should find great diflFerence 
in the Brain, as to Dryness or Moisture, and Weight; and in the Viscera, 
and Mass of Blood, as to the Quantity, and Salt in it: and in the Lymph- 
aeductus, as to their Turgency, as I have frequently tried: And if with 
these, we join the Experiments of the Fermenting of Wines, and other 
Liquors against moist Weather; the souring of them in Thunder, and dry 
Weathers; adding likewise the History of Pests, and epidemical Dis- 
eases, we shall find a great Deal of Reason to conclude, that there is a 
true Astrology to be found by the enquiring Philosopher, which would 
be of admirable Use to Physick, though the Astrology vulgarly receiv'd, 
cannot but be thought extremely unreasonable and ridiculous, as any 
Thing among the many Impostures that have been impos'd by Antiquity 
upon the credulous World to him that hath given up himself to De- 

Hitherto in these greater Faculties, Theology, sacred and profane His- 
tory and Physick, we have been but assisted a little by Astronomy, but if 
we look into the next Class of Science, we shall perceiveourselveswhoUy 
indebted to her. It is Astronomy that enlarg'd both our Understanding 
and Habitation; hath given Politeness, and consequently Religion and 
Laws to the barbarous World. He that looks upon that little Parcel of 
the World, which the Ancients contented themselves with, and sees now, 
how we furrow the great Ocean, and gather our aromatick Harvests from 

the remotest Parts of the Globe, and can enjoy in our own Europe, what- 
ever Thule or Aethibpia, the rising or setting Sun can produce, must 
needs rejoice that so much larger an Inheritance is fallen to Mankind, by 
the Favour of Astronomy. ItwasAstronomyalone,thatof old undertook 
to guide the creeping Ships of the Ancients, whenever they would ven- 
ture to leave the Land to find a neighbour Shore; tho' then she was a 
humoursome Guide, and often vailing the Face of Heaven with Clouds, 
would cruelly leave them to the giddy Protection of Fortune, and for 
the most Part only toss'd them up and down, and sported herself with 
their Ruin : But if" she deign'd to shew them one Glimpse of a Star, if 
but of Alcor, or the least albicant Spot of Heaven, it was enough to pave 
a Way for them homeward, through the Horror of the Waves & Night. 
In this is truly perceiv'd the Influx of Heaven, when the Influx of one 
Cynosura can move a thousand Sail of Fraught-Ships and render the one 
Element as habitable, and more fruitful than the other, tho' more hazard- 
ous. Thus did the Ancients every where cultivate the Mediterranean 
Waters, but their Fear of venturing into the Ocean they dissembled by 
Religion, lest they should violate the Rites of Thetis, and the Water 

At Last, Astronomy took to herself another Assistant, Magneticks, a Kind 
of Terrestrial Astronomy, an Art that tells us the Motions of our own Star 
we dwell on, whose every Fragment moving in true Sympathy with the 
great One, bids us, in spite of Clouds, pass the vast Ocean, &possess every 
Piece of our own Star: and now were the Gates of true Science open'd, 
and the poor Philosophers Anaximander, Anaximenes, Leucippus, Em- 
pedocles are laugh'd at, for making the Earth a Pillar, or a Table, or a 
Drum, or inclin'd of its own Nature. In a few Months we shake Hands 
with the Antipodes, and pity the supposed heretical Bishop for his un- 
seasonable venting the Truth ; & also the pious Ignorance of the Fathers, 
that would have the Plane-Earth fixed upon infinite long Roots. But di- 
vine Astronomy, intended to discover to Man her own yet hidden Glory, 
as well as those of the Terrestrial Globe, for after the prodigious Attempt 
of Columbus, and as it appears to me, the difficulter Voyage of Vasco de 
Gama, who before pursu'd the weak Beginnings of Hanno the Cartha- 
ginian, and twice scour'd the Torrid Zone, in doubling the Cape, first 
finding it habitable, discovering the Errors of the Ancients about Africk, 
and first opening a Way to the Indies by Sea. By these, and succeeding 
Voyages, perform'd by the Circumnavigators of our Nation, the Earth 
was concluded to be truly globous, and equally habitable round. This 
gave occasion to Copernicus to guess why this Body of Earth of so apt a 
Figure for Motion, might not move among other Coelestial Bodies; it 
seem'd to him in the Consequences probable and apt to salve the Appear- 
ances, & finding it likewise among the antiquated Opinions, he resolved 


upon this Occasion to restore Astronomy. And now the Learned begin 
to be warm, the Schools ring with this Dispute; all the mathematical 
Men admire the Hypothesis, for saving Nature a great deal of Labour, 
and the Expence of so many Intelligences for every Orb, and Epicycles; 
yet the apparent Absurdity of a moving Earth makes the Philosophers 
contemn it, tho' some of them taken with the Paradox, begin to observe 
Nature, and to dare to suppose some old Opinions false; and now began 
the first happy Appearance of Liberty to Philosophy, oppress'd by the 
Tyranny of the Greek and Roman Monarchies. 

Among the honourable Assertors of this Liberty, I must reckon Gilbert, 
who having found an admirable Correspondence between his Terella, 
and the great Magnet of the Earth, thought, this Way, to determine this 
great Question, and spent his Studies and Estate upon this Enquiry, by 
which obiter, he found out many admirable magnetical Experiments: 
This Man would I have adored, not only as the sole Inventor of Mag- 
neticks, a new Science to be added to the Bulk of Learning,t)ut as the 
Father of the new Philosophy; Cartesius being but a Builder upon his 
Experiments. This Person I should have commended to Posterity in a 
Statue, that the deserv'd Marble of Harvey might not stand to future 
Ages, without a Marble Companion of his own Profession. He kept Cor- 
respondence with the Lyncei Academici, at Rome, especially with Fran- 
ciscus Sagredus, one of the Interlocutors in the Dialogues of Gallilaeus, 
who labour'd to prove the Motion of the Earth, negatively, by taking 
off Objections, but Gilbert positively; theone hath given us an exact Ac- 
count of the Motion of Gravity upon the Earth; the other of the secret, 
and more obscure Motion of Attraction and magnetical Direction in the 
Earth; the one I must reverence for giving Occasion to Kepler (as he 
himself confesses) of introducing Magneticks into the Motions of the 
Heavens, and consequently of building the elliptical Astronomy; the 
other of his perfecting the great Invention ofTelescopes, to confirm this 
Astronomy; so that if one be the Brutus of Liberty restor'd to Philosophy, 
certainly the other must be the Collatinus. 

And here I should not slightly mention that great foreign Wit, Kepler, 
the Compiler of another new Science, Dioptricks, (in which, of the Ma- 
thematicks only, we can boast that we had not the Graecians for our Mas- 
ters) but more eminent for being the Eudoxus of this Age, the Inventor 
of the elliptical Hypothesis; but since he was only the first Founder of 
these magnalia, and that the Perfection of both these are justly to be ex- 
pected from Men of our own Nation at this Day living, and known to 
most of this Auditory, the Clarity of these latter, makes me cease from 
a larger Encomium of Kepler, and reserve it for Posterity to bestow upon 
them, when it shall be more seasonable to give them an Apotheosis among 
those great Inventors I have named. 

And indeed, of all the Arguments which the Learned of this inquisitive 
Age have busy'd themselves with, the Perfection of these two, Diop- 
tricks, and the Elliptical Astronomy, seem most worthy our Enquiry: 
For natural Philosophy having of late been order'd into a geometrical 
Way of reasoning from ocular Experiment, that it might prove a real 
Science of Nature, not an Hypothesis of what Nature might be, the Per- 
fection of Telescopes, and Microscopes, by which our Sense is so infi- 
nitely advanc'd, seems to be the only Way to penetrate into the most hid- 
den Parts of Nature, and to make the most of the Creation. 
I cannot (most worthy Auditors) but very much please myself in intro- 
ducing Seneca, in his Prophecy of the new World, — 

Venient annis saecula seris, 
Quibus, oceanus vincula rerum 
Laxet, & ingens pateat tellus, 
Novosque Tiphys detegat orbes. 
Nee fit terris ultima Thule. 

But then I only begin to value the Advantages of this Age in Learning 
before the former, when I fancy him continuing his Prophecy, & imagine 
how much the ancient laborious Enquirers would envy us, should he 
have sung to them, that a Time would come, when Men should be able 
to stretch out their Eyes as Snails do,& extend them to fifty feet in length ; 
by which means, they should be able to discover Two thousand Times 
as many Stars as we can ; and find the Galaxy to be Myriads of them; and 
every nebulous Star appearing as if it were the Firmament of some other 
World, at an incomprehensible Distance, bury'd in the vast Abyss ot 
intermundious Vacuum: That they should see Saturn, a very Proteus, 
changing more admirably than our Moon, by the various Turnings, and 
Inumbrations of his several Bodies, & accompany'd besides with a Moon 
of his own ; that they should find Jupiter to be an oval Earth, whose Night 
is enlighten'd by four several Moons, moving in various Swiftnesses, and 
making Multitudes of Eclipses: That they should see Mars, Venus, and 
Mercury to wax and wain: And of the Moon herself, that they should 
have a Prospect, as if they were hard by, discovering the Heighths and 
Shape of the Mountains, and Depths of round and uniform Vallies, the 
Shadows of the Mountains, the Figure of the Shores, describing Pictures 
of her, with more Accurateness, than we can our own Globe, and therein 
requiting the Moon for her own Labours, who to discover our Longi- 
tudes, by eclipsing the Sun, hath painted out the Countries upon our 
Globe, with the point of her conical Shadow, as with a Pencil. After all 
this, if we should have told them, how the very fountain of Light is var- 
iegated with its Faculae and Maculae, proceeding round in regular Mo- 


tions, would not any of the Astronomers of his Time have chang'd their 
whole Life for a few windy Days, (in which principally the Solar spots 
appear) or a few clear Nights of our Saeculum. 

But I have lost myself upon this Subject, as endless as the Universe itself: 
So large a Field of Philosophy is the very Contemplation of the Phases of 
the coelestial Bodies, that a true Description of the Body of Saturn only, 
were enough for the Life of one Astronomer; how much more the vari- 
ous Motions of them; which I am not now to descant on, but reserve for 
the continual Subject of my future Discourses in this Place, a Place, in 
which the Magnificence of our illustrious Founder Gresham hath adorn'd 
this opulent City, with the Profession of the Sciences, in his own House, 
by a rare Example, leaving the Muses to be here his Heirs and Success- 
ors for ever; who seem to be affected with the Place, having preserv'd it 
in Esteem, by furnishing it hitherto with Men of most eminent Abilities, 
especially in mathematical Sciences ; among whom the Names of Gunter, 
Brerewood, Gillibrand, Foster, are fresh in the Mouths of all Mathe- 
maticians, for the excellent Remains they have either left behind them 
in Print, or adorn'd the Tables with, in reading. Amongst which, the 
useful Invention of Logarithms, as it was wholy a British Art, so here 
especially receiv'd great Additions: and likewise, the whole Doctrine of 
Magneticks, as it was of English Birth, so by the Professors of this Place 
was augmented by the first Invention and Observation of the Mutation 
of the magnetical Variation; a Thing, I confess, as yet crude, yet what 
may prove of Consequence in Philosophy, & of so great Use, possibly to 
the Navigator, that thereby we may attain the Knowledge of Longitudes, 
than which, former Industry hath hardly left any Thing more glorious to 
be aim'd at in Art. 

And now since the Professorship I am honour'd with, is a Benefit I en- 
joy from this City, I cannot conclude without a good Omen to it. I must 
needs celebrate it as a City particularly favour'd by the Celestial Influ- 
ences, a Pandora, on which each Planet hath contributed something; 
Saturn hath given it Diuturnity, and to reckon an earlier Aera ab Urbe 
conditd than Rome itself. Jupiter hath made it the perpetual Seat of Kings, 
and of Courts of Justice, and fill'd it with inexhausted Wealth. Mars has 
arm'd it with Power. The Sun looks most benignly on it, for, what City 
in the World so vastly populous, doth yet enjoy so healthy an Air, so fer- 
tile a Soil? Venus hath given it a pleasant Situation, water'd by the most 
amaene River of Europe; and beautify'd with the external Splendor of 
Myriads of fine Buildings. Mercury hath nourish'd it in mechanical Arts 
and Trade, to be equal with any City in the World; nor hath forgotten to 
furnish it abundantly with liberal Sciences, amongst which I must con- 
gratulate this City, that I find in it so general a Relish of Mathematicks, 
and the libera philosophia^ in such a Measure, as is hardly to be found in 

the Academies themselves. Lastly, the Moon, the Lady of the Waters 
seems amorously to court this Place: 

"Atque urbem magis omnibus unam 
Posthabita coluisse Delo." 

For to what City doth she invite the Ocean so far within Land as here? 
Communicating by the Thames whatever the Banks of Maragnon or 
Indus can produce, and at the Reflux warming the frigid Zones with our 
Cloth; and sometimes carrying and returning safe those Carines that 
have encompass'd the whole Globe. And now since Navigation brings 
with it both Wealth, Splendor, Politeness and Learning, what greater 
Happiness can I wish to the Londoners? Than that they may continu- 
ally deserve to be deem'd as formerly, the great Navigators of the 
World; that they always may be, what the Tyrians first, and then the 
Rhpdians were caird,"The Masters of the Sea;" and that London may 
be an Alexandria, the establish'd Residence of Mathematical Arts. 

Extracts from the Conclusion of the second Part of Dr. Sprat's Sect. XL. 

History of the Royal Society, &c. ^.311. 

"IN the whole Progress of this Narration, I have been cautious to for- 
"bear commending the Labours of any private Fellows of the Society. 
" For this, I need not make any Apology to them: seeing that it would 
" have been an inconsiderable Honour, to be prais'd by so mean a Writer : 
"But now I must break this Law, in the particular Case of Dr. Christo- 
"pherWren: for doing so, I will not alledge the Excuse of my Friend- 
"ship to him; though that perhaps were sufficient; and it might well be 
"allow'd me to take this Occasion of publishing it: But I only do it, on 
"the meer Consideration of Justice: For in turning over the Registers of 
" the Society, I perceived that many excellent Things, whose first Inven- 
" tion ought to be ascrib'd to him, were as casually omitted: This moves 
" me to do him Right by himself, and to give this separate Account of 
"his Endeavours, in promoting the Design of the Royal Society,in the 
" small Time wherein he has had the Opportunity of attending it. 
"The first Instance I shall mention, to which he may lay peculiar Claim, Laws of 
" is the Doctrine of Motion, which is the most considerable of all others. Motion 
"for establishing the first Principles of Philosophy, by geometrical De- 
"monstration. This Descartes had before begun, having taken up some 
"Experiments of this kind upon Conjecture, and made them the first 
" Foundation of his whole System of Nature. But some of his Conclu- 
"sions seeming very questionable, because they were onlydervived from 
"the gross Trials of Balls meeting one another at Tennis and Billiards, 
" Dr. Wren produc'd before the Society, an Instrument to represent the 

di 33 

" EfFectsof all sorts of Impulses, made between two hard globous Bodies, 
"either of equal, or of different Bigness and Swiftness, following or meet- 
" ing each other, or the one moving, the other at rest. From these Varie- 
"ties arose many unexpected Effects; of all which he demonstrated the 
" true Theories, after they had been confirm'd by many hundreds of Ex- 
"periments in that Instrument. These he propos'd as the Principles of 
"all Demonstrations in natural Philosophy. Nor can it seem strange, that 
"these Elements should be of such universal Use; if we consider that 
" Generation, Corruption, Alteration, and all the Vicissitudes of Nature, 
" are nothing else but the Effects arising from the meeting of little Bodies, 
" of different Figures, Magnitudes and Velocities." 

^dit' 2 NEWTONI Philosophiae Naturalis Principia Mathem. 


1713./. 19 


H Actenus principia tradidida mathematicis recepta & experientia mul- 
tiplici confirmata. Per leges duas primas & coroUaria duo prima, Galil- 
aeus invenit descensum gravium esse in duplicata ratione temporis, & 
motum projectilium fieri in parabola conspirante experientia, nisi quat- 
enus motus illi per aeris resistentiam aliquantulam retardantur. Ab iis- 
dem legibus & crollariis pendent demonstrata de temporibus oscillanti- 
um pendulorum, sufFragante horologiorum experientia quotidiana. Ex 
his iisdem & lege tertia Christophorus Wrennus eques auratus, Johannes 
Wallisius S. T. D. & Christianus Hugenius, hujus aetatis geometrarum 
facile principes, regulas congressuum & reflexionum duorum corporum 
seorsim invenerunt, & eodem fere tempore cum Societate Regia com- 
municarunt, inter se (quoad has leges) omnino conspirantes: & primus 
quidem Wallisius, deinde Wrennus & Hugenius inventum prodiderunt. 
Sed & Veritas comprobata est a Wrenno coram Regia Societate per ex- 
perimentum pendulorum: Quod etiam clarissimus Mariottus libro in- 
tegro exponere mox dignatus est. 

" The second Work which he has advanced, is the ' History of Seasons: ' 
"which will be of admirable Benefit to Mankind, if it shall be constantly 
"pursued, and deriv'd down to Posterity. His Proposal therefore was, to 
"comprehend a Diary of Wind, Weather, and other Conditions of the 
"Air, as to Heat, Cold, and Weight; and also a general Description of 
"the Year, whether contagious or healthful to Men or Beasts; with an 
"Account of Epidemical Diseases, of Blasts, Mill-Dews, and other Ac- 
"cidents, belonging to Grain, Cattle, Fish, Fowl, and Insects. And be- 
" cause the DifHculty of a constant Observation of the Air, by Night and 
* In the " Day, seem'd invincible, he therefore devis'd a Clock* to be annex'd to 


" a Weather-Gock, which mov'd a Rundle cover'd with Paper, upon Musaeum of 
"which the Clock mov'd a black Lead Pencil, so that the Observer by the Royal 
" the Traces of the Pencil on the Paper, might certainly conclude, what Society, 
" Winds had blown in his Absence for twelve Hours space: After a like Dr. Greivs 
" Manner he contriv'd a Thermometer to be its own Register: And be- Catalogue 
"cause the usual Thermometers were not found to give a true Measure p. 357 
" of the Extension of the Air, by Reason that the accidental Gravity of 
" the Liquor, as it lay higher or lower in the Glass, weigh'd unequally on 
" the Air, and gave it a farther Contraction or Extension, over and above 
"that which was produced by Heat and Cold; therefore he invented a 
"circular Thermometer, in which the Liquor occasions no Fallacy, but 
"remains always in one Height, moving the whole Instrument like a 
"Wheel on its Axis." 

[In an Improvement of his Invention of the Weather- Wheel, (the only 
true Way to measure Expansions of the Air) he contriv'd the Instrument 
to be more firmly made, by causing the circular Pipes (which cannot be 
truely blown in Glass) to be form'd of Brass, by those who make Trum- 
pets and Sack-butts, who wiredraw their Pipes through a Hole to equal 
them, and then filling them with melted Lead, turn them round into 
what Flexures they please: The Inside of the Pipe he varnish'd with 
China Varnish, to preserve it from the Quicksilver, and the Glass fix'd to 
it, with Varnish ; which is the best Cement in the World, for thus the 
Chinese fix Glass and Mother of Pearl in their Works, j 
To his Invention of the Weather-Clock, other Motions were afterwards 
added by Mr. Robert Hook, Professor of Geometry in Gresham-CoUege. 
It hath six or seven Motions; first a Pendulum-Clock, which goes with 
three quarters of a 100 lb. Weight, and moves the greatest Part of the 
Work with this, a Barometer, a Thermometer, a Rain- Measure; such an 
one as is next describ'd; a Weather-Cock; to which subserves a Piece of 
Wheel- Work analogous to a Way- Wiser; and a Hygroscope; each of 
which have their Register, and the Weather-Cock hath two; one for the 
Points, the other for the Strength of the Wind. All workingupon a Paper 
falling off a Rowler which the Clock also turns. 

Mr. Hook's Proposal for augmenting the Weather-Clock, was first ofi^er'd 
by him to the Royal-Society in the Year 1 664, upon the Description of 
one made by Sir Christopher Wren. [Waller's ' Life of Hook,' page XL] Dr. Plot's 
The Instrument call'd the Thermometer, tho' of very ancient Invention, nat. Hist. 
there having been one of them found by Robert de Fluctibus graphic- of Oxford, 
ally delineated in a M.S. of five hundred Years Antiquity at least; yet it p. 229 
has still receiv'd other useful Advancements from that curious Artist Sir 
Ch. Wren, by the Invention of the circular Thermometer. 

" He contriv'd an ^Instrument to measure the Quantities of Rain that % In the 
"falls in any Space of Time, on any Piece of Ground, as suppose on one Musaeum of 
d2 35 

the Royal "Acre in one Year; this, as soon as it is full, will pour out itself, and at 
Society. " the Year's End discover how much Rain has fallen on such a space of 

Dr. Grew's "Land, or other hard Superficies, in order to the Theory of Vapours, 
Catalogue, " Rivers, Seas, &c." [A Triangular Tin Vessel hanging in a jFrame, as a 
^.358 Bell, with one Angle lowermost. From whence one Side rises up per- 

pendicular, the other sloaped; whereby the Water, as it fills, spreads only 
on one Side from the Centre, till at length it fills & empties itself. Which 
being done, a leaden Poise on the other Side, immediately pulls it back 
to fill again.] 

" He devised many subtil Ways for the easier finding the Gravity of the 
"Atmosphere, the Degrees of Drought and Moisture, and many of its 
" other Accidents. Amongst these Instruments, there are Balances,which 
" are useful to other Purposes, that shew the Weight of the Air by their 
" spontaneous Inclination. 

"Amongst the new Discoveries of the Pendulum, these are to be attri- 
" buted to him, that the Pendulum in its Motion from rest to rest; that is, 
" in one Descent and Ascent, moves unequally in equal Times, according 
" to a Line of Sines : That it would continue to move either in circular or 
"eliptical Motions; and such Vibrations would have the same Periods 
"with those that are reciprocal; and that by a Complication of several 
" Pendulums depending one upon another, there might be represented 
" Motions like the planetary helical Motions, or more intricate: and yet 
"that these Pendulums would discover without Confusion (as the Plan- 
"ets do) three or four several Motions, acting upon one Body with difFer- 
" ing Periods; and that there may be produced a natural Standard for 
" Measure from the Pendulum for vulgar Use. 

"He has invented many Ways to make astronomical Observations more 
"accurate and easy: he has fitted and hung Quadrants, Sectants, and 
" Radii, more commodiously than formerly : He has made two Telescopes 
" to open with a Joint like a Sector, by which Observers may infallibly 
" take a Distance to half Minutes, and find no Difference in the same Ob- 
"servation reiterated several Times; nor can any warping or luxation of 
"the Instrument hinder the Truth of it. 

" He has added many Sorts of Retes, Screws and other Devises to Tele- 
" scopes, for taking small Distances, and apparent Diameters to seconds. 
" He has made Apertures to take in more or less Light, as the Observer 
"pleases, by opening or shutting like the Pupil of the Eye, the better to 
"fit Glasses to crepusculine Observations. He has added much to the 
" Theory of Dioptricks ; [by giving a true Account of Refraction, and of 
" Vision; as that the chrystalline Humor is not the principal Instrument 
" of Refraction in the Eye, nor essential to Vision, but merely to conven- 
" ient Vision.] " He had added much to the Manufacture itself of grind- 
" ing good Glasses. He has attempted, and not without Success, the mak- 

" ing of Glasses of other Forms than Spherical. He has exactly measur'd 
"and delineated the Spheres of the Humors in the Eye, whose Propor- 
"tions one to another were only guess'd at before. This accurate Discus- 
"sion produc'd the Reason, why we see Things erected, and that Reflec- 
"tion conduces as much to Vision as Refraction. 

[He contrived an artificial Eye, truly and dioptrically made (as large as a The Model 
Tennis-Ball) representing the Picture as Nature makes it: The Cornea, of an Eye 
and Crystalline were Glass, the other Humours, Water. He took an ex- in the Mu- 
act Survey of an Horse's Eye, measuring what the Spheres of the Crys- saeum of 
talline and Cornea were, and what the Proportions of the Distances of the Royal 
the Centers of every Sphere were upon the Axis : the Projection in triple Society, 
the Magnitude, was presented to Sir Paule Neile, and the Experiment Dr. Grew 
occasionally reiterated.] A 359 

" He discoursed to the Society a natural and easy Theory of Refraction, 
" which exactly answered every Experiment. He fully demonstrated all 
" Dioptricks in a few Propositions, shewing not only (as in Kepler's Di- 
" optricks) the common Properties of Glasses, but the Proportions by 
" which the individual Rays cut the Axis, and each other; upon which 
" the Charges (as they are usually called) of Telescopes, or the Propor- 
" tion of the Eye-Glasses, and Apertures are demonstrably discovered. 
"He has made constant Observations on Saturn; and a Theory of that 
" Planet, truly answering all Observations, before the printed Discourse 
" of Hugenius on that Subject appeared. 

By a thirty-six Foot Glass, he drew many exact Pictures of Saturn, not 
only of his Ansulae,but his Spots; and attained to a Theory of his Rota- 
tion, and various Inclination of his Body. He also drew the Spots of 
Mars. He made the Tube an Astronomical Instrument to observe the 
Seconds; by which he took the Motions of Jupiter's Satellites, & Saturn's 
Moon ; and not only drew Pictures of the Moon as Hevelius had done, 
but gave more exact Surveys and Maps of her, and discovered exactly 
her various Inclinations, and therein Hevelius's Errors; he caused a 
Needle to be made of forty Inches, in order to discover the Annual Mo- 
tion of Variation in it. 

" He has essay'd to make a true Selenography by Measure; the World 
"having nothing yet but Pictures, rather than Surveys or Maps of the 
" Moon. He has stated the Theory of the Moon's Libration, as far as his 
"Observations could carry him. He has composed a Lunar Globe, re- 
" presenting not only the Spots and various Degrees of Whiteness upon 
" the Surface, but the Hills, Eminencies and Cavities, moulded in solid 
" Work. The Globe thus fashioned into a true Model of the Moon, as 
" you turn it to the Light represents all the menstrual Phases, with the 
" Variety of Appearances that happen from the Shadow of the Moun- 
" tains and Vallies. 

d3 37 

Of the Globe of the Moon in solid Work; and of the Micrographia. 

1 66 1 To Dr. Wren at All-Souls College in Oxford. 

Ex auto- I AM commanded by the Royal Society to acquaint you, that his Maj- 
graph esty expects you should prosecute your Design of making the Represent- 

ation of the Lunar Globe in Solido; and that you should proceed in 
drawing the Shapes of little Animals as they appear in the Microscope; 
and that he doth expect an Account of this from you shortly. 

I am, SIR, &c. 

Hen. Powle. 

Extract of a Letter from Sir Robert Moray, and Sir Paul 
Neile,on the same Subject. 

To Dr. Wren Savilian Professor of Astronomy at Oxford. 

Much honoured Friend. 

THE King hath commanded us to lay a double Charge upon you, in 
his Name, to perfect a Design, wherein he is told, you have already made 
some Progress, to make a Globe representing accurately the Figure of 
the Moon, as the best Tubes represent it: and to delineate by the Help 
of the Microscope the Figures of all the Insects and small living Crea- 
tures you can light upon, as you have done those you presented to his 
Majesty. If it were needful to add any further Excitement to your In- 
dustry, we should tell you how much our whole Society is rejoiced, that 
his Majesty has a just Esteem of your Parts, and honours you with his 
Commands, which we are confident will prevail with you, and therefore 
we reserve all other Motives for other Things, only we expect you will 
signify to us your Readiness to comply with his Majesty's Pleasure; and 
you may be sure we will improve it as much to your Honour and Ad- 
vantage, as is possible for much honoured Friend, 

Your most affectionate humble Servants, 

R. Moray, P. Neile. 
Whitehall, 1 7 May, 1 66 1 . 

Second Letter from Sir Robert Moray. To Dr. Wren, &c. 

My worthy Friend, 
SINCE my last I told the King you had finished your Lunar Globe, and 
desired to know what are his further Commands; and he commanded me 


to let you know, he would have you bring it hither to him. I have also to 
tell you, that in Compliance with your Desire to be eased of the further 
Talk of drawing the Figures of small Insects by the Help of the Micro- 
scope, we have moved his Majesty to lay his Commands on another, one 
Vander Diver; and we have also persuaded Mr. Hook, to undertake the 
same Thing. This is all the Trouble you shall now have from, my wor- 
thy Friend, 

Your real humble Servant, 

Whitehall, 1 3 August, * ° ^' 

1 66 1, 

N.B. Sir Robert Moray, one of his Majesty's Privy Council in Scotland, \ Character 
was an excellent Mathematician, and well versed in Natural Philosophy of Sir R. 
and Chymistry; he was among the first who modelled, instituted, and Moray. See 
promoted the Royal Society, and was elected the second, after the Lord jgp^ Burnet 
Brounker, President. He was universally beloved and esteemed; of so ^chard 
great Piety, that in the Midst of Armies & Courts, he spent many Hours ^c.\ 
a Day in Devotion. He had an Equality of Temper in him that nothing 
could alter; and was in Practice a Stoick. He had a Superiority of Genius 
& Comprehension to most Men. He had a most diffused Love to all Man- 
kind, & delighted in every Occasion of doing Good, which he managed 
with great Discretion and Zeal. — A Character so parallel in all Points, to 
that of Sir Christopher Wren, naturally produced a most friendly and in- 
violable Attachment to each other. He died suddenly at Whitehall, and 
being particularly in the King's Favour, was at his Maj esty's own Charge, 
buried in Westminster-Abbey, in the Year 1 673. 
In Observance of the King's Commands, and Directions of the Royal 
Society,* the Globe of the Moon in solid Work was accurately finished, * Penes col- 
andpresented to his Majesty at Whitehall, fixed onaPedestal of Lignum lectorem 
Vitae, curiously turned, with this Inscription engraved on the Foot, and 
a Scale of Miles. 


M. BR. FR. ET HIB. R. 





D. D. D. 

His Majesty received it with particular Satisfaction, and ordered it to be 

placed among the Curiosities of his Cabinet. London 

Dr. Sprat, late Bishop of Rochester, in his Observations on Monsieur de 1665 

d4 39 

Sorbier's Voyage into England, (dedicated to Dr. Wren) has this Reflec- 
tion. "In which is Monsieur Sorbier more ridiculous, his History or 

" his Policy ? his History in speaking so many false Reproaches aloud, 
" his Policy in whispering such Trifles with so much Caution. I beseech 
" you. Sir, let us allow him the Reputation of his new Invention intire, 
" tho'hedidnot think fit to name the famous Author of the Lunar Globe, 
" which he saw in the King's Closet." 

London 'Extract from the Preface of Mr. Hook's Micrographia. 

^665 By the Advice of that excellent Man Dr. Wilkins,* I first set upon this 

Enterprize, [Micrographie, or Physiological Descriptions of minute 

Btshop of Bodies made by the Help of magnifying Glasses] yet still came to itwith 

Lnester much Reluctancy, because I was to follow the Footsteps of so eminent 

a Person as Dr. Wren, who was the first that attempted any Thing of this 
Nature; whose original Draughts do nowmake one of the Ornaments of 
that great Collection of Rarities in the King's Closet. This Honour which 
his first Beginnings of this Kind have received, to be admitted into the 
most famous Place of the World, did not so much incourage, as the Haz- 
ard of coming after Dr. Wren did affright me; for of him I must affirm, 
that since the Time of Archimedes, there scarce ever met in one Man, in 
so great a Perfection, such a mechanical Hand, and so philosophical a 

Dr. Sprat's <■<■ He has made Maps of the Pleiades, and other Telescopical Stars; and 
Hist, of " proposed Methods to determine the great Doubt of the Earth's Mo- 

the Royal <■<■ tion or Rest, by the small Stars about the Pole to be seen in large Tele- 
Society " scopes. 

" In order to Navigation, he has carefully pursu'd many magnetical Ex- 

" periments; of which this is one of the noblest & most fruitful of Specu- 

* IntheMu- " lation. A large *Terella or orbicular Loadstone about four Inches and 

saeumof " a Halfin Diameter, is placed in the Midstofa plain Board, with a Hole, 

the Royal <■<■ into which the Terella is half immers'd, till it be like a Globe, with the 

Society. « Poles in the Horizon; together with 32 Needles upon the Margin of 

Dr. Grew, « the Table, by which the different Respect of the Needle to the several 

p. 364 " Points of the Terella may be observ'd. Then is the Plane dusted over 

" with Steel-Filings equally from a Sieve: The Dust by the magnetical 

" Virtue is immediately figur'd into Furrows, that bend like a Sort of 

" Helix, proceeding as it were out of one Pole,& returnin g into the other; 

" And the whole Plane is thus figur'd like the Circles of a Planisphere. 

" It being a Question among the Problems of Navigation, very well worth 

" resolving, to what mechanical Powers the failing (against the Wind 

" especially) was reducible; he shewed it to be a Wedge; and he demon- 

" strated how a transient Force upon an oblique Plane, would cause the 


" Motion of the Plane against the first Mover: and he made an -f Instru- -fin the 
" ment that mechanically produced the same EfFect,& shewed the Reason Musaeum 
" of sailing to all Winds. of the Royal 

" The GeometricaLMechanicks of Rowing he shewed to be a Vectis on Society, 
" a moving or cedent Fulcrum. Forthis End he made Instruments to find Dr. Grew, 
" what the Expansion of Body was towards the Hindrance of Motion in p. 364 
" a liquid Medium; and what Degree of Impediment was produced, by 
" what Degree of Expansion: with other Things that are the necessary 
" Elements for laying down the Geometry of Sailing, Swimming, Row- 
" ing. Flying, and the Fabricks of Ships. 

" He has invented a. very curious and exceedingly speedy Way of Etch- 
" ing. He contriv'd a peculiar *Instrument to draw Perspective with. * In the 
" He has started several Things towards the Emendation of Water- Musaeum of 
" Works. He has made Instruments of Respiration ; and for straining the the R. S. 
" Breath from fuliginous Vapours, to try whether the same Breath, so Dr. Grew, 
" purify'd, will serve again. p. 376 

A Description of the Vessel for cooling, and percolating the Air at once, 
he produc'd to the Society, and left in Mr. Boyle's Hands; by which it 
appear'd, that something else in Air is requisite for Life, than that it 
should be cool only, and free from the fuliginous Vapours and Moisture 
it was infected with, in Expiration; for, all those were deposited in its 
Circulation through the Instrument, upon a Suggestion that nitrous 
Fumes might be found requisite, he contriv'd Ways to supply that too, 
by placing some benign chymical Spirits, that by fuming might infect 
the Air within the Vessel. 

" He was the first Inventor of drawing Pictures by microscopical Glasses. 
" He has found out perpetual, at least long liv'd Lamps, and Registers of 
" Furnaces, and the like, for keeping a perpetual Temper, in order to va- 
" rious Uses; as hatching of Eggs, Insects, Production of Plants, chym- 
" ical Preparations, imitating Nature, in producing Fossils & Minerals, 
" keeping the Motion of Watches equal, in order to Longitudes and as- 
" tronomical Uses, and infinite other Advantages. 
He made it no small Part of his Business to have a Fire frequently going 
in the Elaboratory for choicer Experiments in Chymistry, well knowing 
that many Parts of Philosophy are not to be pierc'd far into, without this 
Help; & little to be done in the Business of Trades without it. Mechan- 
ical Philosophy only teaches us what probably may be done in Nature, 
by the Motion and Figures of the little Particles of Things, but Chym- 
istry helps to determine what is actually done by the Motions of those 
invisible Parts of Liquors, Spirits and Fumes; and oftentimes gives Light 
enough to contradict mechanical Hypotheses that otherwise seem well 
grounded. Thus in theBody of Man,if we consider it only mechanically, 
we may indeed learn the Fabrick and Action of the organical Parts, but 


Life of Ant. 
a Wood, 

P- 559- 
Oxon. 1730 

Dr. Plofs 
nai. Hist. 
of Oxford- 
shire, p. 287 

ical Trans- 

No. S3 

ical Trans- 
No. 98. 
p. 6146 

without Chymistry, we shall be at a Loss to know what Blood, Spirits & 
Humours are ; from the due Temper of which, (as of the Spring in the 
Barrel Wheel) the Motions of all the Part depend. With divers new and 
useful Experiments in this Art, he had frequent Opportunities of enter- 
taining his Royal Highness Prince Rupert, & his Majesty King Charles 
the Second, who were both illustrious Spagyrists and Operators. The 
Prince, as a distinguishing Mark of his Esteem, was pleased to enroll him 
in a List of such special Friends, to whom he Yearly sent a Present of 
Wine, from his Appenage on the Rhine. 

" The noted Chymist and Rosicrucian Peter Sthael, of Strasburgh, in 
" Royal-Prussia, was brought to Oxford by the honourable Mr. Robert 
" Boyle, An. 1659. Among the chiefest of his Scholars were Dr. John 
" Wallis, Mr. Christopher Wren, afterwards a Knight, and an eminent 
" Virtuoso, with others of great Names in Physick and Learning. 
He found out several new geometrical Bodies, that arise by the Applica- 
tion of two Cylinders, & one lenticular body fit for grinding one another; 
by whose mutual Attrition, will necessarily be produc'd a conoides hyper- 
bolicum, and two cylindroides hyperbolica. The Engine whereby this may 
be done being represented in Sculpture in our Philosophical Transac- 
tions, and design'd for grinding hyperbolical Glasses. 
He first observ'd,that a plain straight edg'd Chisel set anyway obliquely 
to a Cylinder of Wood, did necessarily turn it into a cylindroides hyperhol- 
icum convexo concavum; the several Sections whereof are accurately de- 
monstrated by Dr. Wallis. [Wallisii mechanica, sive de motu. pars 2 decal- 
culo centri gravitatis cap. 5. prop. 32.] 

In the Year 1 658, he first found out a straight Line equal to a cycloid, & 
the Parts thereof. As is clearly made appear in his Behalf by the Right 
Honourable and learned the Lord Viscount Brounker, Chancellor to her 
Majesty, and President of the Royal Society; and the Reverend & learned 
Dr. John Wallis. 

He was the first Inventor of the Art of Graving in Mezzo-tin to; which 
was after prosecuted & improv'd by his Royal Highness Prince Rupert, 
in a Method somewhat different, upon the Suggestion (as is said) of the 
learned and ingenious John Evelyn, Esq. Of this Art some original Es- 
says are extant: viz. the Head of a Moor, &c. by the Inventor: the Exe- 
cutioner of St. John Baptist by the Prince; on the Sword is the Mark, 
R. P. f (i.e. Rupertus Princeps fecit.) over it, an Electoral Coronet: 

Extract from Dr. Plofs Natural History of Oxfordshire, page 269. 
Chap. IX. of Arts, Sect. 140. 

The erect southern declining Dial, over All-Souls-College Chapel, is a 
neat Piece of Work, so curiously contrived by Sir Christopher Wren; 
that tho' it stands high, yet by the Help of two Half Rays, & one whole 

one for every Hour, one may see to a Minute what it is a Clock, the Mi- 
nutes being depicted on the Sides of the Rays, viz. Fifteen on each side, 
and divided into fives by a difi^erent Character from the rest. 
He invented the Art of Double Writing, that is, of making two sev- 
eral Pens upon two several Papers to write one and the same Ducture 
of Letters, with as near as possible the same Beauty and Facility that is 
found in common Writing, by an Instrument call'd the Diplographical 

Ad Regem, feliciter Reducem. 

Diffluit en gemino quam prodiga sepia ductu, 
Ut cadat in titulos, Carole magne, tuos. 

Marte, ac consilio nam te bis scribere magnum, 
Unica si nequeat dextera, dupla valet. 

Uses of the Diplographical Instrument. 

First, That by the Help of this Instrument only, every ordinary Penman 
may at all Times be suddenly fitted to write two several Copies of any 
Deeds & Evidences, from the shortest to the largest Length of Lines, in 
the very same Compass of Time, and with as much Ease and Beauty, with- 
out any dividing or ruling, as without the Help of the Instrument, he 
could have dispatch'd but one. 

Secondly, That by this diminishing the tedious Labour of Transcrip- 
tions of the greater Sorts of Deeds, Indentures, Conveyances, Charters, 
and all other Duplicates, the Works of the Pen, (which in so many sev- 
eral Kinds, and several Offices are yearly numberless) are not only short- 
en'd, but the Penmen themselves both reliev'd, and recompens'd by an 
honest Gain, with half the wonted Toil. 

Thirdly, There will be both Copies thus drawn, such an exact Likeness 
in the same Number, and Order of Lines, & even of Words, Letters and 
Stops, in all Places of both Copies; that being once sever'd, there shall 
hardly be discern'd any Difference between them, except such as is meerly 
casual, as Spots or Marks in the Parchment. 

Fourthly, This Instrument will undoubtedly prevent the mischievous 
Craft of Corruption, Forgery and Counterfeiting of Hands and Seals, or 
if any such foul Practice be attempted, will effectually and manifestly 
discover it; for what will it avail to counterfeit a Seal, or the Hand that 
signs, unless a Duplicate could be made in every Line, Letter and Dot, 
like the twin Copy? Which without the Help of the same Instrument is 
impossible : so expedient might it be to all Intents and Uses of the State, 
in Matters of the greatest Consequence, that publick Acts be written by 
this Instrument, for Testimony and Assurance to all Times. 


Apply' d to 
K. Charles 
II. after his 

to Dr. John 

•\ Oliver 

Three Years after he had brought this Invention to Maturity, it seems, 
other Persons at London, publickly pretended to be the Authors; which 
oblig'd him to assert his Right to it, in a Letter to a certain Friend, who, 
among others, had been a Judge of the first Experiment.* 


The Account you give me in your last Letter, that a Double-Writing 
Instrument hath of late been at London, pretended to by several, asa Pro- 
duction of their own, and so divulged to divers, hath given me Occasion 
of putting into your Hands (what certainly I have more Right to dispose 
of, than any late Pretender) that Double- Writing Instrument, of the Ef- 
fect of which, about three Years ago, yourself Sir, as I remember, among 
other the Ingeniosi were Judges, at the same Time when accidentally it 
was commanded to the View of the then great, now greatest-f- Person in 
the Nation. I confess my Thoughts were then to suffer it to be made pub- 
lick, & Friends spur'd me to it, apprehending it not as a meer Curiosity, 
but of excellent and very general Use. Moreover, to copy out in every 
Punctilio the exact Resemblance, or rather the very Identity of the two 
Copies, as if one should fancy such a Piece of Magi ck as should make the 
same Thing really two; or with drunken Eyes should see the same Thing 
double, is what might be thought almost impossible for the Hand of 
Man. But Business drew me suddenly from London, and from the Op- 
portunity of publishing it; content that I had at least communicated it to 
the ingenious Few, I willingly left it: And indeed the Thing always ap- 
pearing to me but of obvious (tho' useful) Invention, I was easily drawn 
off to neglect it all this while, by the intervening of Studies and Designs 
that I much more esteem'd; amongst which this took up so little a Place, 
that I am beholding to the Person who, by vindicating it to be his own, 
has put me again in Mind of it. I accuse none of Plagiary, because having 
shewn it to few, I think it would be more Trouble to any knowing Person, 
to enquire it out of others, than to invent it anew; and therefore had it 
been thought on by any other, about that Time I shew'd it, I should have 
readily imagin'd, (because of the Obviousness of the Experiment) that it 
might as easily have had a double Father, as have produc'd a twin Copy; 
but I am apt to believe from good Information, that those who now boast 
of it, had it from one, who having fully seen the Author's, and examin'd 
it carefully (as it is easy to carry away, being of no complicate Compo- 
sure) describ'd it justly to his Friend, and assisted him in the making of 
it; and the very glorying in a Thing of so facile Composure sufficiently 
discovers a Narrowness of Spirit in Things of Invention, and is therefore 
almost Argument enough, that he was not justly so much as a second In- 
ventor; nor hath the Author reason to take it for an Injury, that one re- 
ported a deserving Person in other Abilities, would please to own a cast- 

off Toy of his, but rather owes him a Civility out of Gratitude for father- 
ing it, and saving him that Labour of Education he intended, which will 
now be needless, the dispersing of divers Instruments among the Mer- 
chants, with Directions for the Use. But it may be, there are divers who 
knowing such a Thing to have been talked of some Years ago, as coming 
from another Hand, will be easily ready to turn all this with Advantage 
upon myself: indeed tho' I care not for having a Successor in Invention, 
yet it behoves me to vindicate myself from the Aspersion of having a 

This Draught of a Letter bears no Date, yet, by the Contents, the Time 
may be nearly computed; it appears, the first Device & Experiment was 
made three Years before the Protectorate, scil. 1650. The Time of his 
justifying his Right, and appealing to his Judgeswas in 1653. When the 
great Man abovemention'd was invested with the office of Protector, and 
so became the greatest Person in the Nation. 

It is difficult to reconcile this Account with what is recorded of Sir Wil- 
liam Petty, "That he in 1647, had a Patent granted him by the Parlia- 
" ment for seventeen Years, to teach his Art of Double Writing." [Rush- 
worth's Hist. Coll. Pa;rt IV.] [Ward's Lives of Gresham Professors, 
p. 2 1 8.] — It is evident, that in the Years before recited, he had no Intel- 
ligence of Petty's Art and Patent. 
It is a common Saying: "Good Wits jump." 

He contriv'd a Needle that would play in a Coach, as well useful to know 
the Coast and Way join'd with the Waywiser, as a pleasant Diversion to 
the Traveller, who might thus, as it were sail by Land. The Machine is 
fram'd after this Manner. In a Sphere of Glass of two Inches Diameter, 
half full of Water, cause a heavy short broad Needle fix'd to a Chart to 
swim, being buoy'd up by the Chart, and both varnish'd; instead of a Cap 
and Pin, let the perforated Needle play about a small Wire, or Horse- 
Hair extended like a perpendicular Axis in the glass Sphere, whose Na- 
dir being made weighty with lead, and an Horizon, as it were, cemented 
to it ; let it play in Circles like the Compass; then let an .hemispherical 
Concave, containing the Sphere in its Circles, be hung upon Springs after 
this Manner. Suppose a Basis upon which are erected perpendicularly 
three stiff brass Springs, from the Ends of which Springs are Strings 
stram'd, forming an equilateral Triangle, the Middle of whose Sides pass 
through three small Loops on the Brim of the Concave, which there- 
fore hanging on the Strings, represent a Circle inscrib'd in a Triangle- 
from the Middle of the Basis arises a Worm-Spring, fasten'd by a Stnng 
to the Nadir of the Concave, drawing it down a little, and acting against 
the other three Springs. These Springs will take off at once much of both 
the downright & collateral Concussions ; the Circles will take off Oscilla- 


Dr. Grew^s 
Musaeum of 
the Royal 
p. 260, 

In the Mu- 
saeum of 
the Royal 
Dr. Grew, 

In the Mu- 
saeum of 
the Royal 

* Mr. Der- 

tionSjthe Agitations remaining will be spent in the "Water, & still'd by the 
Chart; for thuswe see a Trencher swimming in a Bucket keeps the Water 
from spilling in the Carriage; & the Chinese have their Compass swim- 
ming in Water, instead of Circles. Lastly all the Bottom of the Basis is to 
be bristled round like a Brush, somewhat inclining, which will ease it 
like a hundred Springs: It should be placed in the Middle of the Floor of 
the Coach, where by opening a Window may be seen likewise the Way- 
wiser on the Pearch. 

The Way- Wiser for a Coach, contriv'd by Sir Christopher Wren, and 
given by Bishop Wilkins to the Royal Society, is very manageable. It 
hath five Indexes pointing to so many different Measures, sc. Perches, 
Furlongs, Miles, Tens of Miles, and Hundreds of Miles; & turn'd about 
with as many Wheels. Made to work in a Coach, thus; in the Middle of 
the Axletree is cut a little Box to receive the Wiser: from whence the 
Axletree is made hollow to the End. In this Hollow lies a Rod, loose 
from the Axletree, & fasten'd at one End to the Nave of the Wheel, and 
so turns round with it. And with a Worm it hath at the other End, at the 
same Time, it turns the Perch of the Wheel- Wiser, and that all the rest. 
Yet by this Measure, one Yard will sometimes be lost in a hundred Yards. 
He contriv'd a Box-Hive, given to the Royal Society by Sir Robert 
Moray: the Description whereof was first publish'd by Mr. Hartlib in 
the Year 1652. Since then by Mr. Moses Rusden: design'd to keep them 
warmer, and more safe; but especially to prevent their swarming, & the 
better to propagate them into the Colonies. 

He exhibited great Variety of sciographical, scenographical, dioptrical 
and catoptrical Experiments, which when executed with good Painting, 
and geometrical Truth in the Profile, would deceive the Eye with sur- 
prizing Effects; such, for Instance, was the catoptrick Paint, given to the 
Royal Society by Bishop Wilkins, on the one Side the Paint appears as 
if it were altogether rude and irregular, so as nothing can be made of it, 
but a metalline Cylinder being plac'd perpendicular upon a certain Point 
of the Table, the Rays are in such sort incident thereon, and thence re- 
flected to the Eye, as to represent a Variety of curious Works in Land- 
skip and Figures &c. 

Extract from the Collection of Philosophical Experiments of Dr. Hook, 
and others, publish'd by the Rev. Mr. Derham, London, 1726. p. 1. 

Of the Invention of the Barometer, in the Year 1659. 

IN one of Dr. Hooke's Papers I* find this Remark, viz. the Instrument 
for findmg the different Pressure of the Air upon the Parts of the Earth 
subjacent, was first observ'd by the honourable Mr. Boyle, who upon the 
Suggestion of Sir Christopher Wren, erecting a Tube of Glass so fill'd 

with Mercury, as is now usually done in the common Barometers, in 
order to find out, whether the Pressure of the Moon, according to the 
Cartesian Hypothesis did affect the Air; instead of finding the Fluctua- 
tion which might cause the Phoenomena of the Tides, discover'd the 
Variation of its Pressure to proceed from different Causes, and at different 
Times, from what that Hypothesis would have predicted. That Property 
of the Air (for ought appears) was never discover'd till that Time, &c. 
To this I shall add another Remark. I find in the Minutes of the Royal 
Society, Feb. 20, 1678-9. Upon a Discourse of some Experiments to be 
made with the Barometer on the Monument, it was queried, how this 
Experiment of the different Pressure of the Atmosphere came at first to 
be thought of? And it was related, that it was first propounded by Sir 
Christopher Wren, in order to examine Monsieur DesCartes's Hypo- 
thesis, whether the passing by of the Body of the Moon did press upon 
the Air, and consequently also upon the Body of the Water: and that the 
first Trial thereof was made at Mr. Boyle's Chamber in Oxford. 
The Time when these Observations were made was about the Year 1 6 5 8 
or 9. At which Time, Mr. Boyle having a Barometer fix'd up for the Ob- 
serving the Moon's Influence upon the Waters, happen'd to discover the 
Use of it in relation to the Weather, and to assure himself, that it was the 
Gravitation of the Atmosphere which kept up the Quicksilver to such 
a Height as the Learned abroad, particularly Torricelli, had suspected 

But although this Use of the Baroscope is owing to Sir Christopher 
Wren and Mr. Boyle; yet to do every Man Justice, I shall give the His- 
tory of this excellent Instrument, from the Extracts of a very ingenious 

The first inventor of it was Torricelli at Florence, in 1643. From whence 
Father Mersenne brought it into France the Year following, 1 644. And 
Monsieur Pascal being inform'd of it by Monsieur Petit the Engineer, 
they both tried it in 1 646, at Rouen, with the same Success as it had been 
tried in Italy. Some Time after which, an Experiment was made with a 
Tube of forty-six Foot, fiU'd with Water, & also with Wine ; which Ex- 
periment Mons. Pascal gave an Account of, in a Piece printed in 1647, 
in which Year he was inform'd of Torricelli's Solution of the Phoenom- 
enon of the Weight of the Air; and devis'd for the examining of it, the 
famous Experiment with two Tubes, one within the other; which he 
mentions in a Letter written in November, 1 647, & lastly in 1 648. The 
same Mons. Pascal made his Experiments of the Tops and Bottoms of 
Hills, Buildings, &c. Which last Experiments Mons. Des Cartes laid 
Claim to; affirming that he desir'd Mons. Pascal to make them two 
Years before, and predicted their Success, contrary to Mons. Pascal's 


Mons. Azout also laid the same Claim, but it is most probable that Mons. 
Pascal had the best Title. 

After the Torricellian Experiment had been much celebrated in divers 
Places, at last Otto de Guerrick Consul of Magdeburgh, was inform'd of 
it by Father Valerian at Ratisbone, who claim'd it as his own Invention; 
but this was not till the Year 1 654. After which Guerrick's Experiment, 
(call'd the Magdeburgh Experiment) was much talked of. 
From this short History of the Barometer, not only the Inventor & Im- 
provers of it appear, but in some Measure also the excellent Uses of it: 
particularly the Gravitation of the incumbent Atmosphere, (one of the 
noblest philosophical Discoveries) the Changes of the Weather, &c. 

W. Derham. 

Extract from the Life of Dr. Hook, publish'd by Mr. Waller, 

Lond. 1705. p. 7. 

In the Year 1655 or 6, were many curious Experiments, Observations, 
and Inquiries made at Oxford, and Instruments for those Purposes con- 
triv'd, as particularly the Barometer, of which he [Mr. Hook] says the 
first Occasion of the Invention was a Suggestion of Sir Christopher Wren, 
in order to find whether the Hypothesis of Mons. Des Cartes, by giving 
the Reason of the Tides from the Pressure of the Moon upon the Air in 
'j- Mr. its Passage by the Meridian, were true or not. At this Time I -f- have 

Waller heard Mr. Hook say, it was the first observ'd, that the Height of the 

Mercury in the Barometer did not conform itself to the Moon's Motion, 
but to that of the different Gravitation of the Air, as has been since sufB- 
* Traitez ciently verified. Yet in a * French Treatise printed at Paris, 1 664. Sev- 
de FEqui- eral Years after this Observation at Oxford, the Discovery of the Gravi- 
libre des tation of the Air is attributed to Mons. Pascal, deduced from several 

liqueurs &c. Experiments, made about the Year 1650, at Clermont in Auvergne by 
Mons. Perier; at Paris by others: and at Stockholm by Messieurs Des 
Cartes and Chanute; which if it shall be true, as is there related, and the 
Inferences from that Experiment, such as are in the same Tract men- 
tion'd, 'tis strange they should not have been apply'd to the Use of so be- 
neficial an Instrument sooner, which I do not find they were, till after 
this Observation at Oxford. 
PAilos. Mr. Hook supposes that Reita was the first that made use of convex Eye 

Exper. Glasses, taking in a larger Area than the concave ones used before, and 

Derham, that he invented the Rete or Mensurator, placed in the common Focus 
*. 272 of the Glasses; which Sir Christopher Wren perfected; and invented the 

angular Instrument consisting of two Telescopes join'd at a moveable 
Joint, so as to take Angles by two Observers, to a Quadrant. 

The third Thing Mons. Cassini [in his Original and Progress of Astro- Philos. 
nomy] unjustly lays Claim to, in the Behalf of the Royal Academy of Exper. 
Paris, is the finding a Standard for an universal Measure by the Length Derham, 
of a Pendulum vibrating a certain Time. This wra§ first invented and p. 390 
tried by Sir Christopher Wren, some Years before the Beginning of the 

The fourth Thing Mons. Cassini instances in, as of Right to be ascrib'd 
to the Royal Academy of Paris, is the Improvement of Telescopes both 
for Length and Goodness; which was first performed here, by Sir Paul 
Neile, Sir Christopher Wren, and Dr. Goddard, who instructed and em- 
ployed Mr. Rieves in the manual Operation; and by that Means it was 
carried to the Perfection of making Object-Glasses of sixty and seventy 
Foot long, very good, before any Mention was made of such being made 
in France. Some such Attempts indeed, had been made in Italy by Divini, 
and Campani; but upon the comparing one of the best of them, brought 
hither by Mons. Monconys, I found that a Telescope I had then by me 
of Mr. Rieves's making, of the same Length with the Italian, was full as 
good, if not better ; which Mr. Monconys acknowledged. 

In Coelestial Observations we have far exceeded all the Antients, even Hook's Mi- 
the Chaldeans, & Egyptians themselves; whose vast Plains, high Tow- crographia 
ers, and clear Air, did not give them so great Advantages over us, as we Preface 
have over them by our Glasses. By the Help of which, they have been 
much out-done by the famous Galileo, Hevelius,Zulichem,andour own 
Countrymen, Mr. Rook, and Dr. Wren, &c. 

e I 



Extract of a Letter from Mr. Hook, May 4, 1665, in Reference to the 
Comet, Anno 1664; and Dr. Wren's Hypothesis of Comets laid 
before the Royal Society. 


To Dr. Wren at Oxford. 

I Hope you received the Globe and Observations which I sent you; you 
had had them much sooner, but in Truth I could not get the Copy of 
your Hypothesis, though the Amanuensis was ordered by the Society to 
have had it ready above a Week before. Those Observations of my own 
making, I have not yet had Time to adjust so well as I desired; for the 
Sun came upon me before I was aware, and so I must stay till the Con- 
stellation of flPJP appear in the Morning, before I can be able to rectify the 
Places of the Telescopical Stars, by which I observed the Comet to pass; 
which I hope I may do about a Fortnight hence; about which Time also 
I expect to see both the old or first Comet with a Telescope ; & the second 
or last Comet with my Eye: for, if the Motion of them be regular, as I 
see not the least Cause to doubt, I hope to be able to design their Places 
among the fixed Stars, without erring much more than I am able to see 
at once with a Telescope ; & therefore I hope it will be no difficult Matter 
to find either of them, unless the first may be gone so far as to disappear 
by reason of Distance, which is indeed the greatest Part of my Fear: for, 
if it continue to move those Ways I have imagined it, whether we take 
the Supposition of the Motion of the Earth, and imagine the Comet to 
be moved in a Circle, one side of wTiich touches, or rather goes within 
the Orb of the Earth on one Side, and without the Orb of Saturn, or at 
least that of Jupiter on the other, whose Plane is inclined to that of the 
Ecliptick about 20 Deg. or whether we suppose the Earth to stand still, 
and the Comet to be moved in a great Circle whose convex Side is turned 
towards the Earth (which supposing no certain Parallax has been ob- 
served, may be supposed of any Bigness, keeping only the same Propor- 
tion between the nearest Distance of it from the Earth and the Radius or 
Diameter of that Circle) it must appear again very near the same Place 
about a Fortnight hence. And I am apt to think the Body of the Comet 
is of a Constitution that will last much longer than either a Month or a 
Year, nay than an Age; and if I can be so lucky to meet with it again, I 
hope to trace it to its second appearing. — But I weary you with my Con- 

jectures; and I doubt not but that before this, you have perfected the 
Theory of Comets, so as to be able to predict much more certainly what 
we are to expect of these Comets for the Future; whereof if at your 
Leisure you will please to afford me a Word or two, you will much 
oblige me, &c. 

In one of Mr. Hook's Discourses of Comets, containing a brief Explica- 
tion of several Opinions of the Antients, and some of the Moderns, of the Posthum- 
Nature of Comets; he takes Notice of a late Information from France of ous Works of 
a Person, D. Anthelm, a Carthusian of Dijon, pretending to have a true Dr. Hook, 
Theory of Comets, and to be able to predict them; which, says he, I think, p. \o\and 5 
may be much more exactly done, than what Anthelm has, by the Way I 
have published in my Cometa, which was invented by Sir Christopher 
Wren; By which, from any four Observations truly made one may cer- 
tainly find the Line, Distance, Motion, Inclination to the Ecliptick, its 
Place among the fixed Stars, the Length of its Tail, Brightness, &c. so 
long as it shall appear to the naked Eye; for so long thatTheory will hold 
pretty near, &c. 

All the considerable Astronomers who have written of Comets, since 
Galileo, do conclude them not to be sublunary, but far removed above 
the Moon, and aethereal. Such were almost all those who writ of that 
great and very bright Comet, which appeared to the World in the Year 
1618, and such are those who have writ of Comets, that have appeared 
since; and more particularly of those two great ones, which appeared in 
the End of 1 664, and in the Beginning of the Year 1 665, many of which 
are comprised in the Theatrum Cometicum, printed in 1667. 


To the Royal Society. 
Mr. President, 

WE begin a new Year, and therefore may pause a little, and look back 
on what we have done, and consider what we may do. 'Tis a great En- 
couragement to us, that by the Influence of his sacred Majesty, the Pru- 
dence and Diligence of yourself, the ingenious Perforn;iances of the So- 
ciety, we have hitherto kept up our Meetings full, and in good Repute 
at home and abroad, & not without sufficient Appearance of doing some- 
thing considerable ; so that we need not now fear lest the World from all 
our Experiments, should make this one Experiment, that there is little 
Use of these Enquiries: and I make no question, but the Design of so 
many excellent Persons meeting in this Society, (besides the present Sa- 
e2 5j 

tisfaction that accrues from the Converse and Communication of every 
one's Thoughts in the Disquisition of Nature) carries along with it, prin- 
cipally a Zeal of approving themselves benefactors to Mankind, and of 
perfecting something, for which Posterity may be really obliged to us. 

Of effecting this; there seems three Ways: By advancing, r . Knowledge. 
2. Profit. 3. Health; and Conveniences of Life. 

For the first of these, the Improvement of Theories, we need be least so- 
licitous; it is a Work will insensibly grow upon us, if we be always doing 
something in Experiment; and everyone is more prone to exercise Fancy 
in building paper Theories, than patient to first pile the unsure Founda- 
tion and hew solid Materials out of the History of Nature. This is rather 
our Talk, and in many Things we must be content to plant Crab-stocks 
for Posterity to graft on. 

The second, I make no question, will be excellently effected by two 
Things now in Hand; the carrying on the History of Trades, & the Im- 
provement of the Art of Navigation; which being now committed to an 
excellent Hand, cannot but produce something very extraordinary. Be- 
sides, there can hardly be any Thing propos'd worth our Considera- 
tion, that will not itself, or some Corollary from it, be reduceable to this 

For the third, the Health of Man kind, the restoring Part is properly the 
Work already of one whole Faculty, in which no Age or Nation affords 
more learned and inquisitive men than this of ours. Yet I wish we might 
incorporate with them so far, as to have a Fire going in the Elaboratory 
for choicer Experiments in Chymistry, especially since many Parts of 
Philosophy are not to be pierced far into, without this Help; and little 
is to be done in the Business of Trades without it. Mechanical Philo- 
sophy only teaches us what probably may be done in Nature by the Mo- 
tion and Figures of the little Particles of Things, but Chymistry helps 
to determine what is actually done by the Motions of those invisible 
Parts of Liquors, Spirits, and Fumes; and oftentimes gives Light enough 
to contradict mechanical Hypotheses, that otherwise seem well ground- 
ed. Thus in the Body of a Man, if we consider it only mechanically, we 
may indeed learn the Fabrick and Action of the organical Parts, but 
without Chymistry, we shall be at a Loss to know, what Blood, Spirits 
and Humours are, from the due Temper of which (as of the Spring in the 
Barrel Wheel) the Motions of all the Parts depend. 
To carry on both together, I could wish we were frequent in Dissections 
of Animals, of any Sort whatsoever, and that Figures be drawn, where 
Nature appears anomalar,'as she is most in Fishes and Insects; especially 
in the Parts that serve for Concoction. And with this we may take in the 

Experiment about Generation: The Spring should not be lost, for ob- 
serving the Progress of hatching Eggs; and likewise the springing of 
Grain and Seeds; which in a ruder Proportion gives some Light to the 
Generation of Animals. Tame Rabbets may be kept purposely for Dis- 
section, as well because they are frequently pregnant, as because of late, 
some Observations have been made from them, which seem to thwart 
those of Dr. Harvey, how truly, will be worth our Enquiry. 
Besides these, there is another Part of Physiology, which concerns us as 
near as the Breath of our Nostrils, and I know not any Thing wherein 
we may more oblige Posterity, than that which I would now propose. It 
is not the Work of any one Person, and therefore fit for a Society, nor of 
a little Time, though of little Trouble, and therefore fit to be propos'd 
now at the Beginning of the Year, & to be carried on with other Things. 
The History of Seasons is this exceyent Work I would recommend to 
you, desir'd by all modern Philosophers, though no Body hath had yet 
the Patience to pursue it. 

It consists of two Parts: i. A meteorological History. 2. A History of 
Things depending upon Alteration of the Air and Seasons. 

The meteorological Parts will be compleated by five Histories. 

1. A punctual Diary of the Motion of the Air, the Winds; wherein 
should be noted, not only the Rumb but Force of the Wind, as the Sea- 
men have these Distinctions, if I mistake not; from a Calm they begin 
with a soft Wind; afresh Wind; a stiff Gale; a Storm; and sometimes a 
Hurricane. These may be noted down by a Cypher, and i, 2, 3, 4, &c. 
And the Rumb by Letters. 

2. A punctual Diary of the Qualities of the Air, as to Heat and Cold ob- 
serv'd by a Thermometer; and likewise of the Moisture of the Air ob- 
serv'd by some other Instrument. 

3. The Refractions should be observ'd, and the Rising of dry Vapours by 
the Telescope, and the Tremulation of the Air. 

4. A Diary of the State of the Air, as fair, cloudy. Rain, &c. 

5. A Register of other accidental Meteors, as figur'd Snows, Parelii, Cor- 
onae, unusual Colours and Shapes of Clouds, call'd Fights in the Air, 

Fiery Meteors in the Night, falling Stars, (in which I could give Direc- Aurorae 
tion for finding, if any Thing falls from them in their Extinction.) boreales 

The second Part will be compris'd in, — 

I . The History of the Growth of those annual Things of Food, as Fruits 
and Grain. The Causes of Dearth and Plenty and Diseases. Especially the 
Annals of the Plough should be kept. How the Weather retarded or ac- 
celerated Seed Time, springing, flow'ring, corning, ripening and Har- 

es 53 

vest; with the Diseases and Enemies of that Year: as whether blighted, 
mildew'd, smutted, choked with this or that Weed, eaten with Rook- 
worms, or infected with a little blue Mite, covering the Ear while green, 
a Calamity which I have observ'd, but wants a Name. — Lastly, the 
Plenty, Scarcity, and Price of Corn. We are enough to learn this in every 
County of England, by enquiring or corresponding with those that are 
a little more curious in Country Affairs. 

2. The State of Grass and Hay, and consequently of Cattle; the Plenty, 
Dearth, Diseases and Murrains of them. 

3. Wines, which though foreign, bear a great Share in our Diet, and 
therefore a Note should be given of them; of their Goodness or Vices 
that Year. So for Coffee, Tobacco, and such like of general Use. 

4. The Seasons of Fish & Fowl are retarded or accelerated by Weather: 
foreign Fowl are observ'd to come in great Multitudes, near the Time 
of their Departure, to some Coasts of England, & there to stay for a Wind, 
which when it happens for their Turn, in few hours there is not one to be 
seen in the whole Country. The Seasons of Fish depend much upon the 
Seasons of the Water-flies and Insects their Food; in two Rivers, parted 
by the same Meadow, I have known the Difference often Days or more. 
The Seasons of Insects, are of themselves very considerable. The Multi- 
tudes or Paucity of venemous Creatures, and of many other the like 
Things are very well worth registring; and all other Things found to be 
either Consequence, Signs, or Presages of Weather and Seasons. 

5. Above all, the Physicians of our Society should be desir'd to give us 
a good Account of the epidemical Diseases of the Year; Histories of any 
new Disease that shall happen; Changes of theold; Difference of Opera- 
tions in Medicine according to the Weather and Seasons, both inwardly, 
and in Wounds: and to this should be added, a due Consideration of the 
weekly and annual Bills of Mortality in London. 

Thus instead of the Vanity of prognosticating, I could wish we would 
have the Patience for some Years, of registring past Times, which is the 
certain Way of learning to prognosticate;— Experiment and Reason is 
the only Way of prophesying natural Events. And I shall not therefore 
need to press the Utility of this Design, since I am confident there is none 
here, but apprehends what excellent Speculations, what a Multitude 
of new ingenious Consequences will hence arise conducible to Profit, 
Health, Convenience, Pleasure, and Prolongation of Life. And I dare be 
confident, that no one Part in the whole Extent of Philosophy will afford 
us more delightful or more useful Speculations, or render us more con- 
siderable to all Posterity. 

The only Thing I fear is, lest we should want Patience, and flag in the 
Design, since in few Years at the Beginning, it will hardly come to any 

visible Maturity. But as it is a long Work, so it is of no Difficulty, nor will 
take up more Time, than once a Year to have an Audit wherein every- 
one shall bring in his Account of that Part which, in this History was 
enjoin'd him. 

The greatest Difficulty will be in keeping the Diary of the Winds and 
Air, because it seems to require constant Attendance; but this at first 
may be delegated to four or five Men, who near their Abodes have Wea- 
ther-Cocks in vieWj&have diligently taken the Position of their Houses; 
these may sometimes compare Notes, what have escaped the Observa- 
tions of one will be taken by another. So likewise for the Thermometer. 
Some Help may be given for the exacter Observance of the Wind, as 
thus: A Point being taken in a convenient Part of a Window, where a 
square Vane of a Weather-Cock appears, the nearer & higher above the 
Eye, the better; an Ellipsis may be drawn on the Glass, and the Rumbs 
withih the Ellipsis so, that it may be a Projection upon the Plane of the 
Window, of an imaginary Card, placed horizontally upon the Steeple 
whose Center is the Axis of the Vane; therefore observing only with one 
Glance, how the Edge of the Vane lies amongst these Lines of the Win- 
dow, you have the Wind exactly given you. This Way hath been put in 
Execution with very good Effisct, and some other useful Additions at 

But because it is convenient, that the Changes of Winds in the Night 
too, should not pass unobserved ; such a Vane as is at Whitehall, shewing 
by an Index within a Room, may be very necessary for this Purpose. 
But this is not yet enough, for many Changes may happen while the Ob- 
server is absent or asleep. I might seem to promise too much, should I 
say, an Engine may be fram'd, which if you visit your Chamber but one 
half Hour in the Day, shall tell you how many Changes of Wind have 
been in your Absence, though there were Twenty, and at what Hour 
every Change happen'd, and whether it were soft, stiff, or vehement. 
Neither shall the Instrument be subject to be out of Tune, or if it be, 
your own Hand may rectify it. 

Neither shall the Thermometer need a constant Observance, for after 
the same Method may that be made to be its own Register. Some Errors 
likewise there are in the Use of the Thermometer, which should there- 
fore be used with some Cautions. 

For the pretended Ways of discovering the two other Qualities of 
Drought & Moisture in the Air, they are all uncertain that I ever heard 
of Tryals have been made of Lute-strings, which by their various Ten- 
sure move an Index, but these Strings alter in their Parts, and in the same 
Temper of Air will not return to the same Degrees. The Beards of Oats 
are more uncertain. 

It is indeed an Error to think there are any Degrees of Siccity, since all 
e4 SS 

Siccity is but less or no Humidity: And therefore the Degrees of Hu- 
midity being nothing else but the Quantity of moist Vapour in the Air, 
it is best done by collecting the very Moisture of the Air after a peculiar 
Manner, which I shall be ready to produce. 

Many other Things I might suggest of this Nature, which if the Design 
be once begun, I shall most willingly submit, upon Occasion, to the 
Judgment of the Society. 

Extract from Dr. Grew's Musaeum Regalis Societatis P. 284. 

CHRYSTAL, at least some Sorts of it, is the softest, saith Boethius, of 
all Gems. He should have said of all perspicuous Gems: For theTurcois 
is much softer. The most usual Figure of Chrystal, is sexangular: Yet 
Terzagi mentions a Rock of square-pointed Ones. But it is observable. 
That he saith, the Bed on which they grew, seem'd to be Gold-Ore: If 
so, it might proceed from some governing Principle in the Ore. For I 
have heard it noted, as I remember, by Sir Christopher Wren, that Grain- 
Gold is often found naturally figur'd into Cubes. 

Extract of a Letter to the Right Honourable the Lord Brouncker. 

[Preparative to his Majesty's Entertainment at the 
Royal Society, Oxon 1 66 1 .] 

My Lord, 

THE Act and Noise at Oxford being over, I retir'd to myself as speedily 
as I could, to obey your Lordship, and contribute something to the Col- 
lection of Experiments design'd by the Society,for his Majesty's Recep- 
tion. I concluded on something I thought most suitable for such an Oc- 
casion; but the Stupidity of our Artists here, makes the Apparatus so te- 
dious, that I foresee I shall not be able to bring it to any Thing within 
the Time propos'd: What in the meanwhile to suggest to your Lordship 
I cannot guess; the Solemnity of the Occasion, and my Solicitude for the 
Honour of the Society, makes me think nothing proper, nothing remark- 
ableenough. 'Tis not every Year will produce such a Master-experiment 
as the Torricellian, and so fruitful of new Experiments as that is, & there- 
fore the Society have deservedly spent much Time upon that and its Off- 
spring: And if you have any notable Experiment that may appear to open 
new Light into Principles of Philosophy, nothing would better beseem 
the Pretensions of the Society, though possibly such would be too jejune 
for this Purpose, in which there ought to be something of Pomp: On the 
other Side, to produce Knacks only, and Things to raise Wonder, such as 
Kercher, Scottus, & even Jugglers abound with, will scarce become the 

Gravity of the Occasion: It must therefore be something between both, 
luciferous in Philosophy, and yet whose Use and Advantage is obvious, 
and without a Lecture; and besides may surprize with some unexpected 
Effect, and be commendable for the Ingenuity of the Contrivance. Half 
a Dozen of Experiments thus qualified, will be abundantly enough for an 
Hour's Entertainment; and I cannot believe the Society can want them, 
if they look back into their own Store. For myself, I must profess freely, 
I have not any Thing by me suitable to the Idea I have of what ought to 
be perform'd before such an Assembly. Geometrical Problems, and new 
Lines, new Bodies, new Methods, how useful soever, will be but tastless 
in a transient Show. New Theories, or Observations, or astronomical In- 
struments, either for Observation or Facilitation of the Calculus, are 
valuable to such Artists only who have particularly experimented the 
Defects that these Things pretend to supply. 

Sciographical Knacks, of which yet a hundred Varieties may be given, 
are so easy in the Invention, that now they are cheap. Scenographical, 
Catoptrical, and Dioptrical Tricks, require excellent Painting, as well 
as Geometrical Truth in the Profile, or else they deceive not. Designs of 
Engines for Ease of Labour, or promoting any Thing in Agriculture, or 
the Trades, I have occasionally thought upon divers, but they are not in- 
telligible without Letters and References, and often, not without some- 
thing of Demonstration. Designs in Architecture, &c., the few chymical 
Experiments I have been acquainted with, will, I fear, be too tedious for 
an Entertainment. Experiments in Anatomy, tho' of the most Value for 
their Use, are sordid and noisom to any but those whose Desire of Know- 
ledge, makes them digest it. Experiments for the Establishment of na- 
tural Philosophy are seldom pompous; 'tis upon Billiards, and Tennis- 
Balls; upon the purling of Sticks and Tops; upon a Viol of Water, or a 
Wedge of Glass, that the great Des Cartes hath built the most refined & 
accurate Theories that human Wit ever reach'd to; and certainly Nature 
in the best of her Works is apparent enough in obvious Things, were 
they but curiously observ'd ; and the Key that opens Treasures, is often 
plain and rusty, but unless it be gilt, 'twill make no Show at Court. 
If I have been conversant in philosophical Things, (as I know how idle 
I have been) it hath been principally in these Ways, which I have re- 
counted to your Lordship, by which your Lordship perceives how use- 
less I am for this Service ; yet if your Lordship will still pursue me, I know 
not what Shift to make, but to retire'back to something I have formerly 

I have pleased myself not a little with the Play of the Weather-wheel, 
(the only true Way to measure Expansions of the Air) and I imagine it 
must needs give others Satisfaction, if it were once firmly made, which, I 
suppose, may be done, if the circular Pipes (which cannot be truly blown 


in Glass) were made of Brass, by those who make Trumpets, and Sack- 
outts, (who wire-draw their Pipes thro' a Hole to equal them, and then 
filling them with melted Lead, turn them round into what Flexures they 
please) the Inside of the Pipe must be varnish'd with China-varnish to 
preserve it from the Quicksilver ; and the Glasses fixed to it with Varnish, 
which I suppose will be the best Cement in the World; for thus the Chi- 
nese fix Glass and Mother of Pearl in their Works. It would be no un- 
pleasing Spectacle to see a Man live without new Air, as long as you 
please. A Description of a Vessel for cooling and percolating the Air at 
once, I formerly show'd the Society, and left in Mr. Boyle's Hands; I 
suppose it worth putting in Practice; you will at least learn thus much 
from it, that something elsein Airis requisite for Life, than that it should 
be cool only, and free from the fuliginous Vapours and Moisture it was 
infected with in Expiration; for all those will in Probability be deposited 
in its Circulation thro' the Instrument. If nitrous Fumes be found requi- 
site, (as I suspect) Ways may possibly be found to supply that too, by 
placing some benign Chymical Spirits,that by fumeing may infect the Air 
within the Vessel. 

If an artificial Eye were truly & dioptrically made (which I would have 
at least as big as a Tennis-Bail) it would represent the Picture as Nature 
makes it. The Cornea & Chrystalline must be Glass, the other Humours, 
Water. I once survey'd a Horse's Eye as exactly as I could, measuring 
what the Spheres of the Chrystalline & Cornea were; and what the Pro- 
portions of the Distances of the Centers of every Sphere were upon the 
Axis: The Ways by which I did it are too long to rehearse, but the Pro- 
jection in triple the Magnitude, Sir Paul Neile may possibly find; or if 
your Lordship think it worth while, I shall reiterate the Experiment. 
A Needle that would play in a Coach, will be as well useful to know the 
Coast and Wayjoin'd with the Way-wiser as a pleasant Diversion to the 
Traveller; & would be an acceptable Present to his Majesty, who might 
thus as it were sail by Land. The Fabrick may be thus: In a Sphere of 
Glass of two Inches Diameter, half full of Water, cause a short heavy 
broad Needle fixed to a Chart to swim, being buoy'd up by the Chart, 
and both varnish'd; instead of a Cap and Pin, let the perforated Needle 
play about a small Wire, or Horse-Hair, extended like a perpendicular 
Axis in the Glass-Sphere, whose Nadir being made weighty with Lead, 
and an Horizon as it were cemented to it, let it play in Circles like the 
Compass; Then let a hemispherical Concave containing the Sphere in its 
Circles, be hung upon Springs after this Manner. 

Suppose a Basis upon which are erected perpendicularly three stiff Brass- 
Springs, from the Ends of which Springs, are Strings strain'd, forming an 
equilateral Triangle, the Middle of whose Sides pass through three small 
Loops on the Brim of the Concave, which therefore hanging on the 

Strings represents a Circle inscrib'd in a Triangle. From the Middle of 
the Basis arises a Worm-spring, fasten'd by a String to the Nadir of the 
Concave, drawing it down a little, and acting against the other three 
Springs. These Springs, I suppose, will take off at once much of both the 
downright and collateral Concussions; the Circles will take off Oscilla- 
tions, the Agitations remaining will be spent in the Water, and still'd by 
the Chart; for thus we see a Trencher swimming in a Bucket keeps the 
Water from spilling in the Carriage: & the Chinese have their Compass 
swimming in Water instead of Circles. 

Lastly, I would have all the Bottom, of the Basis bristled round like a 
Brush, somewhat inclin'd, which is a cheap Addition, and will ease it 
like a hundred Springs : It should be placed on the Middle of the Floor of 
the Coach, where by opening a Window you might see likewise the 
Way- wiser on the Pearch. My Lord, if my first Designs had been per- 
fect, I had not troubled your Lordship with so much Tattle, but with 
something perform'd and done: But I am fain, in this Letter, to do like 
some Chymist, who when Projection (his fugitive darling) hath left him 
threadbare, is forced to fall to vulgar Preparations to pay his Debts. 

My Lord, I am, 

Yours, &c. 




R. WREN assisted Dr. Willis, in his excel- 
lent Treatise of the Anatomy of the Brain, in 
the Manner which the learned Author has 
thus testify 'd in his Preface to that Work, viz. 

Praeter suppetias ab hujus manu (Doctoris 
Lower) in dissecando peritissima allatas, eel- 
are non decet, quantas insuper acceperim a 
viris clarissimis Domino Tho. Millington, 
M.D. necnon a Domino Christophoro Wren, 
L.L.D. & Astronomiae professore Saviliano; qui utrique dissectionibus 
nostris crebro interesse, & circa partium usus rationes conferre solebant. 
Porro prior ille vir doctissimus, cui private observationes meas, & con- 
jecturas, de die in diem proponebam, me animo incertum, & propriae 
sententiae minus fidentem, sufFragiis suis saepe confirmabat. Caeterum 
alter vir insignissimus Doctor Wren, pro singulari qua pollet humani- 
tate plurimas cerebri & calvariae figuras, quo exactiores essent operae, 
eruditissimis suis manibus delineare non fuit gravatus. 

Dr. Willis' Method of dissecting the Brain, (wherein he had the Assist- 
ance of the deservedly famous Sir Christopher Wren, Dr. Millington, 
&c.) is new, and most natural, and so exact, that there is scarce any one 
Part in it, but what has receiv'd considerable Advancements. 
Among divers new Experiments in Anatomy, which he exhibited at the 
Meetings at Oxford, were Schemes of several Fishes dissected, in which 
the Fabrick of the Parts appear'd very often irregular, & differing much 
both from Brutes, and one another. Several Things he observ'd very con- 
siderable in Fowls. Some Parts of Animals he more exactly trac'd by the 
Help of Glasses as the Kidneys, the Plexus in the Brain, &c. The Nerves 
he found to have little Veins and Arteries in them. He then found the 
Lymphaeducts to empty themselves into the Receptacle of Chyle, from 
all Parts both of the Bowels and Limbs, &c. 

" He was the first Author of the noble anatomical Experiment of inject- 
" ing Liquors into the Veins of Animals. An Experiment now vulgarly 
" known; but long since exhibited to the Meetings at Oxford, & thence 
" carried by some Germans, and publish'd abroad; by this Operation, di- 
" vers Creatures were immediately purg'd, vomited, intoxicated, kill'd, 
" or reviv'd according to the Quality of the Liquor injected. Hence arose 
" many new Experiments, and chiefly that of transfusing Blood, which 

" the Society has prosecuted in sundry Instances, that will probably end 

" in extraordinary Success. 

It should seem, by the Date, and a Paragraph in a Letter to a Person of * Probably 

Distinction in Ireland,* he made the first Experiment of Infusion, about Sir William 

the Year 1 656. After the Recital of several new Experiments in Philo- Petty 

sophy, and Anatoniy, he thus proceeds, — "The most considerable Ex- 

" periment I have made of late, is this ; I injected Wine and Ale into the 

" Mass of Blood in a living Dog, by a Vein, in good Quantities, till I 

" made him extremely drunk, but soon after he pissed it out: With two 

" ouncesof Infusion of Crocus Metallorum thus injected, the Dog imme- 

" diately fell to vomiting, and so vomited till he died. It will be too long 

" to tell you the Effects of Opium, Scammony, and other Things which I 

" have try'dthis Way. I am in further Pursuit of the Experiment, which I 

" take to be of great Concernment, and what will give great Light to the 

" Theory and Practice of Physick. 

An Account of the Rise and Attempts of a Way to convey Liquors 
immediately into the Mass of Blood. 

WHereas there have lately appear'd in publick some Books, printed be- Philosophi- 

yond the Seas, treating of the Way of injecting Liquors into Veins: in q^I Trans- 

which Books the Original of that Invention seems to be ascrib'd to oth- actions No. 

ers, besides him, to whom it really belongs; it will surely not be thought y_ p^ j 28. 

amiss if something be said, whereby the true Inventor's Right may be- j 55 c 

yond Exception be asserted and preserv'd; to which End, there will need 

no more, than barely to represent the Time when, and the Place where, 

and among whom it was first started, and put to trial. To join all these 

Circumstances together, 'tis notorious, that at least six Years (a good 

while before it was heard of, that any one did pretend to have so much as 

thought of it) the learned and ingenious Doctor Christopher Wren did 

propose in the University of Oxford, (where he now is the worthy Sa- 

vilian Professor of Astronomy, and where very many curious Persons are 

ready to attest this Relation) to that noble Benefactor to experimental 

Philosophy, Mr. Robert Boyle, Dr. Wilkins, & other deserving Persons, 

that he thought, he could easily contrive a Way, to convey any liquid 

Thing immediately into the Mass oiBlood^videl. by making Ligatures 

on the Veins, & then opening them on the Side of the Ligature towards 

the Heart, and by putting into them slender Syringes, or Quills, fasten'd 

to Bladders (in the Manner of Clyster Pipes) containing the Matter to 

be injected: performing that Operation upon pretty big and lean Dogs, 

that the Vessels might be large enough, and easily accessible. 

This Proposition being made, Mr. Boyle soon gave Order for an Appa- 


ratus, to put it to Experiment; wherein at several Times, upon several 
Dogs, Opium, & the Infusion of Crocus Metallorum were injected into 
that Part of the hind Legs of those Animals, whence the larger Vessels, 
that carry the Blood, are most easy to be taken hold of; whereof the Suc- 
cess was, that the Opium being soon circulated into the Brain, did within 
a short Time stupify, tho' not kill the Dog; but a large Dose of the Cro- 
cus Metallorum, made another Dog vomit up Life and all: all which is 
more amply & circumstantially deliver'd by Mr. Boyle, in his excellent 
Book of the Usefulness of experimental Philosophy, Part 2. Postscript to 
Essay 2. Where 'tis also mention'd that the Fame of this Invention, and 
of the succeeding Trials being spread, and particularly coming to the 
Knowledge of a foreign Ambassador, that was curious, and then resided 
in London, it was by him tried with some Crocus Metallorum, upon a 
Malefactor, that was an inferiour Servant of his; with this Success, that 
the Fellow, as soon as ever the Injection began to be made, did, either 
really, or craftily, fall into a Swoon ; whereby, being unwilling to prose- 
cute so hazardous an Experiment, they desisted, without seeing any other 
Effect of it, save that it was told the Ambassador, that it wrought once 
downwards with him. Since which Time, it hath been frequently prac- 
tised both in Oxford and London ; as well before the Royal Society, as 
elsewhere. And particularly that learned Physician Dr. Timothy Clark, 
hath made it part of his Business, to pursue those Experiments with much 
Industry, great Accurateness, and considerable Observations thereon; 
which above two Years since were produc'd by him, and read before the 
Royal Society, who thereupon desir'd him, as one of their Members, to 
compleat what he had propos'd to himself upon that Subject, and then to 
publish the same ; the Effect whereof 'tis hoped, will now shortly appear, 
and not prove unwelcome to the Curious. 

Some whereof, though they may conceive, that Liquors thus injected 
into Veins without Preparation and Digestion, will make odd Commo- 
tions in the Blood, disturb Nature, and cause strange Symptoms in the 
Body; yet they have other Thoughts of Liquors, that are prepar'dof such 
Things as have pass'd the Digestion of the Stomach; for Example, of the 
Spirit of Urine, of Harts-horn, of Blood, &c. And they hope likewise, 
that besides the medical Uses, that maybe made of this Invention, it may 
also serve for anatomical Purposes, by filling after this Way, the Vessels 
of an Animal as full as they can hold,& by exceedingly distending them, 
discover new Vessels, &c. But not now to enlarge upon the Uses, the 
Reader may securely take this Narrative, as the naked, real. Matter of 
Fact, whereby 'tis as clear, as Noonday, both from the Time, and irre- 
fragable Testimony of very many considerable Persons in that Univer- 
sity, who can jointly attest it; as well as from that particular unquestion- 
able one of Mr. Boyle, and his worthy Company, who were the first eye- 

witnesses of the Trials made, that to Oxford, and in it to Dr. Christopher 
Wren, this Invention is due; and consequently that all others, who dis- 
course or write of it, do either derive it from him, or are fallen upon the 
same Devise several Years after him. 

Mr. Boyle's Account of the above-mention'd Invention, and the 

Experiments thereon. 

TO enable you (Pyrophilus) to gratify those inquisitive Persons- that Essays of 
have heard some, and yet but an imperfect Report of a much nois'd Ex- ^at, exper. 
periment, that was some Years ago devis'd at Oxford, and since try'd in philosophy^ 
other Places, before very illustrious Spectators; I am content to take the Part z. 
Occasion afforded me, by what was in the foregoing Essay lately men- Postscript^ 
tion'd concerning the Application of Poisons, to inform you. That a Oxford, 
pretty while after the Writing of that Essay, I happen'd to have some 1667 
Discourse about Matters of the like Nature, with those excellent Mathe- 
maticians, Dr. J, Wilkins, & Mr. Christopher Wren ; at which the Latter 
of those Virtuosi told us, that he thought, he could easily contrive a Way 
to convey any liquid Poison immediatelyintotheMassof Blood. Where- 
upon our Knowledge of his extraordinary Sagacity, making us very de- 
sirous to try what he propos'd, I provided a large Dog, on which he made 
his Experiments in the Presence & with the Assistance of some eminent 
Physicians, & other learned Men : his Way (which is much better learn'd 
by Sight than Relation) was briefly this: First, to make a small and op- 
portune Incision over that Part of the hind Leg, where the larger Vessels 
that carry the Blood, are most easy to be taken hold of: then to make a 
Ligature upon those Vessels, and to apply a certain small Plate of Brass 
(of above half an Inch long, and about a quarter of an inch broad, whose 
Sides were bending inwards) almost of the Shape & Bigness of the Nail of 
a Man's Thumb, but somewhat longer. This Plate had four little Holes 
in the Sides, near the Corners, that by Threads pass'd through them, it 
might be well fasten'd to the Vessel ; and in the same little Plate, there 
was also left an Aperture, or somewhat large Slit, parallel to the Sides of 
it, and almost as long as the Plate, that the Vein might be there exposed 
to the Lancet, and kept from starting aside. This Plate being well fast- 
ened on, he made a Slit along the Vein, from the Ligature towards the 
Heartjgreat enough to put in at it the slender Pipe of a Syringe; by which 
I had proposed to have injected a warm Solution of Opium in Sack, that 
the Effect of our Experiment might be the more quick & manifest. And 
accordingly our dexterous Experimenter having surmounted the Diffi- 
culties, which the tortured Dog's violent Strugglings interposed, con- 
veyed a small Dose of the Solution or Tincture into the opened Vessel, 
whereby getting into the Mass of Blood, (some Quantity of which 'tis 


difficult to avoid shedding in the Operation) it was quickly, by the cir- 
cular Motion of that, carried to the Brain, and other Parts of the Body: 
So that we had scarce untied the Dog, (whose four Feet it had been re- 
quisite to fasten very strongly to the four Corners of the Table) before 
the Opium began to disclose its Narcotick Quality, and almost as soon as 
he was on his Feet, he began to nod with his Head, and faulter and reel in 
his Pace, & presently after appeared so stupified, that there were Wagers 
offered his Life could not be saved. But I, thatwas willing to reserve him 
for further Observation, caused him to be whipped up and down a neigh- 
bouring Garden, whereby being kept awake, and in Motion, after some 
Time he began to come to himself again ; and being led home, and care- 
fully tended, he not only recovered, but began to grow fat so manifestly, 
that 'twas admired: But I could not long observe how it fared with him: 
For this Experiment & some other Trials made upon him, having made 
him famous, he was soon after stolen away from me. Succeeding attempts 
informed us, that the Plate was not necessary, if the Fingers were skil- 
fully employed to support the Vessel to be opened, & that a slender Quill 
fastened to a Bladder containing the Matter to be injected, was somewhat 
more convenient than a Syringe; as also that this notwithstanding, unless 
the Dog were pretty big and lean, that the Vessels might be large enough, 
and easily accessible, the Experiment would not well succeed. 
The Inventor of it afterwards practised it in the Presence of that most 
learned Nobleman, the Marquis of Dorchester, & found that a moderate 
Dose of the Infusion of Crocus Metallorum did not much move the Dog 
to whom it was given; but once, that he injected a large Dose, (about two 
Ounces or more) it wrought so soon and so violently upon a fresh one, 
that within a few Hours after he vomited up Life and all, upon the Straw 
whereon they had laid him. I afterwards wished, that not only some ve- 
hemently working Drugs, but their appropriated Antidotes, (or else pow- 
erful liquid Cordials) and also some Altering Medicines might be in a 
plentiful Dose injected. And in Diureticks, a very ingenious Anatomist & 
Physician told me, he try'd it with very good Success. I likewise proposed, 
that if it could be done, without either too much Danger or Cruelty ,Trial 
might be made on some human Bodies, especially those of Malefactors. 
And some Months after, a foreign Ambassador, a very curious Person, at 
that Time residing in London, did me the Honour to visit me, and in- 
formed me, that he had caused Trial to be made, with Infusion of Crocus 
Metallorum, upon an inferior Domestick of his that deserved to have been 
hanged; but that the Fellow, as soon as ever the Injection began to be 
made, did, (either really or craftily) fall into a Swoon: whereby, being 
unwilling to prosecute so hazardous an Experiment, they desisted, with- 
out seeing any other Effect of it, save that it was told the Ambassador, 
that it wrought once downward with him, which yet might be occa- 

sion'd, perhaps, by Fear or Anguish. But the Trials of a very dexterous 
Physician of my Acquaintance, in human Bodies, will, perhaps, when! 
shall have receiv'd a more circumstantial Account of them, be not un- 
welcome to you. And in Dogs, you may possibly from our own Observa- 
tions, receive a further Account of an Experiment, of which, I now 
chiefly designed but to relate to you the Rise and first Attempts. 
The French Journals in the Year 1 667, affirmed with Confidence, as a Phtlosoph- 
Certainty, that the French gave the English the first Thought or Notion ical Trans- 
of this Experiment: And why? because (say they) we are Witnesses, thaj; actions, 
a Benedictine Friar, one Robert de Gabets, discoursed of it at Mons. de Numb. 28. 
Montmor's, ten Years ago. Surely all ingenuous Men will acknowledge, 1 667 
that the certain Way of deciding such Controversies as these, is a publick 
Record, either written or printed, declaring the Time & Place of an In- 
vention first proposed, the Contrivance of the Method to practise it, and 
the Instances of the Success in the Execution : All this appears in the Field 
for England. 

Number 7, of the 'Transactions of the Royal Society,' (printed Anno 
1665, in December) acquaints the World, how many Years since Dr. 
Christopher Wren proposed the Experiment of Infusion into Veins: And 
this was Hint enough for the Royal Society, some while after, to advance 
Infusion to Transfusion; for the Trial of which latter, they gave Order 
at their publick Meeting of May 17, 1 665, as may be seen in their Jour- 
nals, where it was registered by the Care of their Secretaries, obliged by 
Oath to Fidelity: The Trials proving then lame, for want of a fit Appara- 
tus, & a well contrived Method of Operation, the learned Physician and 
expert Anatomist Dr. Lower, since found out such a Method, which is 
not only registered in the same Book,but also published in Print, Numb. 
20, of the Transactions, before which Time it had been already practised 
by the said Doctor in Oxford, who was followed by several ingenious 
Men at London, who successfully practised it, by the publick Order of 
the Royal Society. 

It seems strange, that so surprizing an Invention should have been con- 
ceived in France, as they will have it, ten Years ago, & lain there so long 
in the Womb, 'till the Way of midwiving it into the World was sent Philosoph- 
thither from London: To say nothing of the Disagreement, there seems ^i^^^ Trans- 
to be about the French Parent of this Foetus: Mons. de Gurye in his actions. 
Letter fathering it upon the Abbot Bourdelot, but the Author of the Numb. 35, 
French Journals upon a Benedictine Friar. 1 668 

fi 6s 

Extract of part of a Letter written to Mr. Oldenburg, Secretary to the 
Royal Society, by the learned and experienced Dr. Timothy Clark, 
one of his Majesty's Physicians in Ordinary, concerning the Origin 
of the Injection into Veins, and the Transfusion of Blood. 

CiEterum, cum tu ita velis, doctissime vir, & quod ita fieri opporteat 
credas, fideliter originem transfusionis sanguinis, ut ea apud nos saltern 
se habet, enarrabo. Misso testimonio illo, quod a viro fide digno, & Re- 
galis Societatis consorte, penes te etiamnum reperitur, viz. rever. domi- 
num Potter, theologum insignem, triginta abhinc annis, considerata cir- 
culatione Harveana, socio huic nostro, & aliis viris doctis, saepius san- 
guinis transfusionemproposuisse; ego equidem, quae mihi ipsi hac dere 
certo cognita sunt, solum referam. Circa finem Anni 1656, aut circiter, 
mathematicus ille insignissimus, D.D. Christop. Wren primus infusi- 
onem variorum liquorum in massam sanguineam viventium animalium 
excogitavit, & Oxonii peregit. Idem mihi tunc temporis, sanguinis na- 
turam pro virili indaganti, quae ipse fecerat, etiam communicavit; ex 
quo tempore diligenter ad diversahujusmodi experimenta facienda me 
accingebam : & inter alia, quae tunc temporis agenda decrevi, aquas, 
cerevisias cujusvis generis, lac, serum lactis,juscula, vina,sp. vini,& ani- 
malium diversorum sanguinem, injicienda mecum statui. Et praeter fis- 
tulas alias, ad varias operationes adaptatas, quasdam talem in modum, 
factas habui, ut uno extreme in arteriam unius animalis immisso, altero 
in venam alterius, sanguis ab uno animali in alterum facilius transfundi 
posset : & ut docto cuivis, quod debitum est, reddam. Dr. Henshaw, etiam 
e societate regia, vel ante hoc, vel circa idem tempus (uti & egomet) in- 
cassum tamen, eadem methodo, sanguinis transfusionem tentavit. Hinc 
fuit, quod cum in Regali Societate, inter alia experimenta (quod ex arch- 
ivis illius satis liquet) sanguinis transfusio proponeretur, alii viri docti 
mecum opinabantur, ex operatione tali nil fortasse sperandum; atque ip- 
semet difficultates recitavi, quae mihi banc operationem peragenti con- 
tigerant. Dehinc res denuotentata, nobiscum non successit, donee doctis- 
simus & exercitatissimus D. Dr. Lower, Oxonii, anno 1 666. rem feliciter 
conficeret. Quo facto, tutemet sub ejusdem anni finem, totam rem cum 
operationis methodo, publicam fecisti. Anno sequenti, ex Gallia etiam de 
hac operatione audivimus. Fateor, me totum gaudio perfusum fuisse, 
quum certus redderer,fiduciamGallicam illud aggressam esse,quod timor 
vel ignavia fortasse nostra, vix tentare quidem ausa fuerat. Scis. doctis- 
sime vir, quanto cum applausu clariss. Denisio assurexi, qui non solum 
ingeniosissime talem experimentorum defensionem suscepit,sedinhom- 
inibus etiam postea celebravit. 

At tanti mihi non videtur, eruditum ilium Galium tam strenue & animose 
de prima transfusionis sanguinis origine contendere ; vel me etiam primam 

ejus inventionem nobis ipsis vendicare. Tutemet, ni fallor, D. Olden- 
burge,hunc Galium in errorem duxisti. In philosophicis enimtuistrans- 
actionibus, mense Decembri, anno 1665. editis,ubi de origine infusionis 
variorum liquorum in venas, rationem reddidisti ; inquis sex ab illo tem- 
pore retro annis ad minimum, D. D. Christophorum Wren, infusionem 
illam primum omnium tentasse. 

Nemo fortasse dubitabit, quin, si quis de hoc experimento promovendo 
seri6 cogitaret, & de variis cum sanguine miscendis attente meditaretur, 
mixtio sanguinis diversorum animalium facillime tali meditationi sitoc- 
cursura. Cum igiterinfusio, secundum calculumtuum, circa annum 1659 
inventa fuerit, & propositio ilia de sanguinis transfusione in aedibus D. 
Montmori facta dicatur anno 1658, vel a clarissimo abbate Bourdelot, 
vel a docto Benedictine, Roberto de Gabets (de primo enim propositore 
necdum convenit) facile quivis in illam duci potuit sententiam, quod 
Galliae experimenti hujus mentio prima saltem debeatur. Sed illaopera- 
tio, cujus in dictis illis transactionibus mentionem fecisti, infusio scil. 
vini emetici in massam sanguineam, per venam brachii servi cujusdam, 
in aedibus peregrini, Londini tunc temporis commorantis, 
peracta, facta fuit anno 1 657, in aedibus Gallici oratoris D. de Bourdeaux, 
adstante D. CoUadon, equite aurato, & hodie reginae matri medico or- 
dinario Quodque multa talia experimenta eodem anno a nobis repetita 
fuerint, mecum multi viri docti testari possunt, quorum aliqua in aedibus 
illustr. Marchionis Dorcestriae peracta etiam fuerunt. 
Notatu etiam dignum est, quad tota ilia methodus facilis D. Loweri, 
transfusionis peragendae, mense Decembri anno 1 666. a te edita fuit, & 
non nisi mense Martii anni sequentis de tali opei^atione e Gallia audivi- 
mus. Verisimile erg6, ni fallor, videtur, palman hujus Inventionis (si 
modo palmam mereatur) Anglis quam Gallis potuis deberi. 
Caetera, libenter scirem, quibus rationibus ductus, Romanus ille doctis- 
simus Manfredi judicarit, hanc inventionem Germania prim6 conceptam 
fuisse. Nobis enim adhuc nihil omninb occurrit, quod vel in minimam 
ejusmodi suspicionem ducere potuerit. Tribus vel quatuor abhinc annis, 
Major quidam, medicus Hambergensis,schedis quibusdam publice emis- 
sis persuadere orbi literato nisus est, se ante biennium de tali re cogitasse. 
Sed proculdubio male hac de re edoctus fuit vir eruditus, & nimis festi- 
nanter suas propalavit cogitationes. Dicit enim, se audivisse, talem oper- 
ationem, viz. exhibitionem medicamenti cathartice per infusionem in 
venam coram principe quodam Palatino in Germania peractam fuisse; 
cumrevera hoc a me in aula nostra regia coram celsissimo principe Pala- 
tino, Ruperto, praestitum fuerit, unde postea facile Germanis potuit 
communicari. Rem fideliter, temporum secutus ordinem,enarravi. — Et 
hoc audacter assero, nos in Anglia inventionem hanc a nullo accepisse 

^2 67 

Philosophi- An Italian Philosopher, in a certain Tract, entitl'd 'Relatione dell' expe- 
rt/ Trans- rientie fatte in Inghelterra, Francia, & Italia intorno la transfusione del 
actions, sangue,' printed in Rome, undertook to prove, that the Transfusion was 

Numb, 37 of greater Antiquity, as having been known to Libavius above fifty Years 
1668 since. For which, that Roman Author-alledg'd a Place out of the said 

Libavius, (in defensione syntagmatis arcanorum chymicorum, &c. anno 
1 6 1 5.) where the Transfusion is describ'd in these Words: Adsit juvenis 
robustus, sanus, sanguine spirituoso plenus; adstet exhaustus viribus, 
tenuis, macilentus, vix animam trahens. Magister artis habeat tabulos 
argenteos inter se congruentes, aperiat arteriam robusti, & tubulum in- 
serat, muniatque; mox & aegroti arteriam findat,& tubulum faemineum 
infigat. Jam duos tubulos sibi mutuo applicet, & ex sano sanguis arteri- 
alis,calens,&spirituosus saliet in aegrotum, unaque vitae fontem afFeret, 
omnemque languorem pellet. The Observator here rightly takes Notice, 
that Libavius did not propose this Operation, but only to mock at it, and 
that he contriv'd it with great Danger, both to the Recipient and Emit- 
tent, by proposing to open Arteries in both : But, 
Philosophi- Dr King practis'd an easy and safe Way of transfusing Blood out of one 
cal Trans- Animal into another by the Veins only, without opening any Artery of 
actions, either : the Success whereof in two Experiments he communicated to the 

Numb. 25 Royal-Society. To enumerate briefly some of the first Trials perform'd 
1 667 in England, and in foreign Parts, in pursuance of, and after the Publica- 

tion of Dr. Wren's noble Invention of Infusion, & in consequence Trans- 
Phiiosophi- fusien ; 'tis recorded, that in November, 1 667, the Experiments of Trans- 
cal Trans- fusion of nine or ten Ounces of the arterial Blood of a young Sheep into 
actions, a human Vein of the Arm, was successfully perform'd at Arundel-House, 

Numb. 30 by the Doctors Lower and King, in the Presence of many considerable 
Persons; and the Relation communicated to the Royal Society. 
Mons. Denys, Professor of the Mathematicks and natural Philosophy at 
Paris, related in a Letter to the Publisher of the Transactions, that they 
had transmitted the Blood of four Weathers into a Horse of twenty-six 
Years old, and that this Horse had thence receiv'd much Strength, and 
more than ordinary Stomach. 

By the same Mons. Denys's Relation, in his printed Letter to Monsieur 
de Montmor; a young Man, after he had receiv'd the arterial Blood of a 
Lamb, was cured of an extraordinary Lethargy, consequent to a violent 
Fever, wherein he had been let Blood twenty Times. Among other suc- 
cessful Transfusions by the said Author, are those of Lambs Blood into 
Dogs, which after the Space of several Months from the Time of the 
Operation, did not only live, but were very well, and some of them grew 
fatter than they were before; and of Kids Blood into a little Spaniel Bitch 
of twelve Years of Age, which, a little while after the Operation grew 
vigorous and active, and even proud, in less than eight Days. To these he 

added a considerable Experiment, made upon a Person, who had been 
for three Weeks afflicted with the complicated Distempers of an hepatick 
Flux, a Lientery, and a bilious Diarrhaea, accompany'd with a very vio- 
lent Fever, &c. 

Some remarkable Experiments of injecting medicated Liquors into Ibid. p. 564 
Veins, were communicated in a Letter from Dantzick, by Dr. Fa- 
bricius. Physician to that City. 

FOrasmuch (said he) as we had a great Desire to experiment, what would 
be the Effects of the Chirurgery of injecting Liquors into human Veins, 
three fit Subjects presenting themselves in our Hospital, we thought 
good to make the Trial upon them. But seeing little Ground to hope for 
a manifest Operation from any altering Medecirtes, we esteem'd the Ex- 
periment would be more convenient, and conspicuous from Laxatives; 
which made us inject by a Syphon about two Drachms of such a kind of 
PhysickintotheMedian Veinof the right Arm, The Patients were these, 
one was a lusty robust Soldier dangerously infected with the Venereal 
Disease, and suffering grievous Protuberatings of the Bones in his Arms: 
He, when the purgative Liquor was infus'd into him, complain'd of great 
Pains in his Elbows, and the little Valves of his Arm did swell so visibly, 
that it was necessary by a gentle Compression of ones Fingers to stroke 
up that Swelling towards the Patient's Shoulders. Some four Hours after, 
it began to work, not very troublesomely, and so it did the next Day; in- 
somuch that the Man had five good Stools after it: Without any other 
Remedies those Protuberances were gone, nor are there any Footsteps 
left of the abovemention'dDisease.ThetwootherTrialswere madeupon 
the other Sex. A married Woman of thirty-five, and a serving Maid of 
twenty Years of Age, had been both of them from their Birth, very grie- 
vously afflicted with epileptick Fits, so that there were little Hopes left 
to cure them. They both underwent this Operation, and there was in- 
jected into their Veins a laxative Rosin, dissolv'd in an anti-epileptical 
Spirit. The first of these had gentle Stools, some Hours after the Injec- 
tion, & the next Day, the Fits recurring now and then, but much milder, 
are since altogether vanish'd. As for the other, viz. the Maid, she went 
the same Day to Stool four Times, and several Times the next: but by 
going into the Air, and taking Cold, and not observing any Diet, cast her- 
self away. 

Mons. Gayant at Paris shew'd the Effects of Transfusion of Blood, by 
putting that of a young Dog into the Veins of an old one, who, two Hours 
after, did leap and frisk; whereas he was almost blind with Age, & could 
hardly stir before. — A Spaniel thirteen Years old, was recover'd of Deaf- 
ness, by transfusing into his Veins the Blood of a Lamb. 

f3 69 

Numb. 26 

Numb. 42 
from the 
Giornale de 

Philos. Dr. J. Denys above-mention'd, (in a Letter printed at Paris, and sent to 

Trans. the Publisher of the Transactions of the Royal Society by himself,) gave 

Numb. 32 an Account with all the strange Circumstances of a Man cured of an in- 
1 667-8 veterate and outragious Madness or Phrensy, by the Transfusion of the 

Blood of a Calf, five or six Ounces from the crural Artery, in lieu of about 
ten Ounces drawn from the Patient, out of a Vein of the right Arm. 
Philos. After this, in the Year 1 669, Dr. Denys was question'd before the Lieu- 

Trans. tenant Criminal, at Paris, for the Death of his Patient (a Man that had 

Numb. 54 been stark mad for several Years) who had expired under his Hands, 
1 669 while he was transfusing Blood into him, according to the new Experi- 

ment. The Operation had been twice perform'd with good Success; the 
Patient having had thereupon a good Interval of two Months after the 
first, and all Hopes of a longer, after the second; had it not been for the 
Debauches of Wine and Brandy, that he fell to, soon after the Operation. 
He was a Britain by Birth, and the Original of his Madness, Love. That 
which Dr. Denys's Advocate, (who was the Son of Monsieur the pre- 
mier President de Lamoignon) very much gloried in, was, that (besides 
that the Experiment had been practised with good, at least with no ill 
Success, in England, Germany, Italy, Holland, &c. and defended in The- 
ses, in almost all the Universities of France) there were two Persons, a 
Man and Woman present in the Audience, that receiv'd a Benefit to Ad- 
miration from the Experiment, after they had been abandoned by all 
Physicians, and other Helps. 

Philos. With the Accounts of Transfusion of Blood, one other memorable In- 

Trans. stance, among many, may be further cited of the Success of some Experi- 

Numb. 39 ments of infusing Medicines into human Veins: written from Dantzick, 
to the Honourable R. Boyle. 

Mons. Smith, Physician in ordinary to this City, having Liberty granted 
him to try an Experiment upon some Persons desperately infected with 
the Pox, then in the publick Hospital here ; adventur'd the opening a 
Vein, & infusing some Medicines into the Blood; which was try'd upon 
two Persons, whereof the one recover'd, and the other died. Yet being 
since further encourag'd by corresponding with some of the Royal So- 
ciety in England, about a Month since, the said Physician, together with 
Mons. SchefFeler, another eminent Practitioner in this City, repeated 
the Experiment, by infusing altering Medicines into the Veins of the 
right Arms of three Persons; the one lame of the Gout; the other ex- 
tremely Apoplectical; and the third, reduc'd to Extremity by that odd 
Distemper, the Plica Polonica. The Success of this, as Mons. Hevelius 
(who was the Person only admitted to be present at the Operation) in- 
forms me, was that the gouty Man found himself pretty well next Day, 

and shortly after went to work, it being Harvest-time, and has continu'd 
well ever since, leaving the Hospital yesterday, and professing himself 
cured. The Apoplectical hath not had one Paroxysm: & the several Sores 
which the Plica Polonica had occasion'd, are heal'd; and both these Per- 
sons have been able to work any Time these three Weeks. Dated August 
i8. 1668. 

Was it not too ludicrous for the Subject, one might be apt to imagine, 
that the ancient Mythologists had some Notion of the Doctrine of Trans- 
fusion, and Infusion, and the wonderful sanative, and restorative Effects 
thereof; but not comprehending it could be possible to assign them to 
natural Causes; had recourse to the Powers of Enchantments, & magical 
Arts. — ^Thus Medea restor'd, (as 'tis said) iEson, when decrepid with 
Age, to his former Vigour of Life, by exhausting the old Blood, and in- 
fusing medicinal Juices, and new vital Blood into the empty'd Veins and 
Arteries. — ^The like Experiment she try'd on an old Ram, which became 
a sucking Lamb. — These Particulars, well adapted to Fable, are describ'd 
by the Roman Poet, with his usual Elegancy, & with this Conclusion — 

" stricto Medea recludit 
Ense senisjugulum; veteremque exire cruoreum 
Passa; replet succis: quos postquam combibit ^son 
Aut ore acceptos, aut vulnere; barba, comaeque 
Canitie posita nigrum rapuere colorem: 
Pulsa fugit macies; abeunt pallorque, situsque; 
Adjectoque cavae supplentur sanguine venae; 
Membraque luxuriant, ^son miratur, & olim 
Ante quater denos hunc se reminiscitur annos. 

[Ovi^. Metam. L. FIT. Fab. II.] 





" When this Medea Spy'd, 
" She cuts her Patient's Throat; Th'exhausted Blood 
" Recruiting with her new enchanted Flood; 
" While at his Mouth, and thro' his op'ning Wound, 
" A double Inlet her Infusion found; 
" His feeble Frame resumes a youthful Air, 
" A glossy Brown his hoary Beard aiid Hair. 
" The meagre Paleness from his Aspect fled, 
" And in its Room sprang up a florid Red ; 
" Thro' all his Limbs a youthful Vigour flies, ^ 

" His empty'd Art'ries swell with, fresh Supplies, I 


Gazing Spectators scarce believe their Eyes. 

Ovid. Met. 
by several 
Lond. 1 7 17 


" But JEson is the most surpriz'd, to find 
« A happy Change in Body, and in Mind; 
" In Sense and Constitution the same Man, 
" As when his Fortieth active Year began. 

Fa^. IF. Aries in agnum restitutus. 

" Protinus innumeris efFaetus laniger annis 
" Attrahitur, flexo circum cava tempora cornu: 
" Cujus ut haemonio marcentia guttura cultro 
" Fodit, & exiguo maculavit sanguine ferrum; 
" Membra simul pecudis, validosque Venesica succos 
" Mergit in aere cavo minuuntur corporis artus: 
" Cornuaque exuitur, nee non cum cornibus annos: 
" Et tener auditur medio balatus aeno. 
" Nee mora; balatum mirantibus exsilit agnus: 
" Lascivitque fuga; lactantiaque ubera quaerit. 

" A Wreath'd-horn'd Ram is brought, so far o'er-grown 

" With Years, his Age was to that Age unknown. 

" Of Sense too dull the piercing Point to feel, 

" And scarce sufficient Blood to stain the Steel. 

" His Carcase She into a Cauldron threw, 

" With Drugs whose vital Qualities She knew; 

" His Limbs grow less, he casts his Horns and Years, 

" And tender Bleatings strike their wondring Ears. 

" Then instantly leaps forth a frisking Lamb, 

" That seeks (too young to graze) a suckling Dam. 

Dr. Wren's Operation of cutting out the Spleen of a Dog with Safety, 

and Method of Cure. 

MR. Boyle in his Essays of experimental natural Philosophy, mentions 

the following Experiment of cutting out the Spleen of a Dog with Safety. 

The same Experiment was try'd by Dr. Wren, who has describ'd the 

whole Operation, and given the Method of Cure, which being deficient 

in Mr. Boyle's Relation, is here subjoin'd thereunto. 

Part 2 ; Nor is it small Convenience to the Anatomist, that he may in the Bodies 

Essay I . of Brutes make divers instructive Experiments, that he dares not venture 

Page I o. on, in those of Men ; as for Instance, that late noble, and by many not yet 

Oxford credited Experiment, of taking out the Spleen of a Dog without killing 

1 663 him: For, that this Experiment may be useful, we may elsewhere have 

Occasion to shew; and that it is possible to be safely made, (tho' many, I 

confess, have but unprosperously attempted it, and it hath been lately 


pronounced impossible in Print) ourselves can witness. And. because I 
have not yet met with any Author, that professes himself not to relate 
this Experiment (of the Exemption of a Dog's Spleen) upon the Credit 
of others, but as an Eye-witness; I am content to assure you, that that 
dexterous Dissector, Dr. Jolive, did the last Year, at my Request, take 
out the Spleen of a young Setting-dog I brought him; and that it might 
not be pretended, the Experiment was unfaithfully, or favourably made; 
I did Part of it myself, & held the Spleen (which was the largest in Pro- 
portion to his Body I ever saw) in my Hand, whilst he cut asunder the 
Vessels reaching to it, that I might be sure there was not the least Part 
of the Spleen left unextirpated; and yet this Puppy, in less than a Fort- 
night, grew not only well, but as sportive and as wanton as before, which 
I need not take Pains to make you believe, since you often saw him at 
your Mother's House, whence at length he was stol'n. And tho' I re- 
member the famous Emperick Fiorovanti, in one of his Italian Books, 
mentions his having been prevail'd with by the Importunity of a Lady 
(whom he calls MaruUa Graeca) much afflicted with splenetick Dis- 
tempers, to rid her of her Spleen; and adds. That she outlived the Loss of 
it many Years: Yet he that considers the Situation of that Part, and the 
Considerableness of the Vessels belonging to it, in human Bodies will 
probably be apt to think, that tho' his Relation may be credited, his Ven- 
turousness ought not to be imitated. 

The Operation and Method of Cure, by Dr. Wren. 

PRovide a Dog, as big as a Spaniel, and having tied him in a fit Posture 
on the right Side, with a Cushion under him, that his Belly may turn a 
little up; first clip away the Hair, and mark with Ink the Place for Sec- 
tion, drawing a Line two Fingers breadth below the Short-ribs; cross the 
Abdomen at right Angles to the Musculus rectus, beginning short of it 
a Finger's breadth, & so carry it up the Length of three Finger's breadth 
towards the Back ; then thrust in a sharp Knife, like a So w-gelder's Knife, 
till you feel you have just pierced thro' the Muscles and Peritonaeum, 
having a Care of the Guts; thence rip up freely, carrying on the Point of 
the Knife to the End of the Line; then put in two Fingers, and while an- 
other presses down the Abdomen, draw out the Spleen just without the 
Wound, having a great Care of pulling it too far out, because of disorder- 
ing the adhering Vessels within, the Stomach, the Caul, the Arteries, & 
Veins; then either tie the Veins and Arteries with untwin'd Thread, but 
strong, and in three or four Places, Caul and all, and so cut them off close 
to the Parenchyma of the Spleen, and anointing the Ends of the Vessels 
and Wound of the Caul with Balsam, or Oil of Hypericon, put them in 
their Places, or else sear off the Vessels, and anoint them with the Juice 


of Sengreen and Plantain beaten with Whites of Eggs; of else, cum Un- 
guento Diacalcitheos dissolv'd with Vinegar and Oil of Roses, especially 
^ the Nerve; then sew up the Wound with the Suture call'd Gastroraphia, 
leaving at the lower End room enough for Matter to come out, first an- 
ointing the Wound with Balsam, then R Olei Mirtini & Rosarum^ I it. 
Cera alb. | /. Farina hord. §fl. Boli Armeni. & Terra Sigillata, ana I vi. 
make a large Plaister of this to cover the Wound, and all the Muscles 
about; swath his Belly warm, and lay him upon his left Side in Straw; 
after six Hours let him Blood in the left hinder Leg, two or three Ounces, 
more or less, according to the Bigness of the Dog: The next Day if there 
* This was seem to lye any clotted Blood in the Abdomen ; out of a Glister-pipe (one 
a composition holding the Dog in his Arm, or hanging over the Table, so that the 
of his own Wound maybe downward) inject half a Pint of Decoction of Barley with 
Invention Honey of Roses & red Sugar, till you have wash'd out the clotted Blood, 
of excellent then tent the remaining Hole with the * yellow Salve, and wrap him up 
Use in the former Plaister as before till the Wound begins to suppurate. 

He compos'd a Treatise of the Motion of the Muscles, explaining the 
whole Anatomy by Models form'd in Pasteboards. These were presented 
to that eminent Physician, and his excellent Friend, Sir Charles Scar- 
borough: but lost at the Fire of London: there is extant only the first 
Draught of a Letter from Oxford to Sir Charles concerning the Bone of 
the Arm, wherein is a Hint of the Pasteboards. 
Sprat's Hist. " This is a short Account of the principal Discoveries which Dr. Wren 
of the Royal " presented or suggested to the Royal Society, I know very well that some 
Society^ " of them he did only start and design, and that they have been since car- 

p. "^ly " ried on to Perfection by the Industry of other Hands; I purpose not to 

" rob themof their Share in the Honour; yet it is but reasonable, that the 
" original Invention should be ascrib'd to the true Author, rather than 
" th» Finishers. Nor do I fear, that this will be thought too much which 
" I have said concerning him; for, there is a peculiar Reverence due to so 
" much Excellence, cover'd with so much Modesty; & it is not Flattery 
" but Honesty, to give him his just Praise, who is so far from usurping 
" the Fame of other Men, that he endeavours with all Care to conce3 
" his own. 
■fMr. Ad- It was well observ'd by a fine-f- Genius of our Country, "That when, 
dison " without any Incentive of Vanity, a Person of great Abilities is zealous 

" for the Good of Mankind; and as solicitous for the Concealment, as the 
" Performance of illustrious Actions; we may be sure that he has some- 
" thing more than ordinary in his Composition, & has a Heart fill'd with 
" Goodness and Magnanimity. 
Characters " The very elegant Historian (Dr. Sprat) gives a faithful Account of the 
of Writers " Beginning, Growth, and Settlement of that illustrious Company, the 

" Royal-Society, together with some of its real Inventions and Experi- 'John 
" ments, by Dr, Wren and others; and concludes with a compleat, and Pointer^ 
"noble Apology for so brave an Institution : the whole being enlighten'd hond. 
" with such Eloquence, as is above all Description. 1718 

" But if we enquire who it was that mov'd the first Springs of this famous 
" Enterprize, we shall find both Historian (viz. Sprat) & Poet (Cowley) 
" referring that Honour to the Lord Bacon, whose admirable Works, 
" that especially, which is worthily entituled ' Of the Advancement of 
" Learning,' establish'd the first Marriage Articles between the rational 
" and experimental Philosophy, from which Alliance, has sprung all the 
" fair Offspring of modern Discoveries. — If the Origin and Variety of 
" Forms, has been so well traced, and pursu'd through all its intricate 
" Mazes, by the excellent Mr. Boyle, and other Experimenters, as Na- 
" turalists, and by Mr. Lock as a Metaphysician, we see who it was that 
. " gave them the Clue. And if Astronomy, grafted upon the Principles of 
" Nature, and cultivated by the Mathematicks, has grown up into a Sci- 
" ence, and become infallible; 'tis no less certain (with all due Respect to 
" the Memory of the great Men of other Nations) that the Glory of Phil- 
" osophy among the Moderns began with the Lord Bacon, continu'd im- 
" proving principally by the above-mention 'd Mr. Boyle ; Drs. Seth 
" Ward, Wilkins, Williams, Wren, Wallis, Mr. Rook; Hook; and Dr. 
" Halley; and ends in Sir Isaac Newton. 

The great Virtuoso John Evelyn, Esq.; in his excellent 'Discourse of 
Medals,' collecting the Names of the most renowned, famous, and illus- 
trious Persons, in all Professions of our own, and other Nations, worthy 
the Honour of Medals,* terminates his Catalogue of Mathematicians, 

with this Animadversion 

" To whom add those Viri nOATMAOEITATOl, (highly meriting, and in- 
" feriors to none we have celebrated) Sir Christopher Wren, Dr. Wallis, 
" Newton, Flamstead, Hook, Halley, &c. Fellows of the Royal Society, 
" whom none but the ArEQMETPHTOl & Ignorant, such as have nothing 
" to commend them, will envy the Honour of a Medal, even whilst they 
" are living, and their Works speak for them. 





Ann. Mt. 1 6 S — W^^^^'^^H^ pOROLOGIORUM Sciotericorum in piano, 

geometrice solum, sine calculo trigonometrico, 
delineandorum, modus facillimus: per quem 
meridiana substylaris & stylus ipse non inves- 
tigantur modo, sed etiam in cujusvis generis 
piano, situ proprio inscri^Duntur, omniaque 
perspicue demonstrantur. Ex Anglico idiom- 
ate Gulielmi Oughtred, Clavis mathema- 


Ann. /Et. 1 5 Sciotericon catholicum. The Art of Dialling, perform'd on all Planes, & 
in all Latitudes, with much Facility, by a peculiar Instrument. Serving 
also for many other Uses in the organical Part of Mathematicks. 


Ann. Mt. 1 6 Trigonometriae sphericae institutio Neperiana ad praxin accommodata. 


Ann. Mt. 1 7 Epistolae miscellaneae, de propositionibus in opticis, staticis & mechan- 

Praelectiones Greshamenses in astronomiam Kepleri. 


Praelectiones astronomicae. Oxoniae 1662. 

Lecturae de problematibus sphericis. 


De natura & motibus cometarum. 

Of the Comet in the Year 1 664. N, B. Hypothesis and Theory of Com- 
ets; produc'd to the Royal Society. 1665. 


Phases Saturni accurate delineatae & illustratae ab Anno 1 649. ad An- 
num 1656. 

Discourse of the Appearance of Saturn. 


Tabulae epactarumLunaeSaturninaeconjunctionibus ejus cum h infimis 
inveniendis inservientes. 


Description of an Instrument for the observing Distances of fix'd Stars, 
& the Planets, and Appulses to the Moon; by two Telescopes join'd like 
a Sector, so as to give the true Angle of their Distances. 


A Method to make Telescopes with little Trouble and Expence, of great 
Length, to be use.d for any Altitude. A Corollary relating to Telescopes. 

Of the Longitude. 


To observe the Variations of the magnetical Needle. 

De re nautica veterum. 


To find the Velocity of a Ship in sailing. 

Of the Improvement of Gallie^. 



Of an Instrument perpetually noting the Soundings in Shallows. 


To recover Wrecks. 

A convenient Way of useing Artillery on Ship-board. 


To build in deep Water. 

To build a Mole into the Sea, without Puzzolan Dust, or Cisterns. 


Of the Improvement of River-navigation, by the joining of the Rivers. 


Diatribe algebraica, qua annus periodi Julianae e datis cyclis indagari & 
erui docetur. — [Edita in 5ta editione Helvici chronologiae, post prole- 
gomena.] Oxoniae 1651. 


Ratiocinia anni Judaici. 

De paschate. 

Lecturae anglicae & latinae, de luce & refractione. 


Philosophi- Theory concerning the general Laws of Motion ; imparted to the Viayal- 
cai Trans- Society, December 17, 1668. Tho' entertain'd by the Author divers 
actions. Years before, and verify'd by many Experiments made by himself, & that 

Numb. 43 other excellent Mathematician, Mr. Rook, before the said Society, as 
was attested by many worthy Members of that illustrious Body. 

Lex naturae de collisione corporum. 

N.B. All learned Men concerned in some historical Passages relating to 
this Treatise, and to those communicated to the Royal Society by Dr. 

John Wallis, and Mr. Christian Hugens, on the same Subject ; it was 
thought most proper to publish them in the Language of the Learned, 


Cum novissimis mensibus nonnuUi e Societate Regia in publico ejusdem Per Henri- 
consessu enixius urgerent, ut gravissimum illud de Regulis Motus argu- cum. Olden- 
mentum, non semel inter ipsos antehoc agitatum, sed, pluribus aliis in- burg, Soc. 
tercurrentibus rebus, nunquam, uti par erat, discussum expensumve, Reg. Seer. 
tandem aliquando examini rigido subjectum conficeretur; visum equi- 
dem fuit illustrissimo isto caetui decernere, ut quotquot e sociis suis in- 
dagandae Motus indoli prae caeteris incubuissent, rogarentur ut sua in 
rem illam meditata, & inventa depromere, simul & ea, quae ab illis viris 
precellentibus, Galilaeo puta, Cartesio, Honorato Fabri,JoachimoJun- 
gio, Petro Borrelli, aliisque, de argumento isto fuerant excogitata, con- 
gerere&procurare vellent; eo scil.fine,utconsultis hoc pacto coUatisque 
omnium sententiis, ilia dehinc theoria, quae cum observationibus & ex- 
perimentis, debit! cura & fide crebr6 peractis, quam maxime congrueret, 
civitate philosophica suo jure donaretur. 

Edito hoc celeusmate, incitati protinus e dicta Societate fuerunt, impri- 
mis Christianus Hugenius, Johannes Wallisius, Christophorus Wrennus, 
ut suas de Motu hypotheses & regulas, quibus condendis aliquandiu in- 
sudassent, maturare & expedire satagerent. Factum hinc, ut selectus ille 
virorum praestantissimorum trias, post paucarum septimanarum spatium, 
theorias suas, eleganter compendifactas, tantum non certatim transmit- 
terent, Regiaeque Societatis super iis sententiam exquirerent. Primus 
omnium D. Wallisius, sua de Motibus aestimandis principia, literis die 
1 5 Novemb. i668,datis,ejusdemque mensis die 29,traditis & praelectis, 
communicavit. Mox eum excepit D. Christophorus Wren, qui naturae 
legem decollisione corporum, proximo menseDecembri,ejusque die 17. 
eidem Societati publice exhiberi curavit ; quae in mandatis mox dedit, 
(prae-habito tamen utriusque hujus authoris consensu) ut ad commodi- 
orem horum scriptorum communicationem, discussionemque difFusi- 
orem, res tota typis mandaretur. 

Haec dum apud nos geruntur, ecce adfert nobis tabellarius die 4 Januarii 
insequentis (St. Ang.) D. Hugenii literas, ejusdem mensis die 5. (at St. 
nov.) exaratas, ej usque scripti, De motu corporum ex mutuo impulsu, 
priores regulas quatuor, una cum demonstrationibus, continentes, habe- 
bam ego in promptu theoriae Wrennianae apographum, idque actutum 
eodem plane die, sic favente tabellione publico, D. Hugenio, hostimenti 
vice, remittebam, dilata interim literarum Hugenianarum, (quibus tale 
quid includi, ob molem, & antegressum authoris promissum suspicabar) 
resignatione, donee ferret occasio nobilissimum & sapientissimum Re- 
giae Societatis praesidem, D. Vice comitem Brouncker, compellandi. 


Quo facto, amborum regulis in mod6 dicta Societate collatis, mirus con- 
festim in utroque consensus eiFulsit; id quod insignem in nobis libentiam 
pariebat, utrumque hoc scriptum praelo nostro committendi. Nihil hie 
nobis deerat a parte Hugenii, quam ejus consensus; absque quo fas ne- 
quaquam judicabamus, ipsius inventum, maxime cum illud haud inte- 
grum eo tempore nobis dedisset, in lucem emittere. Curae interim nobis 
erat, scriptum ipsius publicis Regiae Societatis monumentis inserendi 
simul & authori die II Januar. Solennes pro cordata illi communicatione 
gratias reponendi ; addita dehinc die scil. 4 Februarii) soUicita commone- 
factione, ut suam banc theoriam vel Parisiis, (quod proclive erat factu in 
Eruditorum, ut vocant, Diario) vel hie Londini in adversariis philoso- 
phieis, imprimendam curaret, vel saltem permitteret. Qui bus expeditis 
literis, paulo post secundas accepimus ab Hugenio, scripti Wrenniani de 
hoc argumento recte traditi mentionem facientes, nil tamen quicquam de 
suimet scripti editione,vel Parisiis velLondini paranda,commemorantes. 
Unde liquere omnin6 autumem, ipsum sibi defuisse Hugenium in ilia 
publicatione maturanda; quin imo occasionem dedisse procrastinando, 
ut laudatus D. Wren, pro ingenii sui sagacitate geminam omnino theori- 
am eruens, in gloriae,huic speculationi debitae, partem jureveniret; cum 
extra omne sit dubium, neutrum horum theoriae illius quicquam,prius- 
quam scripta eorum comparerent, rescivisse ab altero, sed utrumque, 
propria ingenii faecunditate, pulchellam banc sobolem enixum fuisse. 
Solvit equidem Hugenius, ante aliquot jam annos, Londini cum ageret, 
illos de Motu casus qui ipsi tunc proponebantur; luculento sane argu- 
mento, eum jam tum exploratas habuisse regulas, quarum id evidentil 
praestaret. At non affirmabit ipse, cuiquam se Anglorum suae theoriae 
quicquam aperuisse; quin fateri tenetur, se ab eorum nonnuUis ad com- 
municationem ejus solicitatum, nee tamen unquam; nisi nuperrime, ad 
id faciendum pertractum fuisse. 

His itaque veritati & justitiae litatis, ipsas jam Hugenii regulas dona- 
mus &c. 

Tabula refractionis radiorum in medio vitreo (supposita mixima refrac- 
tione vitri, 489.) secundum hypothesin exquisitissimam philosophi An- 
gli calculata. 

Letters, of Astronomy , from Sir Paul Neile^ to Mr. Wren, in the Tears 1 655, 
6, y^andg. 

To make an uncertain reciprocal Motion tend to the continual Progress 
of an uniform progressive Motion. 

De cycloidibus, eorumque segmentis, nee non de sphaeroidibus cycloid- 
ahbus, & segmentorum cycloidalium solidis rotundis. 

Literae ad D. Pascal. Parisiis. De doctrina cycloidum. 
Literae a D. Pascal. De eodem argumento, datae Parisiis 1658. 
Literae ad D. Carcavy, Parisiis 1658. Quibus continetur solutio proble- 
matis missi ex GalliS. ad doctorem Seth Ward. De cycloide, ejusque sol- 
idis, centrisque gravitatis. 

A Letter to Mr. Wren from Mr. Hobbs, dated at Chatsworth, 1659, 
concerning the Propositions in the Book of Mons. Dettonville, alias Pas- 
cal ; about the Cycloid. 
De problemate Kepleriano per cycloidem solvendo. 


Solutio problematis missi ex Gallia ad matheseeos professores, & alios in 
Anglia mathematicos : a *Jean de Monfert. (printed). 


The Description of an Instrument (in the Musaeum of the Royal Society) 
with the Figure, for drawing the Out-lines of any Object in Perspective. 


Generatio corporis cylindroidis hyperbolici, elaborandis lentibus hyper- 
bolicis accommodati. 

Descriptio machinae una cum icone brevi, cujus beneficio lentes elabor- 
entur hyperbolici. 


Of the true Shape of the Superficies of the terrestrial Globe. 


Of the rising of the Sap in Trees. 


Description of a Hot-house to produce the Plants of the Torrid Zone. 

Of a Lamp to continue to any Length of Time. 

To heat any Quantity of Water without Fire under it, in Wood, or any 
Sort of Vessel that may be damag'd by Fire. 


Experiments of the Nature of Silk; Tenacity of Oyl; of the Parts of 
Leather, &c. 

gi 81 


Numb. 45 

Numb. 48 
Numb. 5 3 


Of many useful Things in our Country, & to the Improvement of Trade, 
which have been neglected to be brought from foreign Parts. 


Of the Os Brachii, in a Letter to Sir Charles Scarborough. 

Anatomia anguillae fluviatilis, longae plusquam 40 digitos, circuitu, 
(circa umbilicum) sex, cum figuris. 

Of the Instruments of Respiration, &c. 

Life of A Catalogue, with Vouchers of several of the Works of Sir Christopher 

Sir Chr. Wren: in the Method they are recited by Mr. Ward, (in his Ac- 

j;f;'ren count of the Lives of the Professors of Gresham-coUege.) exclusive 

p. 107, 108, of some Variations and Additions enumerated in the preceding Cata- 

and 1 09 logue and Accounts. 

1. HOrologiographia geometrica. 

This was a Latin Version of an English Treatise. Written by Mr. Ough- 
tred, while Mr. Wren was a Gentleman- commoner at Wadham-coUege, 
in Oxford, and afterwards publish'd by Mr. Oughtred, at the End of his 
Clavis Mathematica, [Vid. Praef. G. O. ad Clav. Mathemat.] 

2. Tractatulas ad periodum Julianam spectans, Chronologiae summe 


This short Tract, which contains a Method to find any particular Year 
requir'd, upon giving the Cycles, is inserted in the Prolegomena of' Hel- 
vicus's Theatrum historicum & chronologium,' Ed. Oxon. 1651. And 
continu'd in the Later Editions. The Author's Name is not mention'd; 
but that it was written by Mr. Wren, is manifest from a Note indorsed 
on the Title-page of the Book, in the Hand of his Father, the Dean, now 
in the Possession of Christopher Wren, Esq.; The Words are these: 
"Deniquefiliomeomodestius renitenti incentivum adhibui,uttractatu- 
lum ilium algebraicum; Julianae periodo (e cyclis in historia datis) ex- 
piscandae accommodatissimum, sudantejam hocpraelo Oxoniensi,prae- 
figi sineret." By the Time, in which this Tract was first publish'd it ap- 
pears, that Mr. Wren could not be more than nineteen Years of Age, 
when he wrote it. 

3- Oratio inauguralis habita Londoni, in CoUegio Greshamensi, per 
Christophorum Wren, A. M. Astronomiae professorem electum, 
Anno 1657, iEtatis suae 25. 

This Oration is now first publish'd in the Appendix, N. VIII. from a 
Copy communicated by Christopher Wren, Esq. to Dr. Mead, by whom 
I was favour'd with it. 

4. De recta tangente cycloidem primariam. 

ET0TZMOI curvae lineae cycloidis primariae secundum methodum anti- 
quorum demonstratus. 
De dimentione cycloidum contractarum & protractarum. 
De problemate Kepleriano per cycloidem solvendo. 

These four Tracts being communicated by him to Dr. Wallis,the begin- 
ning of July 1658, were afterward publish'd by the Doctor, as an Ap- 
pendix to his tractatus de cycloide. [wi/. J. W. 'opera mathemat.' vol. I. 


5. Solutio problematis mathematici, Folio, one Sheet, printed. 

This Problem, which came from France in the Year 1 658, was thus in- * A fictitious 
troduc'd : " Spectatissimos viros matheseos professores, & alios praeclaros Name for 
in Anglia mathematicos, ut hoc problema solvere dignentur *Jean de Mons. 
Montfert maxime desiderat." Pascal 

And it was, as follows: " Extremis ellipseos diametris, distantia centri ab 
aliquo puncto in axi transverso, ubi linea eundem secet sub angulo dato, 
in numeris datis: segmenta ejusdem lineae, (si opus est) productae, & in- 
tra transversum axem & ellipsin terminatae, in numeris invenire." 
After the Solution of this Problem, Mr. Wren in the same Paper sub- 
joins the following (propos'd formerly by Kepler) which he had himself 
solved geometrically. \yid. Wallis ubi supra. Page 540.] " Aream datam 
semicirculi dati, vel ellipsews datae, ex quocunque puncto diametri cu- 
juscunque, etiam si libet productae, in data ratione secare." And he adds : 
" Rogo igitur praestantissimos in Gallia mathematicos, ut problema 
Keplerianum solvere dignentur, numerice quidem, si fieri possit saltem 

6. A Method for the Construction of solar Eclipses. 

This was discover'd by him in the Year 1 660, and afterwards publish'd 
by Mr. Flamstead, in his ' Doctrine of the Sphere' ; & has now for many 
Years been generally follow'd, as the most concise and plain. See Sir Jonas 
Moor's System of the Mathematicks, London 1681, Quarto. 

g2 83 

7- Cerebri & Calvariae figurae eruditissime [propriis manibus] deline- 

These Figures were drawn at the Desire of Dr. Willis, for the Use of his 
excellentTreatise, intitled Cerebri Anatome, publish'd in 1 664 ; of which 
the learned Author has given Account in his Preface. [Praeter suppe- 
tias, &c.] 

8. An architectonical Account of the cathedral Church of Salisbury; 
with Schemes for the Repairs. 

The original Manuscript of this, in the Author's own Hand, and dated 
1668, is yet in the Registry of the Dean and Chapter there. And it has 
been since publish'd in a Book intitled, 'The History and Antiquities of 
the cathedral Church of Salisbury, and the Abbey-church of Bath,' 
London 1723, Octavo. Where it is called, "An excellent Piece wrote by 
" an eminent Gentleman, who was invited thither by Dr. [Bishop] Ward, 
" in 1668. [for his Opinion and Instructions for the Repairs,] where he 
" then made the Survey." 

Besides these, the following Papers, communicated by him to the Royal- 
Society, are all of them, except the last, printed in their Transactions. 

1. A Way to convey Liquors immediately into the Mass of Blood, No. 

Vn. p. 1 28. December 1 665. 

2. Lex naturae de collisione corporum. No. XLHL p. 867. December 


This is a Theory of what the Author had before proved by Experiments. 

3. A Description of an Instrument for drawing the out Lines of any Ob- 

ject in Perspective, No. XLV. p. 898, March 1669. 

4. Generatio corporis cyclindroidis hyperbolici,laborandislentibushy- 

perbolicis accommodati, No. XLVIII. p. 961. June 1669. 

5 . A Description of an Engine design'd for grinding hyperbolical Glasses, 

No, LIII. p. 1059, November 1669. 

6. A Letter concerning the finding a straight Line equal to that of a Cy- 

cloid, in 1 658, No. XC VIII. p. 6 1 56, November 1 673. 

7. An Hypothesis and geometrical Problem about the Comets, in 1 664, 

and 1665. 

This was publish'd by Mr. Hook in his ' Cometa' in 1 670. page 40. 

These Papers which follow, communicated by him to the Royal Society, 
later than the History, and never publish'd are entered in their Registers, 
and Letter-books. 

I. A Description & Figure of a new Level for taking the Horizon every 

Way in a Circle, Register III. p. 184. Produced before the Royal 
Society, December 1 2 and March 7, 1 666. 

This is describ'd by Mr. Hook in his Animadversions on Hevelius's 
machina coelestis, p. 65. 

2. An Account of the uncommon Shape of Hail, that fell on the 26th of 

March 1 667 ; about Four of the Clock in the Afternoon, Regist. 
III. p. 184. Communicated to the Royal Society, November 28, 

3. A Letter to Mr. Oldenburgh about a Design of building a College for 

the Royal Society. Dated from Oxford, June 7, 1 668. 

4. A Cypher or Anagram, for concealing secret Inventions. Regist. IV. 

p. 49, Communicated to the Society, on the 4th of February, 1668. 

This was transmitted to Mr. Huygens, upon his having sent one not ex- 

5. A Description and Scheme of an Instrument for drawing up great 

Weights from deep Places; Register IV- p. 99. Read May 5, 1 670. 

To these may be added, the three following Manuscripts, yet remaining 
in other Hands. 

1. Christophori Wren, Londini, in Collegio Greshamensi astronomiae 

professoris, de corpore Saturni, ejusque phasibus hypothesis. 

This Lecture in the Author's own Hand, is now in Possession of Wil- 
liam Jones, Esq. 

2. An historical and architectonical Account of the collegiate Church of 

St. Peter, Westminster, and of the Repairs. 

This was written by Sir Christopher, at the Desire of Dr. Atterbury, 
Bishop of Rochester, and principal Commissioner for the Repairs of that 
Church, about the Year 17 14. The Heads of it, with a Letter to the 
Bishop, are enter'd in the Journal of the Antiquary Society; but the Dis- 
course itself is in the Hands of Christopher Wren, Esq. 

3. Extracts of some loose original Papers, & Minutes, written at sundry 

Times, relating to the Longitude. 

By these Papers it appears, that Sir Christopher Wren had his Thoughts 
very early upon that Subject, and always kept it in his View afterwards. 
They are dispos'd in the Order of an Introduction, with a Discourse fol- 
lowing it. The Introduction, which, excepting the last Paragraph, seems 
to have been written about the Year 1660, contains various Ways made 
use of by the Antients,&in later Times, for finding the Longitude. Some 
Parts of the Discourse, that follow it, were written in the Year 161 2. — 
g3 85 

Others so late as i72o;&the whole consists of Divers Methods proposed 
by Sir Christopher for that End, with Draughts of several Instruments 
proper for the Purpose, (engraved on Copper-plates) These Papers are 
also in the Hands of the same Gentleman, with the Discourse last men- 

This Catalogue in Mr. Professor Ward's Work, compared and adjusted 
with the Catalogues recounted before may be deemed the most perfect 
that at present occur. 

Sir Christopher has been heard sometimes to reflect sharply on the Dis- 
ingenuity of Mr. Oldenburg, who had neglected not only to enter divers 
Inventions and Experiments of his in the Registers of the Society, but 
conveyed the same into foreign Parts, France and Germany; where they 
were after published under other Names, as their own. 
Sect. XL. Hence Dr. Sprat in his History of the Royal Society, took Occasion, in 
^.311. the meer Consideration of Justice, to publish a separate Account of his 

Endeavours in promoting the Design of the Royal Society, because in 
turning over the Registers, he perceived, that many excellent Things, 
whose first Invention ought to be ascribed to him, were casually (rather 
designedly) omitted. 

The Problem before recited Number XXXII, was sent from France by 
way of Challenge to the English Mathematicians, & a pecuniary Reward 
promised to the Person who should give a Solution: The Solution was 
given beyond Exception, and the Premium demanded, which yet at last, 
by some Chicanery, was dishonourably witheld. 

His communicative Temper in lending out Papers, never recovered; his 
peculiar Modesty, and Disregard of publick Applause, and of those Me- 
thods by which Men of the World usually proclaim & support the Merits 
of their own Performances, prevented the Appearance in publick, under 
his own Name, of many useful Tracts, and occasioned his not carrying 
on divers Discoveries to Perfection. 

N.B. Mr. Henry Oldenburgh, mentioned before, (P. 118) upon the 
Foundation of the Royal Society, was chosen Fellow & Secretary thereof 
He hath collected & published Philosophical Transactions, commencing 
from March 6, 1664, and carried on to No. 1 36. Dated the 25th of June, 




Dr. Flamstead's Reflections on Mons. Cassini's Remarks on his Letter to 
Dr. Wallis, relating to the Earth's Motion, &c. referred to the Judg- 
ment of Sir Christopher Wren, in the Year 1702. 

The Observatory, Nov. 19, 1702. 
Honoured Sir, 

I Send you included a long Letter whereby you will find, that Mons. 
Cassini has performed nothing of what he proposed to shew concerning 
the Effects of the Earth's Motion, or the Parallax of the Orb at the fixed 
Stars. As to what he adds and of the Poles of the World and Ecliptick, 
after you have perused the latter part of the Letter, it will appear to you, 
he might have done better to have left it out, since the Parallaxes of the 
fixed Stars are determined without moving these Poles at all ; & making 
them to move misrepresents the Parallaxes: so that on the whole, you 
will conclude that he understood nothing of the Business. — This I mind 
you of, because I have not mentioned it in the Letter, which I have wrote 
after my usual Way with all the Plainness and Sincerity imaginable, and 
so as not to give Mons. Cassini, oranyotherany Offence, or Cause to com- 
plain of uncivil Usage. It is something longer than I designed at first it 
should be; being a new Subject, and uncommon, I thought it was better 
to err on this Hand, than to make it obscure by my Brevity. 



I Send you here some Reflections on Mons. Cassini's Remarks on my 
Letter to Dr. Wallis, together with an Account of the Effects of the 
Earth's Motion in changing the Longitudes, Latitudes, Right Ascen- 
sions and Declinations of the fixed Stars. 'Tis a new Subject, and never 
that I know of handled before. For though Mr. Cassini proposes to him- 
self to examine what will be the Result of the Hypothesis of the Earth's 
Motion, with respect of the fixed Stars and the apparent Poles of the Earth 
and the Ecliptick, in order to prove that the greatest Remove of the Pole- 
star is from the Pole, is made about the Beginning of the foreign April, 
and its nearest Approach of October; yet he has done it in such a Manner 
as will make it appear to you, that though there be some Truth in the 
g4 87 

"II sera a 
^ <r examiner 
" suite de 
" these du 
" mouvement 
"de laterre, 
"par rap- 
"etoiles fixes 

" S? auxpo- Conclusion, yet it does not result from his Premises (as I asserted) or any 
" les appar- deep Consideration of the Effects of the Earth's Motions, or geometrical 
" ens de la Argumentation. 

" terre et de His first Figure represents mine well enough, and his Report of the Con- 
" Cecliptique tents of my Letter is fair and candid; but the ground of his Error is laid 
in his second, where with me making lODR to represent the Earth's 
Cassims Orbit, he raises Perpendiculars from every Point of it 'till they intersect 

2d. Fig. the Plane EQ, (supposed placed on the Surface of the Sphere parallel to 

the Plane of the Ecliptick) whereby they describe on it the Orbit EML 
which will therefore be an exact Representative of the Orbit DOIR; 
now this, all that allow the Motion of the Earth make an Ellipsis, there- 
fore that must be an Ellipsis too, and the Point M in this will represent 
the Sun, or the Point Sin the original Orbit DOIR; though in his 3d Fig, 
he makes and calls it a Circle wherein a moveable Pole of the Ecliptick 
is carried annually about a fixed & divides it into twelve Signs marked 
with their proper Characters : Again, 

Drawing Lines parallel to the Earth's Axis to every Point of the Original 
Orbit DOIR, till they intersect the aforesaid Plane EQ, he projects 
another curve NPQ, which also shall be an Ellipsis (but more oblique 
than the former) and a distinct Representative of the Earth's Orbit the 
Sun's Place in it being at P, in the Line SP, drawn from the Sun S in the 
original Parallel to the Axis. 

Yet in his 3d, Fig. he makes & calls it a.Circle in which a moveable Pole 
of the World revolves annually about a fixed one, and this also he dis- 
tinguishes with the twelve Signs, as he had done the other. 
Near this last representative Orbit he lays of a Star at V, which he says 
shall be sometimes nearer, at other, farther ofFfrom the Pole of the World. 
He shews no Reason why this Star's Place may not be laid off with the 
same respect to the other distinct representative Orbit EML and to the 
original lODR : Let it be done for the first at V for the Original at Y, it 
appears now that as the Earth makes her annual Revolution, she some- 
times comes nearest to it, and removes farther from it at others, by all the 
Cassims several Orbits ; which imports nothing to his Purpose. 

2d Fig. From these Preliminaries he proceeds^and transfers the second represen- 

tative Orbits of his 2d Fig. into his 3d, and making their Suns to befix'd 
Poles of the Ecliptick at P, and of the World at A ; he lays off the Pole 
Star A in the Surface of his Sphere, by its Longitude from the next 
Colure and Complement of its Latitude, and thereby finds its Place at S 
in his 3d Fig. 

But it appears by what was remark'd before, that both his Circles 
describ'd about the two fix'd Poles are distinct Representatives of the 
Earth's Orbit (let him call 'em what he pleases) and their Centers repre- 
sent the Sun's Places in them ; he may and ought therefore to lay off the 

Flamstead's Refections on Cassini's Remarks. 




Mons!' Cassinis. 

I P.p^ 


Star with the same Respect to the Pole A, that it has to the Pole P, and 
then its Place in the Surface of his Sphere will be at a . 
And now as in his 2d Fig. we had three Orbits of the Earth, as many Suns 
and three Places of one fix'd Star ; so in this third we have two Suns, two 
Fix'd Poles and two moveable of the World and Ecliptick : with two 
Places of the fix'd Star, which is a pretty Absurdity. 
Let those who so fiercely assert Mr. Cassini's Conclusion, throw up 
which Pair of his Poles they please, it will be evident that his Conclu- 
sion vanishes, and that (as I affirm'd) it does not follow from these 

I foresee an Evasion that Mr. Cassini may make, which I shall remember 
and answer in its proper Place. At present I shall only mind him, that 
those who understand how all the diurnal Appearances are made in the 
Hypothesis of the Earth's Motion, know also how to represent 'em by 
Lines describ'd in its Surface, or a fix'd Rete including it so close, that 
the Earth may only have Room to revolve within it ; as I have shewn in 
my Doctrine of the Sphere (a Book printed above twenty Years ago, and 
which I am well assur'd, they are not ignorant of, at the French Obser- 
vatory) and that by Lines design'd upon it, I shall endeavour to do what 
he has propos'd (how far he has perform'd judge you) that is to explicate 
the Effect of the Earth's Motion (or the Parallaxes of the annual Orb) in 
changing the Longitudes, Latitudes, right Ascensions, Distances from 
the Pole of the fix'd Stars. 

Conceive the Eye plac'd at an infinite Distance in the Plane of the Earth's 
Orbit ABCD, it will be represented by the Line AC, its Diameter, and Fig. A. 
let the Sun's Place be at the Center at E : Again, 

Conceive a Star plac'd in the North Latitude at ?, Lines eK, eO, drawn 
from the Star at e to the Extremities of the Diameter A and C, will form 
the Angle AEC, the greatest Parallax of the Orb at the Star; produce 
CA to H, then is the Angle eAH the greatest apparent latitude of the 
Star and the <f CH the least. 

Through e the Place of the Star, draw the Line ac parallel to the Eclip- 
tick EH, and about e let the Orbit of the Earth be describ'd equal and 
similar to the orginal Orbit, but contrary plac'd; and from the Extremi- 
ties of its Diameter ac to E, draw the Lines AE, CE,'tis evident to any 
tolerable Geometrician that the <<zEC is equal to the <C«'A the greatest 
Parallax of the Orb. 

And that instead of supposing the Star fix'd in f, and the Earth moving 
round in the Orbit ABCD; the Earth maybe suppos'd fix'dat E,and the 
Star carry'd round in the representative Orbit abed whose Plane is pa- 
rallel to the Plane of the Ecliptick. 

Whereby the Parallaxes and the Star's apparent Place will be shewn the 
same in all respects, as if the original Orbit had been employ 'd. 


Let therefore E represent the Center of the Earth now fix'd, and FG a 
Quadrant of a Circle of Longitude on it, the Line E« drawn from the 
Center of the Earth E to the nearest Point of the representative Orbit a, 
cuts the Periphery of the Earth in «, measuring the Arch of the Earth 
Gtf=to the <tfEH=^AH its greatest apparent Latitude: and in like 
Manner the Line Ec piercing the Periphery FG in r, makes ""G = < cEH 
=eCH the least Latitude ol the Star. 

If further, Lines be drawn from the Center of the Earth E, touching the 
representative Orbit in ^and b^ these will cut the Earth's Periphery in/> 
and a, and will give the greatest Diameter of the Curve; describ'd in the 
Superficies of the Earth, by Lines proceeding from its Center to the infi- 
nite Points of the representative Orbit. 

The shortest was found in the preceding Paragraph to be ^r which Curve 
(because all the Points in the Orbit abcdzx^ conceiv'd to be in a Plane 
parallel to the Ecliptick, and Lines drawn from E to every one of them 
describ'd a Cone), shall be an Ellipsis, whose Diameters are given^ 

1 . Hence it follows that the longest or transverse Diameter of every 
Ellipsis or Curve, expressing the Parallax of the Orb, shall lie parallel to 
the Planes of the Ecliptick. 

2. The conjugate or shortest at Right-angles to it, and the longer to the 
shorter, shall be as the Radius to the Co-sine of the Star's latitude. 

3. The farther any Star is from the Earth or Sun, the lesser these Ellipses 
or parallactick Curves shall be: and farther, 

4. If a star have no Latitude, then lying in the Plane of the Ecliptick, 
and the Earth moving always in the same Plane, its Latitude cannot be 
alter'd by the Parallax, but its Parallax of Longitude will cast it some- 
times in Antecedence, sometimes in Consequence of its middle Place. 

5. If a Star be conceiv'd also in the Pole of the Ecliptick at /, the Parallax 
of Longitude shall cast it always into the same Longitude with the Sun, 
and its Latitude shall be always the Complement of half the intire 
Parallax of the Orb; so that the Star with the Sun shall traverse all the 
Signs in the Space of one Year. 

6. That from the Time of the first Quartile with the Sun, after its Emer- 
sion from his Rays, to the second Quartile (whilst the Earth moves from 
D by A to B, or the representative Point of the Star from ^ by « to }>) the 
Star (suppos'd at H) appears to move always retrograde; from thence by 
the Conjunction to the first Quartile Star (whilst the Earth moves from 
B by C to D or the Star in its Representative from ^ by c to d) again con- 
tinually direct; the Parallaxes of Longitude ceasing, and not changing 
its true or middle Place, at the Conjunction and Opposition to the Sun 
and being greatest in Antecedence at the first Quartile in Consequence 
at the second. 


These are the Affections of the Parallactick Curves or Ellipses, and the 
Properties of the Parallaxes of the Orb at the Fix'd Stars, deduc'd from 
this Figure; we shall find more in the next Figure B. 
Wherein let r® === W represent the Ecliptic, P its Pole, A the Pole of the 
Earth, ^E'^'^ the^Equator; conceive a Star plac'd in the first Point of >", 
without Latitude, the Ellipsis that expresses its Parallax shall have no 
Latitude, and therefore will appear a straight Line, let it be represented 
by the short straight Line /^m coinciding with the Ecliptick: At the 
Conjunction with the its primitive or middle Place is unaltered; from 
thence after its Emersion from the Sun it moves in Consequence towards 
m, at which Point he arrives when he is in Quartile of it; and now 'tis 
evident by the Figure, that tho' its Latitude be not chang'd, yet by the 
Parallax of Longitude it has gotten North Declination from- the Equator 
equal to f of ^ the in tire Parallax of Longitude /mC; when afterwards 
the Sun comes into ^tf , and the Point on which the Star appears to /; it 
has there as much South Declination as it had North at the ist Quadra- 
ture in m, its Latitude remaining unchang'd. 

But if the Star have 20, 40, or 60 Degrees North Latitude, the Paral- 
laxes may be express'd by the three small Ellipses plac'd one above 
another, in the Line rP ; and Lines drawn from the Pole of the Ecliptick 
P to the Place of the Sun design'd ; and to be found in them, will shew 
which Way the Parallax carries the Star, in Consequence, or in Antece- 
dence; and in what Proportion its Distance from the said Pole is aug- 
mented or diminish'd by it: But, for the Parallax of right Ascension and 
Distance from the Pole of the Globe; that narrow Ellipsis plac'd next 
the Ecliptick, represents the parallactick Curve of a Star that has 20 
Degrees North Latitude. Let Arches of Hour-circles be struck from the 
Pole of the world A, to the nearest and remotest Points of this Ellipsis; 
they shew that the Star shall have its greatest Declination, or least Dis- 
tance from the Pole, a little after its first Quartile with the Sun, he being 
in ss ; and its greatest Distance from the Pole, or least Declination, a 
little after the second Quadrature, he being in vf . 

The ingenious Reader will consider, that tho' I count the Sun's Longi- 
tude along these Curves, yet the Places design'd by them, shew only those 
Points in them, whereon the Star appears by Reason of the Parallax of 
the Orb; and the Distances of these Points from either of the said Poles 
in the Arch of a great Circle, represent the Distance as the Parallax makes 
it appear, augmented or diminish'd, with respect to either of them. 
As the Latitude of the Star's Increase, the Parallaxes of Longitude, Lati- 
tude, right Ascension, and Declination, do all increase, as may be easily 
apprehended, by the sole Inspection & Consideration of this Figure; but 
with two many Varieties to be recounted, except by such as have a great 


deal of Leisure,& are desirous to let theWorld see their excellent Abilities, 
in retailing Things at length; I leave them to the sagacious Reader to 
collect from the Figure, and proceed to shewhow the Appearances of the 
Pole-star shall be alter'd by the Parallax of the Orb, if sensible at it. 
Fig. C. The present Longitude of the Pole-star is n, 24 Deg. i, it's Latitude 66 

Deg. North. Let PA in Fig. C, represent an Arch of the solstitial Colure, 
equal to 23 Deg. ^, the Distance of the Pole of the World and Ecliptick, 
Pe the Line of the Pole-star's Longitude, and its Distance from the Pole 
of the EcHptick: About e let the parallactick Ellipsis ongm be describ'd 
in such sort, that its longer Diameter may lie parallel to the Ecliptick, 
and may be in Proportion to the shortest, as the Rad. is to the Line of its 
Latitude. 'Tis evident, by bare Inspection of the Fig. that its greatest 
Distance from the Pole of the Ecliptick shall then happen when the Star 
shall appear on n: And the Sun is in the same Longitude with it in the 
beginning of our June; it's least in December, when their Longitudes are 
opposite, or (to include both in our Expression) they shall both happen 
when the Sun, Earth, and Star, are all in the same Plane perpendicular 
to the Plane of the Ecliptick. 

But the nearest Approach of the Pole-star to the Pole of the Globe, and 
its greatest Remove from it, will be distant from these Points about y and 
0, as appears by the Figure, perhaps not much different from the Times 
on which Mr. Cassini places them; but to determine exactly the Place 
of these Points on the Curve, the Resolution of this Problem will be re- 
quired ; "A Point being given, & an Ellipsis describ'd in the Superficies of 
the Sphere, to strike two Arches of great Circles through the said Point 
to the Ellipsis, so as one of them shall be the shortest, the other the longest 
that can be betwixt them." There is then an Oversight committed in my 
Letter to Dr. Wallis, where I place the greatest Remove of the Pole-star 
from the Pole in June, the nearest Approach in December, Mr. Halley 
acknowledges aloud, that Dr. Wallis, Dr. Gregory, and himself, saw it 
not:'tisnovery great Fault to have committed an Oversight, where they 
did not find it in four Years Time. We are oblig'd to Mr. Cassini for the 
Discovery of it; yet it appears, that he understood not the Effect of the 
Parallaxes of the Earth's Orb, in changing and varying the Distances of 
the fix'd Stars from the Pole of the Globe, since he endeavours to repre- 
sent them by the Help of two Circles, placed about the Poles of the Eclip- 
tick and Globe, when the Hypothesis neither requires nor admits of any 
such Thing, but only one Ellipsis,& that in numerous Cases a very narrow 

Mr. Cassini may say, that as I remove the Orbit of the Earth from about 
the Sun, and draw it about the Star to represent the Parallaxes, so he may 
in like Manner remove my Ellipses from about the Star, & draw a Circle 
or two about the two Poles to effect the same Thing; but he may re- 

member that the parallactick Curves, are Ellipses, and not Circles; and 
that not Circles, but Ellipses, only serve to represent these Effects of Par- 
allaxes in the Hypothesis of the Earth's Motion; and further, that it has 
been shew'd him, that his Circles are really Ellipses and Representatives 
of the Earth's Orbit, with Suns in them, & therefore no proper Exponents 
of the Parallaxes. 

However, I am oblig'd to him for having given me an Occasion to clear 
up this Subject, that has not hitherto (as Iknow of) been handled by any 
Body; and now since it is evident, that the Parallaxes of such Stars as are 
nearest to us, and lie in the Neighbourhood to the equinoctial Colure, 
will (if sensible) be perceiv'd by the Change of the meridional Distances 
from the Pole, observ'd at six Months Distance, when they were in Quar- 
tile to the Sun, as appears by what I have remark'd: I shall return to my 
Stock of Night Observations, to seek out such as are most proper for dis- 
covering the Error of the Instrument; afterward those that are most con- 
venient for shewing the Parallaxes of the Orb : And I shall copy the very 
first Notes of both, faithfully and exactly as they were transcrib'd from 
the Instrument, and compare them, to see what Parallax they allow, that 
the skilful Reader may both correct, examine, &compare them himself if 
he thinks he can do it more accurately, than I shall : Something is done to- 
wards this already; nothing is to be expected from the French, because 
their Instruments are commonly not above -^ the Radius of mine ; or if 
they be equal to mine, or bigger, as I think one of them is, they are not 
fix'd as they ought to be for this Purpose; which makes me wish I had a 
larger than my present, & a better Wall to fix it on than that is to which 
I have fitted the large & costly one I have made at my own great Charge : 
However, if the good Providence of Heaven, that has bless'd all my La- 
bours hitherto, give me Health till after the Holidays, I hope I may by 
that Time give you a full Account of what it has afforded. 


Your faithful humble Servant, 


The Observatory, Nov. 19, 1702. 
Honoured Sir, 

I Send you included a long Letter, whereby you will find that Monsieur 
Cassini has performed nothing of what he proposed to shew concerning 
the Effects of the Earth's Motion on the Parallax of the Orb at the fixed 
Stars. As to what he adds, and of the Poles of the World and Ecliptick, 
after you have perused the latter Part of the Letter, it will appear to you, 


he might have done better to leave it out, since the Parallaxes of the fixed 
Stars are determined without moving these Poles at all, & making them 
to move misrepresents the Parallaxes; so that on the whole you will con- 
clude that he understood nothing of the Business, and perhaps they as 
little, that affect him. This I mind you of, because I have not mentioned 
it in the Letter, which I have wrote after my usual Way, with all the 
Plainness and Sincerity imaginable, and so, as not to give Mons. Cassini, 
nor any other any Offence, or cause to complain of uncivil Usage. 'Tis 
something longer than I designed at first it should be; being a new Sub- 
ject and uncommon, I thought it was better to err on this Hand, than to 
make it obscure by my Brevity. 

But I am sorry, I must tell you this will not make me and Mr. Halley 
Friends: I have some Papers in my Hands that prove him guilty of dis- 
ingenuous Practices, and know more of him than the Generality of the 
Worlddoes. He knows I cannot cover Dishonesty, or bear with anything 
but what is just, honest and true; and that I know he regards nothing of 
these in his Practices: We mu«t therefore keep at a Distance. I pray God 
make him sensible of his Faults; and as I told him at Brown's, whenever 
he becomes a sincere and honest Man, he is sure to have me his Friend. 
I shall be at your End of the Town some Time next Week, when I will 
wait on you to clear up any Thing that may appear obscure in my long 
Letter, and pay you the sincere Respects of 


Your most humble Servant, 


I desire you to let your Son acquaint my Lord Pembroke that you have 
the included Letter from me; & present him with humble Respects and 
Services. I have acquainted Mr. Aston that I have sent you the included. 

NUMB. n. 

From the same Hand to Sir Christopher Wren. 
An Account of the Heights of the Welch Hills, &c. 

July 1, 1696. 
Honoured Sir, 

TO satisfy you that I was not mistaken in the Account of the Heights of 
the Welch Hills I gave you, I have examined some Letters I received 
from Mr. Caswell, in the Year 1 682, who was employed by Mr. Adams 

in his Survey of Wales, wherein he gives me the Measures of them taken 
with good Instruments, made by my Directions. 

The Wreckin in Shropshire, he says, by levelling by a long Pole he found 
396 Yards above the Level of theSevern. But by a Base & Altitudes taken 
by a Quadrant with Telescope-sights, 30 Yards more; 396 + 30+40,= 
466 Yards. 

The Severn in that Place to which he measured is 40 Yards higher than 
the Sea, and falls 3 Yards 3 Inches in five Miles. 
Stiperstone Clee Hill, in Shropshire, he concludes 600 Yards high. 
Penmenmaur in Caernarvonshire, 5 1 5 Yards. 
Caddorydris in Merionethshire, 970. 

Snowdown in Caernarvonshire (more than Caddorydris 270 Yards,) = 

Snowdown distant from Caddorydris 271^^ Miles. He gives me the 
Height of the 5 on the Top of Snowdown z^to Inches, but notes not the 
Time: on Caddorydris (July 26, 1682.) 261^ Inches. 
Permit me to rectify a Mistake of yours concerning the Date of my Ob- 
servations : All that I have made with the large mural Arch, (and which 
I use in rectifying the Places of the fixed Stars) are got since Michaelmas 
1 689^ when that Instrument was scarce compleat; so that I have not yet 
spent seven Years in my exactest Observations. I began to rectify the 
Places of the fixed Stars for these Observations, but at Michelmas last, 
when I found I had a sufficient Stock for that Purpose, and since then I 
have rectify'd the eight Signs of the Ecliptick you saw, and some few 
more you saw not. Excuse the Trouble of this from 

Your most humble Servant, 



Extract of a Letter from Mr. Sprat (afterwards Bishop of Rochester) to 
Mr. Wren, Professor of Astronomy at Gresham-College, Lond. in 
1658, at which Time the College was garrisoh'd by the Rebels, and 
the Professors driven out. 

Dear Sir, 

THIS Day I went to visit Gresham-college, but found the Placeinsuch 
a nasty Condition, so defil'd, and the Smells so infernal, that if you should 
now come to make Use of your Tube, it would be like Dives looking out 
of Hell into Heaven. Dr. Goddard of all your CoUegues, keeps Posses-. 


sion, which he could never be able to do, had he not before prepar d his 
Nose for Camp Perfumes, by his Voyage into Scotland, and had he not 
such excellent Restoratives in his Cellar. The Soldiers by their Violence 
which they put on the Muses' Seats, have made themselves odious to all 
the ingenious World; and if we pass by their having undone the Nation, 
this Crime we shall never be able to forgive them: And as for what con- 
cerns you, they have now prov'd, that their Pretensions to Religion were 
all feign'd, since by hindering your Lectures, they have committed so 
manifest a Mischief against Heaven. Yet your many Friends here hope 
you will hereafter recompense this unhappy Leasure which is afforded 
you, by making those admirable Discourses which you had intended for 
that Place more publick; and that you will imitate Cicero, who being 
hinder'd from pronouncing his Oration, 'pro Milone,' by the Guards 
of Pompey's Soldiers that incompass'd his Chair, set it forth afterwards 
more perfect than all the Rest. 

Ex Auto- To Mr. Christopher Wren, at All-Souls-College, in Oxford. 


Dear Cousin, 

Yesterday being the First of the Term, I resolv'd to make an Experiment, 
whether Dr. Horton entertain'd the new Auditory of Gresham with any 
Lecture, for I took it for granted, that if his Divinity, could be spar'd 
your Mathematicks would not be expected. But at the Gate I wasstop'd 
by a Man with a Gun, who told me there was no Admission upon that 
Account, the College being reform'd into a Garrison. Then changing my 
Pretension, I scarce got Permission to go in to Dr. Goddard, who gave 
me Assurance enough, that none of your CoUegues intend to appear this 
Term, unless the Soldiers be remov'd of which there is no Probability. 
Upon these Premises, it is the Conclusion of all your Friends, that you 
may save that Journey hither, unless some other Occasions call you: and 
for these, I expect you will make me your Agent, if they be such as I am 
capable of dispatching. But it will not perhaps be amiss to take from 
hence the Occasion of a short and civil Letter to the Committee, signify- 
ing, that you hope you have not deceiv'd their Expectation, in choosing 
you, and that you are ready to attend your Duty, but for this publick 
Interruption and Exclusion from your Chamber, or what else you will, 
that looks towards this. I know no more of domestick News, than what 
every Body talks of: Yesterday I was in Westminster Hall, and saw only 
Keudigate and Windham in the two Courts, and Wild and Parker in the 
Exchequer, in the Chancery none at all, for Bradshaw keeps the Seal, as 
if it were to be carried before him in the other World, whither he is 
going. Glyn and Fountain pleaded at the Bar. They talk much of the 

Mediation of the two Crowns, and proceed so far as to name Marshal de 
Clerambault, for the Embassador, who is to come hither from France. 

My Service to all Friends, 

Dear Cousin, 

Your most humble Servant, 

Oct. 25, 1658. *M. W. *Matthew 

Wren^ eldest 
Son ofMat- 
From the abovementioned Mr. Sprat, to Mr. Wren, on his Translation thew. Bishop 
of Horace's Epistle to Lollius. ^f^ij- 

My Dear Friend, 

I Receiv'd two of your Letters together, for both which I very heartily 
thank you; but you must give me Leave to dissent from your Sense in 
one of them, wherein you maintain, that Horace cannot be well trans- 
lated; for, by that elegant Epistle ad LoUium, which you sent me, you 
have confuted yourself: You have admirably well hit his Genius; your 
Verse is numerous; your Philosophy very instructive for Life; your 
Liberty in translating, enough to make it seem to be an English Orig- 
inal, and yet not so much, but that the Mind of the Author is still 
religiously observ'd: so that if you have not adorn'd the Fat-droll (as you 
most pleasantly call him) with Feathers, yet you have with Jewels, 
which is a more stately, though not so flanting a Bravery. Most other 
Attempts on him (nay even those of Ben Jonson himself) appear to me 
to have been hitherto very unfortunate, and his Translators have seem'd 
not so much to have remember'd that he was Friend to Augustus, as that 
he was libertino Patre natus: so rudely and so clownishly have they 
handled him. 

You perfectly well agree with my Opinion, in approving this Poet above 
others; for, ever since I have had the good Fortune to read him otherwise 
than as a Schoolboy, I have always respected him as one of the most ac- 
complish'd Men of that incomparable Age. He was almost the first 
Writer that brought Poetry from the Fables of their ridiculous Religion, 
and from flattering Womens Beauties, to speak of human Affairs, and to 
shew Mankind to themselves. The Decency of his Order and Invention 
is admirable; all Things so justly, and measuredly said, that even the 
hypercritical Matt. Clifford himself cannot find one Word in him 
whereon to use his Sponge: so natural he is, that every Fancy seems to 
flow into his Pen, without any Contention of Brain, and yet he was the 
slowest and severest of his Time; the Wit which he shews, is just enough 
for the subjects which he undertakes; and no more. This I esteem one of 
hi 97 

the surest and noblest of Perfections, that belongs to an excellent Pen; 
and I like very well what Jack Berkenhead has somewhere said: "That a 
great Wit's great Work is to refuse." Moderation of Fancy is a Thing 
most commendable, and most difficult; it being hard for Men of hot and 
violent Minds (such as most commonly great Writers have) to stop 
themselves in full Speed, and to understand when they have done 

He meets, I confess, with some Tuccas, that blame him for his many 
downright and proverbial Sentences, and for the Roughness of his Style. 
But, as for the first, it must be said, that if his plain Morals are not Wit 
in this Age, yet they were then, and that too so great, that we have 
nothing else left us of all the eldest and most applauded Grecians, but 
some few such Sayings, of which we meet many hundreds in Horace. 
And if we consider his Stile too, we shall find it was very smooth, com- 
par'd to those who writ before him; for, the best Judge of Poetry in the 
World gives this Judgment of the best of the anci enter Romans, Lucilius, 
Hor. Sat. iv. ^^^^ he was ' durus componere Versus.'* Nor can his Way of writing be 
X^il,^ I _ call'd crabbed, or harsh, but rather a masculine Plainness, and ductile 

Course of Verse. If there be any Unevenness, or Ruggedness in it, it is 
such as that of his own Rome was, to which it was not an Injury but 
Advantage, that it was built on Hills. Nor are all Things presently to be 
prais'd that are smooth, for then it might be Quarles might come in Com- 
petition with Cowley; and if to be oyl'd were to be harmonious, I know 
not why a Coach-wheel, or a Jack, does not make good Musick. 
Thjey who blame him for the Equality and Familiarity of his Stile, are 
not worth confuting; let such be still ignorant, who admire nothing but 
what is lofty and swelling; such who prefer 

" The fair Abbess of the Skies, 
" With all her Nunnery of Eyes; 

or, (to make another Instance of the same Author, not yet puplish'd) 

'^ An eminent " G°5 ^'^ "^^ * Stepkins for the Sun, 

Oculist of " And hang green Sarcea^t 'fore the Moon, 

that Time " For, since my Celia's Eyes appear'd, 

" Those illustrious Lights are blear'd. 


" Fountains and Trees our wearied Pride do please, 
" Even in the midst of gilded Palaces; 
" And in our Towns, that Prospect gives Delight, 
" Which opens round the Country to our Sight. 

And that much, my dear Friend, for your Poet. 

To Mr. Wren, from the same Hand.— Recital of a mutual Discourse on 
the Subject of the Wit of Conversation. 1 663. 

I Owe you, my dear Friend, an ill Turn, your late Plot against me was 
most barbarous, your Design was as bloody as Venner's; youendeavour'd 
to raise a new Rebellion in my Heart, just after a long civil War; for this 
I have vow'd a severe Revenge, and have laid a thousand Policies to catch 
you; I have looked overall my Treasures of Malice, and have at last found 
a good old Engine, which never fail'd me in Time of Need, and that is 
the writing a long Letter: With this I have made many fatal Experi- 
ments, & have on all Occasions satisfy 'd my Wrath on those that have dis- 
pleas'd me ; so that for fear of it, some have wholly forsaken my Acquain- 
tance, and rejected my Passion; some have fled the Kingdom,; and some 
(for what I know) havegone into another World. Itiswiththismurd'rous 
Instrument that I now come to assault you; and I trust its Operation 
will confirm the Opinion of you Philosophers, that any Thing tho' never 
so innocent may be a Poison, if taken in too great a Quantity. It shall, I 
promise you, be as long as the Paper will give me Leave, and to the 
Length of it I will also add, that it shall be written on a Subject, on which 
I have heard you yourself speak many admirable Things; that so you 
may undergo the Torment to read your own Thoughts disfigur'd by my 
Expressions; which, I hope, will be as great a Grief to you, as it was to 
that King (whose Name I have forgot) when the Scythians sent home 
his own Ambassadors to him with their Ears, and Noses, and lips cut 
off. Now then, my dearest Friend, you may recollect we went lately 
from Axeyard to walk in St. James's-park, and tho' we met not the in- 
comparable Person, whose Company we sought, yet he was not enough 
present to our Thoughts, to bring us to discourse of that in which he so 
much excels, the Wit of Conversation. Some Part of what you then said, 
you shall now hear over again ; for tho' I have a most treacherous Memory 
in other Matters, yet my Love to Kit Wren makes it always faithful in 
preserving whatever he commits to it. The Wit therefore of Discourse 
is as different among the several Parts of Mankind, as the Temper ot 
their Air, and Constitution of their Bodies; and so it is to be dividedinto 
general, and particular. The general is that which consists of Terms, and 
Similitudes, and Humours, which are receiv'd by many Nations. This 
either prevails by Conquest, and so the Roman Language and Wit have 
obtain'd over all the Countries where they sow'd Civihty by their Vic- 
tories: Or else, by the Situation, Authority, and commanding Genius of 
one People above another. Thus the Grecians became Teachers of the 
Arts of Talking to the Ancients; and the French of late to the Moderns- 
whose Tongue and Customs have gone farther in Europe, than their 
present Kmg, how terrible soever he appears, is likely to carry their 
^2 99 

Armies. Of this general Wit there are manifest Differences to be observ'd. 
That of the Chinese consists in the Skill of writing several Characters. 
That of the Egyptians in giving Things themselves, instead of Words, 
for Similitudes; in painting a Snake with its Tail in its Mouth, to signify 
the Year; a Lyon for Courage; the Sun, Moon, and Stars, for a thousand 
Conceipts. A strange Kind of laborious expressing their Minds, which 
if the Orators of our Time should use in their Luxuriancy of Metaphors, 
they would stand in Need of the Ark, to carry about with them any one 
of their Orations. The Eastern Wit in all Ages has been principally made 
up of lofty and swelling Comparisons, as we may see at this Day in the 
Titles of the Sophy, and Grand Seignor, which no doubt are some of 
their noblest Fancies; and yet to our Understanding, they require the 
Assistance of Mahomet's Dove to make Sense of them. That of the 
Moors was the same as the Spanish at this Time. The Italian, French, 
English, Dutch (if they have any) is something alike, according to their 
common Original the Latin. Of the Muscovitish, or Tartarian, I can 
give but little Account: But I assure you, even the Irish had a Wit of 
their own, tho' you will hardly believe it, till some of our Friends went 
thither; nay, to say more to their Advantage, they had this peculiar to 
themselves, that almost all their whole Nation was at the same Time 
both Poets and Saints. The particular Wit is that which arises from the 
frequent Meetings of private Assemblies: And this too is capable of in- 
finite Divisions; for, there is hardly the least Company in the World 
which rendezvouses together, but has its common Sayings, Figures, 
Characters, and Observations, which are great Raillery in their proper 
Compass, but tasteless to Strangers. This is evident in several Shires of 
England. When I was in the North, there was a Buffoon that was a 
dreadful Droll among the Yorkshire Gentlemen, and yet scarce spoke a 
Grain of Salt to our Southern Tastes. This likewise appears in several 
Professions of Men. The Lawyers will laugh at those Jests in the Temple, 
which it may be will not move us at Charing-cross. And it is likely that 
Tom Killigrew himself would not seem good Company to a Table of 
Benchers. The Wit beyond Fleet-bridge has another Colour from that 
on this Side. The very Watermen on the Bank-side have their Quipps, 
and their Repartees, which are not intelligible but upon the Thames. 
But to say no more; this is to be seen in every private Family: I had 
almost gone so far as to say, that there is scarce a Husband and Wife in 
the World, but have a particular Way of Wit among themselves; but 
this I will not affirm, because this evil Age believes, that few married 
Persons are wont to delight so much in one another's Company, as to be 
merry & witty alone. Now then having discovered this mighty Proteus, 
which puts on so many various Shapes in several Places, and OccasionSj 
let us try to define it. The Wit of Discourse is (to speak magnificently) 


the greatest Art about the smallest Things: For to confess a Secret, as Sir 
W. Davenant's Way differs very little from Frank Bowman's, and yet 
the one is the gayest and the other the most insipid; so the true pleasant 
Talk, and the vainest Tattle, are not very much distinguished: The Sub- 
jects of both of them are a thousand little Trifles, and the Difference lies 
only in the Management. Nor does this Meanness of Matter prejudice 
the Art, for then it would follow, that your* divine Works in the King's * Forms of 
Closet are the worse, because they are the Descriptions of a Louse, a Flea, little Ani- 
and a Nit. This Wit therefore is made up of many inexpressible Excel- mals^ Gf mi- 
lences. It must have a general Evenness of Humour; it must perfectly nute Bodies, 
observe all the Rules of Decency, to know when enough is said; to for- drawn by 
bear biting Things not to be touched; to abstain from abusing honest & the Help of 
vertuous Matters. Microscopic- 

It must apply itself to the Condition, and Inclination of the Cortipany ; it al Glasses 
must rather follow than lead; it must not always strain to speak extra- 
ordinary Things; for that is a constant walking on the Ropes, in which 
though a Man does often well, yet he may have one Fall, that may chance 
to break his Neck: It must allow every one their Turn of speaking; for 
it is natural to all, better to love their Company who give them Occasions 
of speaking well, than those that do it themselves. It must mingle Stories 
with Argument, pleasant Things with solemn; it must vary the Subject 
often, & not pump itself dry at once. This, if you will believe Mr. Cowley, 
is a wise Quality: for in a Copy of Verses which you have not yet seen, 
he says 

" So the Imperial Eagle does not stay 
"'Till the whole Carcase he devour 

" That's fallen into his Power, 
"As if his generous Hunger understood, 
"That it can never want Plenty of Food; 

" He only sucks the tasteful Blood, 
"And to fresh Game flies chearfully away, 
"To Kites and meaner Birds he leaves the mangled Prey. 

This generous Eagle-wit therefore uses the best and easiest Words, is not 
the first that takes up new ones, nor the last that lays down old ones. But 
above all, its chiefest Dominion is in forming new Significations, and 
Images of Things & Persons. And this maybe so suddenly practised, that 
I have known in one Afternoon, new Stamps, and Proverbs, & Fashions 
of Speech raised, which were never thought of before, & yet gave Occa- 
sion to most delightful Imaginations. You see now, my dear Friend, of 
what Extent and Difficulty this Art is. The Truth is, it is seldom to be 
found among Men of large and full and high Thoughts; because such 
Minds overlook the little Passages, and fly presently to general Axioms, 
h3 ^ loi 

which it may be are more useful, yet they do not affect our Thoughts 
with such an Immediate and familiar Delight. But to speak Truth, the 
Perfection of this glorious Faculty, without which. Life were no Life, 
belongs not so much to Men, as to the softer Sex: for they have usually 
their heads less disturbed with busy Thoughts, their Minds are quicker 
& readier for new Impressions, they talk more of circumstantial Things, 
they sit longer together, and (which you used to say is of great Concern- 
ment in our northern and phlegmatick Climate) they keep their Feet 
warmer and drier, and go less into the moist and open Air. But that 
Women are the best Speakers, I could give you two undeniable Instances, 
in your Laura (as I think you call her) and her who was once my Clelia; 
the one speaks with a great Freedom and Spirit, and Abundance of ex- 
cellent Words ; the other talks less, but with as much S weetnessfic Nature ; 
from the one nothing can be taken away; to the other nothing ought to 
be added. But I dare not go farther in this Description on Remembrance 
of an old Story: That while a Painter was drawing a most beautiful Lady, 
he fell desperately in Love with her, & it had cost him his Life, had not 
Alexander bestowed her on him ! The first Part of this Tale, I am sure 
would be my Fortune, if I should longer employ my Thoughts on such 
a lovely Object; and I am as certain, that I should perish long enough, 
before I should find an Alexander to pity me. To go on then in my first 
Purpose. Witconsists in a right ordering of Things & Words for delight. 
But — Stay — Now I look about me. What Need have I to go any farther? 
you are without Question already sufficiently tired, and so my Eiid is 
obtained; and then it will be useless to speak moreon this Subject, seeing 
the Age wherein we live runs already so mad after the Affairs of Wit. 
All the World are at present Poets: the poetical Bees are all at Work: 
Comedies, Tragedies, Verses, Satyrs, Burleques, Songs buzz everywhere 
about our Ears; and (to ease my Hand a little by changing my Pace) 

" Wits we have now as many (if not more) 
"As we had Sects, or Preachers, heretofore: 
"And Heaven in Mercy grant this crying Sin 
" Don't the same Judgments once more usher in. 
"We have our Northern Wits, Wits of all the East, 
"Wits of the South, and Witlings of the West; 
" South and by West, South-East, East and by North, 
"From ev'ry Point like Winds they Bluster forth. 
" We have our Wits that write only to sway 
"At York, or Hull, or ten Miles thence each Way. 
"Each Corporation, Sea-Port, Borough Town, 
" Has those that will this glorious Title own. 


" Like Egypt's Frogs they swarm, and like them too 
" Into the Chambers of our Kings they go. 

What is to be done with this furious Generation of Wits and Writers? 
To advise them to leave ofFis in vain. 

■ Too strong the Infection is 

"To be destroy'd by such quick Remedies: 

" No no, it is a sweet and flatt'ring Kind 

" Of Poison, and deceives the clearest Mind: 

" Cowley himself (Cowley whom I adore) 

" Often resolv'd, nay, and I think he swore, 

" That he no more those barren Lands would plow, 

" Where flow'ry Weeds instead of Corn do grow. 

"Perchance (as Jesuit's Powder does) each Vow 

" Kept the Fit off from him three Weeks, or so, 

" But yet at last his Vows were all in vain, 

"This Writing Ague still returns again. 

Well, then, if they are incurable let them write on. But while others are 
exalting such dangerous Trophies of their Wit I will be content to give 
but one Instance of my own; but it is such that no Critick can lay hold 
on; and it is that I infinitely love one of Sir Harry Savil's Professors: You 
may easily guess which I mean, or whether it be to Dr. W. or yourself, 
that I am 

A most affectionate Servant, 


From the same Hand, from Oxford, to Dr. Wren in London, 1 663. 

My dear Sir, 

I Must confess I have some little Peek against you — therefore am not 
much displeased, that I have this Occasion of telling you some ill News. 
The Vice-Chancellor did yesterday send for me, to inquire where the As- 
tronomy Professor was, and the Reason of his Absence, so long after the 
Beginning of the Term — I used all the Arguments I could for your De- 
fence. I told him, that Charles the Second was King of England, Scot- 
land, France and Ireland; that he was by the late Act of Parliament de- 
clar'd absolute Monarch in these his Dominions; and that it was this 
mighty Prince who had confin'd you to London. I endeavour'd to per- 
swade him that the drawing of Lines in Sir Harry Savill's School was not 

^4 . 103 

*Fiz. The altogether of so great a Concernment for the Benefit of Christendom, as 
old ruinous the rebuilding of * St. Paul's, or the fortifying {a) of Tangier : (for I un- 
Fabrick, be- derstood thosewerethegreat Works, in which that extraordinary Genius 
fore the late of yours was judg'd necessary to be employ'd) All this I urged, but after 
Fire some Discourse, he told me, that he was not to consider you now as % Dr. 

Bayly, (for so he ow'd you all Kindness) but as Vice-Chancellor,& under 
XDr. Rich. that Capacity he most terribly told me, that he took it very ill, you had 
Bayly, Pre- riot all this while given him any Account what hinder'd you from the 
sident of St. Discharge of your Office. This he bid me tell you, & I do it not very un- 
John's and willingly, because I see that our Friendships are so closely ty'd togeth'er, 
Dean of that the same Thing which was so great a Prejudice to me, (my losing 

Sarum your Company all this while here) does also something redound to your 

Disadvantage. And so, my dear Sir, now my Spite and Spleen is satisfied, 

I must needs return to my old Temper again, and faithfully assure you, 

that I am with the most violent Zeal and Passion, 

Your most affectionate and devoted Servant, 



IN the Year 1665, Mr. Wren took a Journey to Paris, where, at that 
Time all Arts flourish'd in a higher Degree than had ever been known be- 
fore in France; and where there was a general Congress of the most cele- 
brated Masters in every Profession, encourag'd by Royal Munificence, 
and the Influence of the great Cardinal Mazarine. 
How he spent his Time, in that Place, will in Part appear from a short 
Account he gave by Letter to a particular Friend; wherein he returns 
Thanks for his Recommendation of him to the Earl of St. Albans, who 
in the Journey, and ever since, had us'd him with all Kindness and InduL 

(a) A Commission to survey and direct the Works of the Mole, Harbour & For- 
tifications of the Citadel and Town of Tangier in Africa, was at this Time pro- 
posed for him, {being then esteemed one of the best Geometricians m Europe) with 
an ample Salary, and Promise of other royal Favours, particularly a Dispen- 
sation for not attending the Business of his Professorship, during his Continu- 
ance in his Majesty's Service abroad; and a Reversionary Grant of the Office of 
Surveyor-General of the royal Works, on the Decease of Sir John Denham: all 
which was signified to him by Letter from Mr. Matthew Wren, Secretary to the 
Lord Chancellor Hyde. This Employment he had no Inclination to accept, {be- 
ing not then consistent with his Health,) but humbly prayed his Majesty to allow 
of his Excuse, and to command his Duty in England. 

gence imaginable, and made good his Character of him, as one of the best 
Men in the World. He then proceeds to the following Particulars; I have, 
says he, busied myself in surveying the most esteem'd Fabricks of Paris, 
& the Country round; the Louvre for a while was my daily Object, where 
no less than a thousand Hands are constantly employ 'd in the Works; 
some in laying mighty Foundations, some in raising the Stories, Col- 
umns, Entablements, &c., with vast Stones, by great and useful Engines; 
others in Carving, Inlaying of Marbles, Plaistering, Painting, Gilding, 
&c. Which altogether make a School of Architecture, the best probably, 
at this Day in Europe. The College of The four Nations is usually ad- 
mir'd, but the Artist hath purposely set it ill-favouredly, that he might 
shew his Wit in struggling with an inconvenient Situation. — An Acad- 
emy of Painters, Sculptors, Architects, and the chief Artificers of the 
Louvre, meet every first and last Saturday of the Month. Mons. Colbert, 
Superintendant, comes to the Works of the Louvre, every Wednesday, 
and, if Business hinders not, Thursday. The Workmen are paid every 
Sunday duly. Mons. Abbe Charles introduc'd me to the Acquaintance of 
Bernini, who shew'd me his Designs of the Louvre, and of the King's 
Statue. — Abbe Bruno keeps the curious Rarities of the Duke of Orleans's 
Library, well fill'd with excellent Intaglio's, Medals, Books of Plants, and 
Fowls in Miniature. Abbe Burdelo keeps an Academy at his House for 
Philosophy every Monday Afternoon. — But I must not think to describe 
Paris, and the numerous Observables there, in the Compass of a short 
Letter. — The King's Houses I could not miss; Fontainbleau has a stately 
Wildness and Vastness suitable to the Desert it stands in. The antique 
Mass of the Castle of St. Germains, & the Hanging-gardens are delight- 
fully surprising, (I mean to any Man of Judgment) for the Pleasures below 
vanish away in the Breath that is spent in ascending. The Palace, or if you 
please, the Cabinet of Versailles call'd me twice to view it; the Mixtures 
of Brick, Stone, blue Tile and Gold make it look like a rich Livery: Not 
an Inch within but is crouded with little Curiosities of Ornaments: the 
Women, as they make here the Language and Fashions, and meddle with 
Politicks and Philosophy, so they sway also in Architecture; Works of 
Filgrand, and little Knacks are in great Vogue; but Building certainly 
ought to have the Attribute of eternal, and therefore the only Thing un- 
capable of new Fashions. The masculine Furniture of Palais Mazarine 
pleas'd me much better, where is a great and noble Collection of antique 
Statues and Bustos, (many of Porphyry) good Basso-relievos; excellent 
Pictures of the great Masters, fine Arras, true Mosaicks, besides Pierres 
deRaport in Compartiments and Pavements; Vases on Porcelain painted 
by Raphael, and infinite other Rarities; the best of which now furnish 
the glorious Appartment of the Queen Mother at the Louvre, which I 
saw many Times. — After the incomparable Villas of Vaux and Maisons, 

I shall but name Ruel, Courances, Chilly, Essoane, St. Maur, St. Mande, 
Issy, Meudon, Rincy, Chantilly, Verneul, Lioncour, all which,& I might 
add many others, I have survey'd; and that I might not lose the Impres- 
sions ofthem, I shall bring you almost all France in Paper, which I found 
by some or other ready design'd to my Hand, in which I have spent both 
Labour and some Money. Bernini's Design of the Louvre I would have 
given my Skin for, but the old reserv'd Italian gave me but a few Min- 
utes view; it was five little Designs in Paper, for which he hath receiv'd 
as many thousand Pistoles; I had only Time to copy it in my Fancy and 
Memory; I shall be able by Discourse, and a Crayon, to give you a toler- 
able Account of it. I have purchas'd a great deal of Taille-douce, that I 
might give our Country-men Exanlples of Ornaments and Grotesks, in 
which the Italians themselves confess the French to excel. I hope I shall 
give you a very good Account of all the best Artists of France; my Busi- 
ness now is to pry into Trades and Arts, I put myself into all Shapes to 
humour them; 'tis a Comedy to me, and tho' sometimes expenceful, I am 
loth yet to leave it. Of the most noted Artisans within my Knowledge or 
Acquaintance I send you only this general Detail, and shall inlarge on 
their respective Characters and Works at another Time. 


Sig. Cavalier Bernini, Mons. Mansart, Mons. Vaux, Mons. Gobert, 

Mons. Le Pautre. 
Messieurs Anguiere and Sarazin; Sculptors and Statuaries. 
Mons. Perrot; famous for Basso-relievos. 
Van Ostal, Mr. Arnoldin; Plaisterers, perform the admirable Works at 

the Louvre. 
Mons. Orphelin, Mons. de Tour; Gravers of Medals and Coins. 


Mess. Le Brun, Bourdon, Poussin, Ruvine, Champeine, Vilcein, Loyre, 
Coypel, Plcard. 

Miniard, in History and Portraits. 

Mons. Beaubrun; in Portraits for Women. 

Mess. Baptist, Robert, for Flowers. 

Mr. Matthews, an English Painter, at the Rue-Gobelins; works for the 
Arras-weavers; where Mons. Bruno is the Designer, and an excel- 
lent Artist. — There I saw Goldsmiths working in Plate admirably 

Abbe Burdelo works in Enamel. laQuintinye^has most excellent Skill in Agriculture, Planting,^ 
and Gardening. 
1 06 

My Lord Berkley returns to England at Christmass, when I propose to 
take the Opportunity of his Company, and by that Time, to perfect what 
I have on the Anvil; Observations on the present State of Architecture, 
Arts, and Manufactures in France. 

N.B. "Painting & Sculpture, (said the judicious Sieur de Cambray) are Idea of the 
" the politest and noblest of antient Arts, true, ingenuous, and claiming Perfection of 
" the Resemblance of Life, the Emulation of all Beauties, the fairest Re- Painting 
" cords of all Appearances whether celestial or sublunary, whether an- 
" gelical, divine or humane. And what Art can be more helpful, or more 
" pleasing to a philosophical Traveller, an Architect, & every ingenious 
" Mechanician ? All which must be lame without it. 






)FTER the most dreadful Conflagration of 
London, in the fatal Year 1 666. Dr. Christo- 
I pher Wren was appointed Surveyor-general 
and principal Architect for rebuilding the 
whole City ; the Cathedral Church of St. Paul ; 
all the parochial Churches (in Number Fifty- 
one, enacted by Parliament, in lieu of those 
that were burnt and demolished) with other 
publick Structures; and for the Disposition of 
the Streets: A Charge so great and extensive, 
incumbent on a single Person, disposed him to take to his Assistance 
Mr. Robert Hook, Professor of Geometry in Gresham College, to whom 
he assigned chiefly the Business of measuring, adjusting, and setting out 
the Ground of the private Street-houses to the several Proprietors ; re- 
serving all the publick Works to his own peculiar Care and Direction. 
On the 6th of March, 1667-8. He receiv'd his Majesty's Warrant under 
the Privy-seal (in Confirmation of a Deputation from Sir John Denham, 
Knight of the Bath) to execute the Office of Surveyor-general of the 
Royal-works: Upon whose Decease in the same Month, his Majesty 
was pleas'd to grant him Letters Patents, under the Great-seal to succeed 
in that Employment (a). Dr. Wren had the Honour of Knighthood 
confer'd on him, in the Year 1 674. 

(a) By the Way; this Sir John Denham, the only Son of Sir John Denham At 
Knight, sometime one of the Barons of the Exchequer; was a celebrated Poet, Ox. 
and an eminent Royalist. King Charles I. granted to him the Reversion of the 2 . p 
Office of Surveyor-general of the Works; after the Decease of the great Archi- 
tect Iniga Jones; which Office he entered upon at the Restoration of King 
Charles II. Anno 1660. (for the said Inigo Jones deceased 21 July, Ann. 
1 65 1, aged about ']^ years). At the Coronation of King Charles II. he was 
made a Knight of the Bath. He died at his Office in Scotland-yard near White- 
hall, at the Time above-mentioned, and was buried in Westminster-abbey, near 
the Graves ofjeffery Chaucer, and Abra. Cowley. 

1 1 1 

In 1684, Sir Christopher Wren was constituted by Patents under the 
Great-seal, the principal Officer, by the Stile of Comptroller of the 
Works in the Castle of Windsor; and of all Mannors, Lodges, &c., in the 
Forrest thereof; in the Room of Hugh May, Esq. ; deceas'd. 
In 1 698, he was appointed Surveyor-general, and a Commissioner of the 
Works and Repairs of the ancient Abbey-church of St. Peter, in West- 
minster; (upon the passing of an Act of Parliament, charging a Branch 
of the Duty on Coals, for that Purpose) and furthermore, was occasion- 
ally nominated a Commissioner in divers other publick Commissions. 
A View (however short and imperfect) of the Surveyor's Proceedings, 
in Relation to the Buildings of London; the royal & other publick Works 
pursuant to the several above-mention'd Appointments, may be taken 
from the following Sections, put together out of some scatter'd Papers, 
and publick Accounts, such as the Collector hath hitherto met with. 




10 have a right Idea of London of old, it will be 
necessary to consider the Stateof the Britains, 
at the Time the Romans made their first De- 
scent on the Island; and surely we cannot 
) reasonably think them so barbarous, at least 
in that Age (and the Accounts before that, are 
I too fabulous) as is commonly believ'd. Their 
j Manner of Fighting was in Ghariots, like the 
' ancient Heroes of Greece, in the Trojan War, 
& occasionally on Foot, with such good Order 
and Discipline, as much embarrass'd the Roman Legions, and put a Stop 
to the Progress of the invincible Cassar; who could do nothing great, nor 
conquer any part, but, says Tacitus, only shew'd the Country to the 
Romans; and, according to Lucan, was oblig'd shamefully to retreat. 

Territa quaesitis ostendit terga Britannis. 

The Britains went to Sea in Vessels cover'd with Hides, for they wanted 
Pitch : They traded chiefly with the Gauls, and certainly the principal 
Emporium, or Town of Trade to which the Gallic Ships resorted, must 
be London; tho' situated far up the Country, yet most commodiously ac- 
cessible by a noble River, among the thickest Inhabitants; taking its 
Name (according to some Derivations from the old British Term) of 
Ship-hill; or otherwise, a Harbour of Ships. 

Here the Romans fix'd a civil, or trading Colony, in the Reign of 
Claudius, which greatly increas'd under Nero, by the Concourse of 
Merchants, and Convenience of Commerce, and was inhabited by 
Christians and Heathens together. 

The Extent of the Roman Colony, or Prasfecture, particularly North- 
ward, the Surveyor had Occasion to discover by this Accident. The 
parochial Church of St. Mary-le-Bow, in Cheapside, requir'd to be re- 
built after the great Fire: the Building had been mean and low, with one 
Corner taken out for a Tower, but upon restoring that, the new Church 
ii 113 

could be render'd square. Upon opening the Ground, a Foundation was 
discerned firm enough for the new intended Fabfick, which (on further 
Inspection, after digging down sufficiently, and removing what Earth or 
Rubbish lay in the Way) appear'd to be the Walls, with the Windows 
also, and the Pavement of a Temple, or Church, of Roman Workman- 
ship, intirelybury'd under the Level of the present Street. Hereupon, he 
determin'd to erect his new Church over the old; & in order to the neces- 
sary Regularity and Square of the new Design, restor'd the Corner; but 
then another Place was to be found for the Steeple: The Church stood 
about 40 Feet backwards from the high Street, and by purchasing the 
Ground of one private House not yet rebuilt, he was enabled to bring 
the Steeple forward so as to range with the Street-houses of Cheapside. ' 
Here, to his Surprise, he sunk about 1 8 feet deep through made-ground, 
and then imagin'd he was come to the natural Soil, and hard Gravel, but 
upon full Examination, it appear'd to be a Roman Causeway of rough 
Stone, close and well rammed, with Roman Brick and Rubbish at the 
Bottom, for a Foundation, and all firmly cemented. This Causeway was 
four Feet thick [the Thickness of the via Appia, according as Mons. 
Montfaucon measur'd, it was about three Parisian Feet, or three Feet 
two Inches & a half English]. Underneath this Causeway lay the natural 
Clay, over which that Part of the City stands, & which descends at least 
forty Feet lower. He concluded then to lay the Foundation of the Tower 
upon the very Roman Causeway, as most proper to bear what he had 
design'd, a weighty and lofty Structure. 

He was of opinion for divers Reasons, that this High-way ran along the 
North Boundary of the Colony. The Breadth then North and South, was 
from the Causeway now Cheapside, to the River Thames; the Extent 
East and West, from Tower-hill to Ludgate, and the principal middle 
Street, or Prastorian Way, was Watling-street. 

The Colony was wall'd next the Thames, and had a Gate there called 
Dow-gate, but anciently Dour-gate, which signified the Water-gate. 
On the North Side, beyond the Causeway, was a great Fen, or Morass, 
in those Times ; which the Surveyor discover'd more particularly when 
he had Occasion to build a new East-front to the parochial Church of 
St. Lawrence near Guildhall; for the Foundation of which, after sinking 
seven Feet, he was obliged to pile twelve Feet deeper; and if there was 
no Causeway over the Bog, there could be no Reason for a Gate that 

At length, about the Year 141 4, all this moorish Ground was drain'd by 
the Industry and Charge of Francerius, a Lord-mayor, and still retains 
the Name of Moor-fields, and the Gate, Moor-gate. London-stone, as is 
generally suppos'd, was a Pillar, in the Manner of the Milliarium 
Aureum, at Rome, from whence the Account of their Miles began; but 

the Surveyor was of Opinion, by Reason of the large Foundation, it was 
rather some more considerable Monument in the Forum; for in the ad- 
joining Ground on the South Side (upon digging for Cellars, after the 
great Fire) were discovered some tessellated Pavements, and other exten- 
sive Remains of Roman Workmanship and Buildings.* 
On the West-side was situated the Praetorian Camp, which was also 
wall'd in to Ludgate, in the Vallum of which, was dug up near the Gate, 
after the Fire, a Stone, with an Inscription, and the Figure of a Roman 
Soldier, which the Surveyor presented to the Archbishop of Canterbury, 
who sent it to Oxford, & it is reposited amongtheArundellian Marbles. 
This is a sepulchral Monument dedicated to the Memory of Vivius 
Marcianus, a Soldier of the second Legion, stil'd Augusta, by his Wife 
Januaria Matrina. The Inscription is in this Manner. 

D. M. 


-A NO lylL. LEG. IL 





N.B. The Extract of this Inscription published in the Marmora Oxoni- 
ensia. Numb. 147, is erroneous. 

The Soldiers used to be buried in Vallo, as the Citizens, extra Portas in 
Pomaerio; there 'tis most probable the Extent of the Camp reached to 
Ludgate, to the declining of the Hill, that Way. The Surveyor gave but 
little Credit to the common Story, that a Temple had been hereto Diana 
(which some have believed, upon the Report of the digging up, formerly, 
and of later Years, Horns of Stags, Ox-heads, Tusks of Boars, &c.) meet- 
ing with no such Indications in all his Searches; but that the North-side 
of this Ground had been very anciently a great Burying-place, was mani- 

* Probably this might in some aegree, have imitated the Milliarium Aureum at 
Constantinople y which ivas not in the Form of a Pillar as at Rome, but an emi- 
nent Building; for under its Roof (according to Cedrenus andSuidasJ stood the 
Statues of Constantine and Helena; Trajan; an equestrian Statue of Hadrian; 
a Statue of Fortune; and many other Figures and Decorations. 

i2 115 

Camden s 
2d Edit, by 
Bp. Gibson, 
W.I./. 375 

See Part 2, 
Sect. 7 

f Fecit 

fest; for upon the'digging the Foundations of the present Fabrick of St. 
Paul's, he found under the Graves of the latter Ages, in a Row below 
them, the Burial Places of the Saxon Times: the Saxons, as it appeared, 
were accustomed to line their Graves with Chalk-stones, though some 
more eminent were entombed in Coffins of whole Stones. Below these 
were British Graves, where were found Ivory and wooden Pins, of a hard 
Wood seemingly Box, in Abundance, of about 6 Inches long; it seems 
the Bodies were only wrapped up, & pinned in woollen Shrouds, which 
being consumed, the Pins remained entire. In the same Row & deeper, 
were Roman Urns intermixed: This was eighteen Feet deep or more, 
and belonged to the Colony when Romans and Britains lived and died 

The most remarkable Roman Urns, Lamps, Lacrymatories, and Frag- 
ments of Sacrificing-vessels, &c., were found deep in the Ground, to- 
wards the North-east Corner of St. Paul's Church, near Cheapside; 
these were generally well wrought, and embossed with various Figures 
and Devices, of the Colour of the modern red Portugal Ware, some 
brighter like Coral, and of a Hardness equal to China Ware, and as well 
glaz'd. Among Divers Pieces which happened to have been preserved, 
are, a Fragment of a Vessel, in Shape of a Bason, whereon Charon is re- 
presented with his Oar in his Hand receiving a naked Ghost; a Patera 
Sacrificalis with an Inscription PATER.CLO. a remarkable small Urn 
of a fine hard Earth, and leaden Colour, containing about half a Pint; 
many Pieces of Urns with the Names of the Potters embossed on the 
Bottoms, such as, for Instance, ALBUCI. *M. VICTORINUS. 
sepulchral earthen Lamp, figured with two Branches of Palms, supposed 
Christian ; and two Lacrymatories of Glass. 

Amongthe many Antiquities, the Surveyor had the Fortune to discover 
in other Parts of the Town, after the Fire, the most curious was a large 
Roman Urn, or Ossuary of Glass, with a Handle, containing a Gallon 
and half, but with a very short Neck, and wide Mouth, of whiter Metal, 
encompassed Girthwise, with five parallel Circles. This was found in 
Spital-fields, which he presented to the Royal Society, and is preserved 
in their Museum. 

1 16 



iHE Manner of building in the City of London, 
practised in all former Ages, was commonly 
with Timber, a Material easily procured, and 
kat little Expence, when the Country was over- 
iburthened with Woods. This often subjected 
[the Town to great & destructive Fires, some- 
I times to the Ruin of the whole, as happened, 
|for Instance, in the Year i o 8 3 , & Reign of Wil- 
fliam the Conqueror, the Street-houses being 
then of Timber covered with Thatch. Not- 
withstanding these Incidents, this Mode continued until the two fatal 
Years 1665 and 6; but then the successive Calamities of Plague & Fire, 
gave all People Occasion seriously to reflect on the Causes of the Increase 
of both to that excessive Height; viz. Closeness of Buildings, and com- 
bustible Materials, and hence the Wishes for the necessary Amendment 
of both, by widening the Streets, and building with Stone and Brick, be- 
came universal. 

Some intelligent Persons went farther, and thought it highly requisite, 
the City in the Restoration should rise with that Beauty, by the Straight- 
ness and Regularity of Buildings, & Convenience for Commerce, by the 
well disposing of Streets and publick Places, and the Opening of Wharfs, 
&c. which the excellent Situation, Wealth, and Grandeur of the Metro- 
polis of England did justly deserve; in respect also of the Rank she bore 
with all other trading Cities of the World, of which tho' she was before 
one of the richest in Estate & Dowry, yet unquestionably the least beau- 
tiful. Informe, ingens, cui lumen ademptum. 

In order therefore to a proper Reformation, Dr. Wren (pursuant to the 
royal Commands) immediately after the Fire, took an exactSurvey of the 
whole Area and Confines of the Burning, having traced over, with great 
Trouble and Hazard, the great Plain of Ashes and Ruins; and designed 
a Plan or Model of a new City, in which the Deformity and Inconveni- 
ences of the old Town were remedied, by the inlarging the Streets and 
Lanes, and carrying them as near parallel to one another as might be ; 
avoiding, if compatible with greater Conveniences, all acute Angles; by 
seating all the parochial Churches conspicuous and insular; by forming 
13 117 

the most publick Places into large Piazzas, the Centers of eight Ways; 
by uniting the Halls of the twelve chief Companies, into one regular 
Square annexed to Guild-hall; by making a commodious Key on the 
whole Bank of the River, from Blackfriars to the Tower. 
Moreover, in contriving the general Plan, the following Particulars were 
chiefly consider'd and propos'd. 

The Streets to be of three Magnitudes; the three principal leading 
straight through the City, and one or two Cross-streets to be at least 90 
Feet wide; others 60 Feet; & Lanes about 30 Feet, excluding all narrow 
dark Alleys without Thorough-fares, and Courts. 
The Exchange to stand free in the Middle of a Piazza, and be, as it were, 
the Nave or Center of the Town, from whence the 60 Feet Streets as so 
many Rays, should proceed to all principal Parts of the City: the Build- 
ing to be contriv'd after the Form of the Roman Forum, with double 

Many Streets also to radiate upon the Bridge. The Streets of the first and 
second Magnitude to be carried on as straight as possible, and to center 
into four or five Piazzas. 

TheKeyoropen Wharf on the Bank of the Thames, to be spacious & con- 
venient, without any Interruptions; with some large Docks for Barges 
deep loaden. 

The Canal to be cut up Bridewell, 120 Feet wide, with Sasses at Holborn 
Bridge, and at the Mouth to cleanse it of all Filth; & Stores for Coal on 
each Side. 

The Churches to be design'd according to the best Forms for Capacity 
and Hearing, adorn'd with useful Porticos, and lofty ornamental Towers 
and Steeples, in the greater Parishes, All Church-yards, Gardens, & un- 
necessary Vacuities; and all Trades that use great Fires, or yield noisome 
Smells, to be placed out of the Town. 

The Model or Plan form'd on these Principles, delineated by Dr. Wren, 
was laid before the King and the honourable House of Commons; and is 
thus explain'd. 

From that Part of Fleet-street which remain'd unburnt, about St. Duns- 
tan's Church, a straight Street of 90 Feet wide, crosses the Valley, pass- 
ing by the South Side of Ludgate Prison, and thence in a direct Line ends 
gracefully in a Piazza at Tower-hill; but before it descends into the Val- 
ley where now the great Sewer (Fleet-ditch) runs, about the once Middle 
of Fleet-street, it opens into a round Piazza, the Center of eight Ways, 
where at one Station are these Views. — First, straight forward quite 
through the City : Second, obliquely towards the Right Hand, to the Be- 
ginning of the Key, that runs from Bridewell Dock to the Tower. Third, 
obliquely on the left to Smithfield. Fourth, straight on the Right, to the 
Thames. Fifth, straight on the left, to Hatton-street, and Clerkenwell. 

Sixth, straight backwards, towards Temple-barr. Seventh, obliquely on 
the right, to the Walks of the Temple. Eighth, obliquely on the left, to 
Cursitor's Alley. 

Passing forward we cross the Valley, once sullied with an offensive Sew- 
er, now to be beautified with a useful Canal, passable by as many Bridges 
as Streets that cross it. — Leaving Ludgate Prison on the left Side of the 
Street, (instead of which Gate, was design'd a triumphal Arch to the 
Founder of the new City, King Charles the Second.) This great Street 
presently divides into another as large, which carries the Eye and Passage 
to the South-front of the Exchange, (which we leave as yet for a second 
Journey) and before these two Streets spreading at acute Angles, can be 
clear of one another, they form a triangular Piazza, the Basis of which is 
fiU'd by the cathedral Church of St. Paul. 

But leaving St. Paul's on the left, we proceed as our first Way led us to- 
towards the Tower, the Way being all along adorn'd with parochial 

We return again to Ludgate, and leaving St. Paul's on the right Hand, 
pass the other great Branch to the Royal-exchange, seated in the Place 
where it was before, but free from Buildings, in the Middle of a Piazza 
included between two great Streets; the one from Ludgate leading to the 
South-front, & another from Holborn, over the Canal to Newgate, and 
thence straight to the North-front of the Exchange. 
The Practicability of this whole Scheme, without Loss to any Man, or 
Infringement of any Property, was at that Time demonstrated, & all ma- 
terial Objections fully weigh'd, and answer'd : the only, &, as it happened, 
insurmountable Difficulty remaining, was the obstinate Averseness of 
great Part of the Citizens to alter their old Properties, and tg recede from 
building their houses again on their old Ground & Foundations; as also, 
the Distrust in many, & Unwillingness to give up their Properties, tho' 
for a Time only, into the Hands of publickTrustees,or Commissioners,till 
they might be dispens'd to them again, with more Advantage to them- 
selves, than otherwise was possible to be effected; for, such a Method was 
propos'd, that by an equal Distribution of Ground into Buildings, leav- 
ing out Church-yards, Gardens, &c. (which were to be removed out of 
the Town) there would have been sufficient Room both for the Aug- 
mentation of the Streets; Disposition of the Churches, Halls, & all pub- 
lick Buildings; and to have given every Proprietor full Satisfaction; and 
although few Proprietors should happen to have been seated again, di- 
rectly upon the very same Ground they had possess'd before the Fire, yet 
no Man would have been thrust any considerable Distance from it, but 
been placed at least as conveniently, and sometime more so, to their own 
Trades than before. 

By these Means, the Opportunity, in a great Degree, was lost, of making 
^4 119 

the new City the most magnificent, as well as commodious for Health 
and Trade of any upon Earth; and the Surveyor being thus confin'd and 
cramp'd in his Designs, it requir'd no small Labour and Skill, to model 
the City in the Manner it has since appear'd. 

In the Acts of Parliament, 1 9 and 22 Car. II. for the rebuilding the City 
of London; among other Rules and Directions consistent with the Sur- 
veyor's Opinion & Advice, it is enacted: "That there shall be left a Key, 
" or open Wharf, from London-bridge to the Temple, forty Foot broad; 
" and in order thereunto, all Buildings, Sheds, &c. within forty Feet 
" NorthwardoftheThames, shall within eightMonths ensuing be taken 
" down, and remov'd ; and the Buildings to front the said Key, shall be of 
" the second or third Rate of Buildings, observing Uniformity as in other 
" Streets, &c. 

A Clause so well calculated for the Ornament, & Advantage of the City, 

requir'd to have been punctually observ'd and executed by the Citizens, 

according to the full Extent and Virtue of the Law. 

Critical Re- The Observations of a late Critick, (allowing for some Mistakes in his 

view of the Description of Sir Christopher Wren's Scheme for rebuilding the City) 

Buildings of are j udicious and right. 

London, p. 2 "Towards the End of King James I.'s Reign, and in the Beginning of his 
Lond. 1734 " Son's, Taste in Architecture made a bold Step from Italy to England at 
" once, and scarce staid a Moment to visit France by the Way. From the 
" most profound Ignorance in Architecture, the most consummate Night 
" of Knowledge, Inigo Jones started up, a Prodigy of Art, and vied even 
" with his Master Palladio himself. From so glorious an Out-set, there 
" was not any Excellency that we might not have hoped to obtain; Bri- 
" tain had-a reasonable Prospect to rival Italy, and foil every Nation in 
" Europe beside. But in the midst of these sanguine Expectations, the fatal 
" Civil-war commenc'd,and all the Arts and Sciences were immediately 
" laid aside, as no Way concern'd in the Quarrel. What follow'd was all 
" Darkness and Obscurity, and 'tis even a Wonder they left us a Monu- 
" ment of the Beauty, 'twas so agreeable to their Natures to destroy. 
" Wren was the next Genius that arose, to awake the Spirit of Science, 
" and kindle in his Country a Love for that Science which had been so 
" long neglected: during his Time a most melancholy Opportunity of- 
" fer'd for Art to exert itself, in the most extraordinary Manner; but the 
" Calamities of the present Circumstance were so great and numerous, 
" that the Pleas of Elegancy and Beauty could not be heard; and Neces- 
" sity and Conveniency took Place of Harmony and Magnificence. 
" What I mean is this; The Fire of London, furnish'd the most perfect 
" Occasion that can ever happen in any City, to rebuild it with Pomp 
" and Regularity : this, Wren foresaw, &, as we are told, ofFer'd a Scheme 
" for that Purpose, which would have made it the Wonder of the World. 








He propos'd to have laid out one large Street from Aldgate to Temple- 
bar, in the Middle of which was to have been a large Square, capable 
of containing the new Church of St. Paul's, with a proper Distance for 
the View all round it; whereby that huge Building would not have 
been cooped up, as it is at present, in such a Manner, as no where to be 
seen to Advantage at all; but would have had a long and ample Vista 
at each End, to have reconcil'd it to a properPoint of View, and gave 
it one great Benefit, which, in all probability, it must now want forever. 
He further propos'd to rebuild all the Parish Churches in such a Man- 
ner as to be seen at the end of every Vista of Houses, and dispersed in 
such Distances from each other, as to appear neither too thick, nor thin 
in Prospect; but give a proper heightening to the whole Bulk of the 
City, as it fill'd the Landscape. Lastly, he propos'd to build all the Houses 
uniform, and supported on a Piazza, like that of Co vent-Gar den: And, 
by the Water-side, from the Bridge to the Temple, he had plan'd a long 
& broad Wharf, or Key, where he design'd to have rang'd all the Halls 
that belong to the several Companies of the City, with proper Ware- 
houses for Merchants, between, to vary the Edifices, & make it at once 
one of the most beautiful, and most useful Ranges of Structure in the 
World. — But the Hurry of Rebuilding, and the Disputes about Pro- 
perty, prevented this glorious Scheme from taking Place," 

There is scarce any Instance in History and Antiquity, of a Conflagra- 
tion comparable in its Celerity and Extent, to the fatal Fire of the City of 
London. What seems to come nearest, and to be almost a parallel Case, 
was the Burning of Lyons in Gaul, thus describ'd by Seneca. 

"Lugdunensis colonia exusta est. Hoc tam inopinatum malum, & pene 

" inauditum, non miror si sine metu fuit, cum esset sine exemplo. Multas 

"enimi civitates incendium vexavit, nuUam abstulit. Nam etiam ubi 

"hostili manuin tecta ignis immissus est, multis locis deficit; & quamvis 

"subinde excitetur, rar6 tamen sic cuncta depascitur, ut nihil ferro re- 

"linquat. Terrarum quoque vix unquam tam gravis & perniciosus fuit 

I'motus, ut tota oppida everteret. Nunquam denique tam infestum uUi 

^'1 exarsitincendium, ut nihil alteri superesset incendio. Tot pulcherrima *iV.5. Lon- 

^'^' opera, quae singula illustrare singulas urbes possent, una nox stravit, dmum,nobil- 

^ ' & m tan ta pace, quantum de bello quidem timeri potest, accidit. Quis issimam ur- 

^|hoc credat? Ubique armis quieScentibus, cum toto orbe terrarum dif- bemcui nulla 

^^tusa secuntas sit, Lugdunum quod ostendebatur in Gallic quaeritur. genshabuit 

Umnibus fortuna quos public^ afflixit, quod passuri erant, timere paremjam- 
cc r^^^^^'' ^"^^^.^^^ magna, non aliquod habuit ruinae suae spacium. In ma triduo in 
•'YPTT^n^ "°^ interfuit inter u'ribem maximam & nuUam. [Epist. cineresre- 

^^^^' -I degit 


.see Bp. of 

Hist. of ^ng. 
Lib. I. 




HE christian Faith, without doubt, was very 
early received in Britain; and without having 
recourse to the monkish Tale of Joseph of 
Arimathea, & other legendary Fictions; there 
is authentick Testimony of a Christian Church 
planted here by the Apostles themselves, and, 
in particular, very probably by St. Paul, 
.lit is very certain this Apostle, from his first 
Imprisonment at Rome, to his Return at Jeru- 
salam, had spent eight Years in preaching in 
divers Places, but more especially in the Western Countries. We know 
he design'd for Spain, and it is not improbable, but his Earnestness to 
convert the Britains might have carried him to this Island. 
This Opinion may be strengthened by the Evidence of Vanutius Fortu- 
natus, who says the same Thing, speaking of. the Travels of St. Paul, in 
his Poem on the Life of St. Martin. 

Transit & oceanum, vel qua facit insula portum, 
Quasque Britannus habet terras, quasque ultima Thule. 

Every Christian Church derived from the Apostles, had a Succession of 
Bishops from them too, and the Condition of the British Church was so 
early establish'd, that some maintain there were Bishops of the Britains 
at the Council of Nice, assembled in 325: and 'tis certain, that twenty- 
two Years after, Restitutus Bishop of London was one of the three 
British Bishops present at the Council of Aries. 

Some British Prelates were likewise at the Council of Ariminum, as- 
sembled in 359, and these were of such Dignity, that they refused the 

Emperor's f Allowance, thinking it beneath them not to bear their own fDu Pin 

The first Cathedral of this episcopal See of London (built in the Area, 
where had been the Roman Praetorian Camp; the Situation of all the 
succeeding Fabricks to this Time) was demolished under the great and 
general Persecution by Dioclesian; But although in Pursuance of the 
Strictness of his Edicts, the Christian Churches in all the Provinces of 
the Roman Government were ordered to be puU'd down, yet possibly 
the Praefects might not take the Pains, when they had made them unfit 
for Use, to tear up the Foundations also. The Time of the Persecution 
was short, for under Constantine, the Church flourish'd again; the 
Churches in Rome, and other Parts of the Empire were soon rebuilt, and 
most likely ours among the first, after the Pattern of the Roman Basilica 
of St. Peter, and St. Paul, in the Vatican; and, as the Surveyor conceiv'd, 
upon the old Foundations left by the Persecutors; for, the Christians 
were zealous, and in haste to be settled again. 

The Church thus re-edified under Constantine, was afterwards destroy'd 
by the Pagan Saxons; andrestor'd again, upon the old Foundations, when 
they embrac'd Christianity, in the seventh Century, by Mellitus, Bishop 
of London, under Ethelbert King of Kent, the first Saxon King of the 
Christian Faith. 

This Church, together with the whole City was destroy'd by a casual 
Fire in the Year 1083. Mauritius then Bishop of London, obtain'dof the 
King, the old Stone of a spacious Castle in the Neighbourhood, call'd 
the Palatine Tower, demolished by the same Fire; (this Fort stood at the 
Entrance of the Fleet-river, as if to defend the little Haven, then capable 
of Ships) & began the Building, upon the old Foundations, a fourth Time 
of that Pile; which after Additions, at several Times, to the East and 
West, continu'd till the last general Conflagration of the City, in 1 666. 
The Fabrick thus began by Mauritius, had originally, as the Surveyor 
believ'd, a semicircular Presbyterium or Chancel, after the usual Mode 
of the Primitive Churches, and came near the Form of across, short to 
the East; as he concluded for this Reason; a Quire in after Times was 
added to give a greater Length Eastward than at first; this Building was 
apparently of a more modern Gothick-stile, not with Round (as in the 
old Church) but sharp-headed Arches; to make Way for which, the 
semicircular Presbyterium had been taken down. Upon demolishing the 
Ruins, after the last Fire, and searching the Foundations of this Quire, 
the Surveyor discover'd nine Wells in a Row; which, no doubt, had 
anciently belong'd to a Street of Houses, that lay aslope from the High- 
street (then Watling-street) to the Roman Causeway (now Cheapside) 
and this Street, which was taken away to make room for the new Quire, 
came so near the old Presbyterium, that the Church could not extend 


St. Paul's, 
p. 6 

Godwin de 

St. Paul's, 
p. 12 

farther that Way at first. He discover'd also, there had been a consider- 
able Addition, and a new Front to the West, but in what Age is not 

The Reason the Surveyor was of Opinion, that though several Times 
the Fabrick had been ruin'd, yet that the Foundations might remain, as 
originally they were laid, was upon his observing, that they consisted of 
nothing but Kentish-rubble-stone, artfully work'd, and consolidated 
with exceeding hard Mortar, in the Roman Manner, much excelling 
what he found in the Superstructure; the Outside of which was built 
chiefly with the Free-stone of the old Palatine Tower, and Free-stone 
suppos'd from the Quarries ofYorkshire, & in every Part was apparently 
less skilfully perform'd, and with worse Mortar. 

Tho' there be now no History or Record notifying directly the first 
Building of the first new Quire, yet 'tis probable it might have been exe- 
cuted by Richard who was Bishop of London in the first Year of the 
Reign of King Richard the First, & had been Treasurer to King Henry 
the Second; who is said to have expended a vast Sum of Money on the 
Buildings of his Church, &c. 

But the said Quire being, afterwards, not thought beautiful enough, and 
a Resolution taken for an Improvement, they began with the Steeple, 
which was finish'd in the Year 1221 (5 Hen. HI.) & then going on with 
the Quire, perfected it in 1 240 (24 Hen. HI.) in the Form it continued 
to the last great Fire, 1 666. 

Under the Quire was a noble Vault, wherein were three Ranks of large 
and massy Pillars, which being made a Parish-church, was dedicated to 
St. Faith. 

Upon the happy Restoration of King Charles H. it was determin'd to 
proceed in the Repairs of the old cathedral Church, which had been in- 
terrupted by the great Rebellion; and Dr. Wren was order'd to prepare 
proper Designs for that Purpose: his Predecessor Mr. Inigo Jones had 
(pursuant to a Royal-commission in 1 63 1 , 7 Car. I.) put the Quire, of a 
more modern Gothick Stile, as before specified, than the rest of the 
Fabrick, into very good Repair; he had proceeded to case great Part of 
the Outside with Portland-stone; had rebuilt theNorth & South-fronts; 
and also the West-front, with the Addition of a very graceful Portico of 
the Corinthian Order, built of large Portland-stone. The great Tower 
remained to be new cased Inside and Outside; and the whole Inside from 
the Quire to the West-door to be new cased, and reformed in some 

The Vaulting wanted much to be amended, in order to which it was all 
well center'd, & upheld with Standards of some hundreds of tall Masts. 
In this State was the Fabrick when the great Rebellion began; "but in 
" 1 643, all the Materials, &c., assign'd for the Repairs were Seized, the 

"Scaffolds puU'd doyv^n; and the Body of the Church converted to a Dugdales 
" Horse-quarter for Soldiers; the beautiful Pillars of Inigo Jones's Por- St. Paul's 
"tico were shamefully hew'd and defaced for support of the Timber- p. 146 &c. 
"work of Shops, for Seamstresses, and other Trades; for which sordid 
" Uses, that stately Colonade was wholly taken up, and defil'd. Upon 
"taking away the inner Scaffolds, which supported the arched Vaults, 
"in order to their late intended Repair, the whole Roof of the South- 
" cross tumbled down; and the rest in several Places of the Church, did 
"often fall; so that the Structure continued a woful Spectacle of Ruin, 
"till the happy Restoration. 

" In 1 662, the Dean and Chapter had taken Care to fit up for divine Ser- 
" vice, the East-part of the Church, beyond the old Quire, enlarging the 
"length of one Arch, into the Quire, until the Repairs of the remaining 
" Part of the old Fabrick should be perfected. 

" For the expediting of which general Repair, a royal Commission pass'd Continuation 
"in 1663. After this, the Time was spent, in taking down Houses and ofDugdales 
"Nusances that had been rais'd by the late Usurpers, at the West-end, St. Paul's 
"and Sides of the Church; in clearing the Rubbish; searching the p. 149 
" Decays; repairing the Portico; in Provision of Stone, Timber, and all 
" necessary Preparations ; until the Beginning of the Year 1 666. By which 
"Time Dr. Wren had finish'd and adjusted his Designs for the whole 
" Reparation, and laid the same before the King, & the Commissioners." 
The first Business Dr. Wren had enter'd upon, previous to the forming 
Designs for the general Repairs, was to take an exact Plan, Orthography, 
and Section, upon an accurate Survey of the whole Structure, even to 
Inches; in the Prosecution of which, he wasastonish'd to find how negli- 
gent the first Builders had been; they seem'd Normans, and to have used 
the Norman Foot; but they valu'd not Exactness: some Inter-columns 
were one Inch and a half too large, others as much, or more, too little. 
Nor were they true in their Levels. It consisted in great Part of old 
Materials, which the Founder, Mauritius Bishop of London, had pro- 
cur'd of King William the First, out of the Ruins of the Palatine Tower; 
these were small Yorkshire Free-stone, Kentish-ashler, and Kentish-rag 
from Maidstone. Theymadegreat Pillars without any graceful Manner; 
and thick Walls without Judgment. They had not as yet fallen into the 
Gothick pointed-arch, as was foUow'd in the Quire of a later Date, but 
kept to the circular Arch; so much they retain'd of the Roman Manner, 
but nothing else : Cornices they could not have, for want of larger Stones ; 
in short, it was a vast, but heavy Building. Adjoining to the South-cross 
was a Chapter-house of a more elegant Gothick Manner, with a Cloyster 
of two Stories high. 

Thelofty Spire which anciently rose from the great middle Stone-tower, 
the Surveyor observed, was not originally intended of Stone, for there 


zd Edit. 

May I 
Ex Auto- 

were no diagonal Arches to reduce it into an Octagon, 'twas therefore 
finish'd of Timber cover'd with Lead: this was twice fir'd by Lightning, 
and the last Time, in 1 56 1 , totally consum'd. 

Antiquaries differ in their Accounts of its Altitude, By Stow's Measures, 
the Stone-tower, and Spire, were equally 260 Feet each in height, the 
whole 520 Feet. Mr. Camden's Dimensions rise to 534 Feet. Dugdale 
(seeminglybygood Authority, who took his Relation from a Brass-table 
heretofore hung on a Pillar on the north Part of the Quire) makes the 
Heighth of the Tower 260 Feet, and of the Spire 274 Feet, and yet the 
whole, viz. both of Tower and Spire did not exceed 520 Feet, as is testi- 
fied by the Table (whereof there is a MS Copy also in the publick 
Library in Cambridge) which is 14 Feet short of the Height of the two 
Dimensions of the Tower and Spire added together; "This (says the 
" Right Rev. and Learned Editor of Camden's ' Britannia') must indeed 
"have been true, had the Spire risen from the Summit of the Battlements: 
" whereas, I suppose, it rose (as the Spires of most Steeples do) much be- 
"low them; the Battlements here rising 14 Feet above the Base of the 
" Spire, must occasion the Difference." 

All the stone Tower was standing when the Surveyor measur'd it before 
the Fire, and, agreeable with the other Accounts, was in Height 260 
Feet; the Basis of the Spire he found was 40 Feet, therefore according to 
the usual Proportion of Spires in Gothick Fabricks, which was 4 Dia- 
meters, or 5 at most, it could rise no higher than 200 Feet, and make the 
whole Altitude not to exceed 460 Feet to the Ball of Copper gilt & Cross : 
upon which after the first Fire by Lightning was added a Weathercock 
representing an Eagle, of Copper gilt likewise. 

The Proportions of these copper Ornaments are thus recorded; the Ball 
was in Circumference 9 Feet one Inch. The Height of the Cross from 
the Ball, 15 Feet 6 Inches, and its Traverse 5 Feet 10 Inches. The Eagle 
from the Bill to the Tail, 4 Feet, the Breadth over the Wings, 3 Feet 
and a half. 

In order to a further View of this ancient cathedral Church, some Par- 
ticulars relating to the Architecture, the original Defects, and at length 
ruinous Parts thereof; the Design for the Repairs, and for erecting a new 
Cupola in the Place of the great Tower; will most properly & distinctly 
appear from an Extract of the Proposals of Dr. Wren, to the Right 
Honourable the Commissioners for the Reparation, upon an accurate 
Survey taken in 1666; which, together with the several respective 
Drawings, were laid before the King and Commissioners, some Months 
before the great Fire of London. 

"Amongst the many Propositions, that maybe made to your Lordships, 
" concerning the Repair of St. Paul's, some may possibly aim at too great 
"a Magnificence, which neither the Disposition, nor Extent of thisAge 

"will probably bring to a Period. Others again may fall so low as to think 
" of piecing up the old Fabrick, here with Stone, there with Brick, and 
"cover all Faults with a Coat of Plaister, leaving it still to Posterity, as 
" a further Object of Charity. 

" I suppose your Lordships may think proper to take a middle Way, and 
"to neglect nothing that may conduce to a decent uniform Beauty, or 
"durable Firmness in the Fabrick, or Suitableness to the Expence 
"already laid out on the Outside: especially since it is a Pile both for 
" Ornament & Use. For, all the Occasions either of a Quire, Consistory, 
" Chapter-house, Library, Court of Arches, Preaching-auditory, might 
" have been supplied in less Room, with less Expence, & yet moreBeauty ; 
" but then it had wanted of the Grandeur, which exceeds all little Curio- 
"sity; this being the Effect of Wit only, the other a Monument of 
" Power, and mighty Zeal in our Ancestors to publick Works in those 
"Times, when the City had neither a fifth Part of the People, nor a 
"tenth Part of the Wealth it now boasts off. 

" I shall presume therefore to enumerate as well the Defects of Comeli- 
" ness as Firmness, that no one may be reconcil'd with the other in the 
"Restitution. And yet I should not propose any Thing of meer Beauty 
" to be added, but where there is a Necessity of rebuilding, and where it 
" will be near the same Thing to perform it well as ill. 
" First, it is evident by the Ruin of the Roof, that the Work was both ill 
"design'd, and ill built from the Beginning: ill design'd, because the 
"Architect gave not Butment enough to counterpoise, and resist the 
" Weight of the Roof from spreading the Walls; for, the Eye alone will 
" discover to any Man, that those Pillars as vast as they are, even eleven 
" Foot diameter, are bent outwards at least six Inches from their first 
"Position; which being done on both Sides, it necessarily follows, that 
" the whole Roof must first open in large and wide Cracks along by the 
" Walls and Windows, & lastly drop down between the yielding Pillars. 
"This bending of the Pillars was facilitated by their ill Building; for, 
"they are only cased without, and that with small Stones, not one greater 
"than a Man's Burden; but within is nothing but a Core of small Rub- 
"bish-stone, and much Mortar, which easily crushes and yields to the 
" Weight : and this outward Coat of Free-stone is so much torn with Age, 
" and the Neglect of the Roof, that there are few Stones to be found that 
" are not moulder'd, and flaw'd away with the Salt-peter that is in them; 
" an incurable Disease, which perpetually throws off whatever Coat of 
" Plaister is laid on it, and therefore not to be palliated. 
" From hence I infer, that as the Outside of the Church was new flagg'd 
"with Stone of larger Size than before, so ought the Inside also: And in 
" doing this, it will be as easy to perform it, after a good Roman manner, 
"as to follow the Gothick Rudeness of the old Design; & that, without 


placing the Face of the new Work ip any Part many Inches farther out 
or in, than the Superficies of the old Work; or adding to the Expence 
that would arise were it perform'd the worse Way. 
This also may be safely affirm'd, not only by an Architect^ taking his 
Measures from the Precepts and Examples of the Antients, but by a 
Geometrician (this Part being liable to Demonstration) that the Roof 
is, and ever was, too heavy for its Butment, and therefore any Part of 
the old Roof new pieced, will still but occasion further Ruin, and the 
second Ruin will much sooner follow than the first, since 'tis easier to 
force a Thing already declining. It must therefore be either a timber 
Roofplaister'd (which, in such Buildings where a little Soke ofWeather 
is not presently discover'd or remedied, will soon decay) or else a 
thinner and lighter Shell of Stone, very geometrically proportion'd to 
the Strength of the Butment. The Roof may be Brick,if it beplaister'd 
with Stucco, which is a harder Plaister, that will not fall off with the 
Drip of a few Winters, and which to this Day remains firm in many 
ancient Roman Buildings. 

The middle Part is most defective both in Beauty and Firmness, with- 
out and within; for, the Tower leans manifestly by the settling of one 
of the ancient Pillars that supported it. Four new Arches were, there- 
fore, of later Years, incorporated with the old ones, which hath 
straighten'd and hinder'd both the room, and the clear thorough View 
of the Nave, in that Part, where it had been more graceful to have been 
rather wider than the rest. 

The excessive Length of Building is no otherwise commendable, but 
because it yields a pleasing Perspective by the continu'd optical Dimi- 
nution of the Columns; & if this be cut off by Columns ranging within 
their Fellows, the Grace that would be acquir'd by the Length is to- 
tally lost. 

Besides this Deformity ofthe Tower itselfwithin, there are others near 
it; as, the next Intercolumnation in the Navis or Body ofthe Church, 
is much less than all the rest. Also the North & South-wings have Ailes 
only on the West-side, the others being originally shut up for the Con- 
sistory. Lastly, the Intercolumnations or Spaces between the Pillars of 
the Quire next adjoining to the Tower are very unequal. Again, on the 
Outside ofthe Tower, the Buttresses that have been erected one upon 
the Back of another to secure three Corners on the inclining Sides, (for 
the fourth wants a Buttress) are so irregular, that upon the whole Mat- 
ter, it must be concluded, that the Tower from Top to Bottom, and the 
next adjacent Parts, are such a Heap of Deformities, that no judicious 
Architect will think it corrigible, by any Expence that can be laid out 
upon new dressing it, but that it will still remain unworthy the rest of 


" the Work, infirm and tottering; and for these Reasons, as I conjecture, 
" was formerly resolv'd to be taken down. 

" I cannot propose a better Remedy, than by cutting off the inner Cor- 
" ners of the Cross, to reduce this middle Part into a spacious Dome or 
" Rotundo, with a Cupola, or hemispherical Roof, and upon the Cupola, 
" (for the outward Ornament) a Lantern with a Spiring Top, to rise pro- 
" portionably, tho' not to that unnecessary Height of the former Spire of 
" Timber and Lead burnt by Lightning. 

" By this Means the Deformities of the unequal Intercolumnations will 
" be taken away, the Church, which is much too narrowfor the Heighth, 
" render'd spacious in the Middle, which may be a very proper Place for 
" a vast Auditory: the outward Appearance of the Church will seem to 
" swell in the middle by Degrees, from a large Basis, rising into a Ro- 
" tundo bearing a Cupola, & then ending in a Lantern: and this with in- 
" comparable more Grace in the remoter Aspect, than it is possible for 
" the lean Shaft of a Steeple to afford. Nor if it be rightly order'd, will the 
" Expence be much more than that of investing the Tower and Corners 
" yet unfinish'd, with new Stone, and adding the old Steeple anew; the 
" Lead of which will be sufficient for a Cupola; and the same Quantity 
" of Ashler makes the Corners outward, that would make them inward 
" as they now are: And the Materials of the old Corners of the Aileswill 
" befiUing Stone for the new Work; for I should not persuade the Tower 
" to be puU'd dovvn at first, but the new Work to be built round it, partly 
" because the Expectations of Persons are to be kept up ; for, many Un- 
" believers would bewail the Loss of old Paul's Steeple, and despond if 
" they did not see a hopeful Successor rise in its stead; & chiefly because 
" it would save a great Quantity of scaffolding Poles; the Scaffolds which 
" are needful being fix'd from the old to the new Work; and when the 
" Tholus or inward Vault is to be laid, the Tower taken down to that 
" Height will rest the Centers of the Vault with great Convenience, and 
" facilitate the planting of Engines for raising the Stones; and after all is 
" finish'd and settl'd, the Tower that is left maybe taken clear away from 
" within. All which can only from the Designs be perfectly understood. 
" And for the Encouragement and Satisfaction of Benefactors that com- 
" prehend not readily Designs and Draughts on Paper, as well as for the 
" inferior Artificers clearer Intelligence of their Business, it will berequi- 
" site that a large & exact Model be made; which will also have this Use, 
"that if the Work should happen to be interrupted, or retarded, Pos- 
" terity may proceed where the Work was left off, pursuing still the same 
" Design. 

" And as the Portico built by Inigo Jones, being an intire and excellent 
" Piece, gave great Reputation to the Work in the first Repairs, and oc- 

k I 129 

casion'd fair Contributions; so to begin now with the Dome may prob- 
ably prove the best Advice, being an absolute Piece of itself, and what 
will most likely be finished in our Time; will make by far the most 
splendid Appearance; may be of present Use for the Auditory, will 
make up all the outward Repairs perfect; and become an Ornament to 
his Majesty's most excellent Reign, to the Church of England, & to this 
great City, which it is pity, in the Opinion of our Neighbours, should 
longer continue the most unadorn'd of her Bigness in the World. 
In the mean Time, till a good Quantity of Stone be provided. Things 
of lessExpence,but no less Consequence, ought to be regarded; such as 
fixing again all Cramps that the Roof hath been spoil'd of; covering all 
Timber from Weather; taking down the falling Roofs; searching the 
Vaults beneath, & securing them. And before the Foundations be digg'd 
for the Dome, the Arches on which the Tower stands must be secur'd 
after a peculiar Manner represented in the Designs. 

P. S. I shall crave leave to subjoin, that if there be Use of Stucco, I have 
^reat Hopes, from some Experience already had, that there areEnghsh 
Materials to be brought by Sea at an easy Rate, that will afford as good 
Plaister as is any where to be found in the World; and that with the 
Mixture of cheaper Ingredients than Marble-meal, which was the old, 
and is now the modern Way of Italy. 

The Proposer also, (considering that high Buildings grow more and 
' more expensive as they rise, by reason of the Time and Labour spent in 
raising the Materials,) takes this Occasion to acquaint your Lordships, 
that having hadtheOpportunity of seeing several Structures of greater 
Expence than this, while they were in raising, conducted by the best 
A rtists, Italian and French ; & having had daily Conference with them, 
and observing their Engines and Methods, he promoted this geomet- 
rical Part of Architecture yet farther, & thinks the raising of Materials 
may yet be more facilitated, so as to save in lofty Fabricks, a very con- 
siderable part of the Time, and Labourers Hire. 

N. B. The original Designs under the Hand of the Surveyor, consisting 
of Plans, Elevations, and Sections, propos'd for this Renovation of old 
VIZ. 1 728 Paul's, are *still extant. 

Notwithstanding the very ruinous Condition of the old Tower (as speci- 
fied above) and that the Surveyor had prepar'd so proper and beautiful a 
Design for the Restitution, yet great Opposition was made by some to 
the taking it down, with strong Application to his Majesty, that, (how- 
ever difficult and expenceful the Work might prove) the Tower by all 
Means should continue, and be repair'd, without deviating from the old 


Gothick-stile : but the great Fire intervening, decided the Matter for that 
Time. This remarkable Circumstance recollected by that very ingenious 
and worthy Gentleman John Evelyn, Esq. ; is recorded in his Dedication 
to the Surveyor, of his Account of Architecture, &c. 

"I have nam'djSays he,St.iPaurs,and truly, not without Admiration, as Lond. 1728. 
" oft as I recall to Mind (as frequently I do) the sad and deplorable Con- Account of 
" dition it was in ; when (after it had been made a Stable of Horses, and a Architects, 
" Den of Thieves) You, (with other Gentlemen and myself) were by King andArchi- 
" Charles, named Commissioners to survey the Dilapidations, & to make tecture. De- 
" Report to his Majesty, in order to a speedy Reparation; you will not, dication to 
"I am sure, forget the Struggle we had with some, who were for patch- Sir Chris- 
" ing it up any how, (so the Steeple might stand) instead of new building, toph. Wren, 
"which it altogether needed: when (to put an End to the Contest) five Knt. 
"Days after that dreadful Conflagration happen'd; out of whose Ashes 
" this Phoenix (new St. Paul's) is to rise, and was by Providence design 'd 
"for you. 

The great and dreadful Fire of London which began the 2nd of Septem- Dugdale's 
ber. Anno 1666, consum'd the greatest Part of the City; the parochial History of 
Churches were destroy'd, & the ancient Cathedral of St. Paul miserably St. Paul's 
shatter'd, and demolish'd; the Roof fell down, and with a mighty Force 2d Edit, 
through those Vaults, call'd the Undercroft, &c. The first Thing design'd ^.153 
after this deplorable Fire, was to fit some Part of the Church, thus ruin'd, 
for a Quire; wherein the Dean and Prebends might have divine Service, 
until the Repair of the whole, or a new Structure could be accomplish'd : 
To which End, upon a View thereof, it was resolv'd, that Part of the 
Body of it, towards the West-end, might, with the least Charge, be made 
useful for that Purpose. Whereupon Workmen were set upon it, & Scaf- 
folds rais'd for Search of the Walls, andcutting the Remainder of the un- 
melted Lead from the high Roof, and other Parts of the Church. 
In which Employment, as also in digging up the melted Lead, clearing 
the Rubbish, taking down the Remainder of the vaulted Roof andWalls, 
with the greatest Part of the Tower-steeple, digging up the Floors, sort- 
ing the Stone, and carrying it to several Places, repairing the Convoca- 
tion-house, & building new offices for the Work; no less than two Years, 
(viz. the rest of the Year 1666, the whole Year i667,and Part of the Year 
1 668) were spent. Towards the latter End of which two Years, they fell 
to casing some of those great and massy Pillars, which stood betwixt the 
middle Aile, and the side Ailes; beginning with those below the little 
North-door, towards the West: But before the third Pillar was perfectly 
cased, so weak & unsound had the excessive Heat of the Fire left it, with 
the remaining Pillars and Walls, which were all miserably scaled with 
the Flame, and shatter'd; that upon farther Search into them, they were 

k2 131 

found to be altogether uncapable of any substantial Repair: It was there- 
fore fully concluded, that, in order to a new Fabrick,the Foundations of 
the old Cathedral, thus made ruinous, should be. totally clear'd; and Pre- 
paration of Materials, and all Things needful made ready, conducing to 
a new Fabrick. Which Work continu'd until the last of April 1 674. 
The State of the old Fabrick after the Fire; the unsuccessful Attempts to 
repair the Ruins, with the Defects of Inigo Jones's Work, are farther ex- 
plain'd in the following Transcript of a Letter from the Rev. Dr. William 
Bancroft, then Dean of St. Paul's; afterwards (viz. 1677.) Arch-bishop of 

To my worthy Friend Dr. Christopher Wren, Professor of Astronomy 

in Oxford, April 25, 1668. 


Ashe said of old, Prudentia est quaedam dimnatio, so Science (at the Height 
you are Master of it) is prophetic too. What you whisper'd in my Ear at 
your last coming hither, is now come to pass. Our Work at the West-end 
of St. Paul's is fallen about our Ears. Your quick Eye discern'd the Walls 
and Pillars gone off from their Perpendiculars, and I believe other De- 
fects too, which are now expos'd to every common Observer. 
About a Week since, we being at Work about the third Pillar from the 
West-end on the South-side, which we had new cased with Stone, where 
it was most defective, almost up to the Chapitre, a great Weight falling 
from the high Wall, so disabled the Vaulting of the Side-aile by it, that it 
threaten'd a sudden Ruin, so visibly, that the Workmen presently re- 
mo v'd; and the next Night the whole Pillar fell, & carry'd Scaffolds and 
all to the very Ground. 

The second Pillar (which you know is bigger than the rest) stands now 
alone, with an enormous Weight on the Top of it; which we cannot hope 
should stand long, and yet we dare not venture to take it down. 
This Breach has discoyer'd to all that look on it, two great Defects in 
Inigo Jones's Work; one, that his new Case of Stone in the upper Walls 
(massy as it is) was not set upon the upright of the Pillars, but upon the 
Core of the Groins of the vaulting-: the other, that there were no Key- 
stones at all to tie it to the old Work; and all this being very heavy with 
the Roman Ornaments on the Top of it, and being already so far gone 
outward, cannot possibly stand long. In fine, it is the Opinion of all Men, 
that we can proceed no farther at the West-end. What we are to do next 
is the present Deliberation, in which you are so absolutely and indispen- 


sably necessary to us, that we can do nothing, resolve on nothing without 

'Tis therefore, that in my Lord of Canterbury's Name, and by his Order, 
(already, as I suppose, intimated to you by the Dean of Christ-church) 
we most earnestly desire your Presence and Assistance with all possible 

You will think fit, I know, to bring with you those excellent Draughts 
and Designs you formerly favour'd us with ; and in the mean Time, till 
we enjoy you here, consider what to advise, that may be for the Satisfac- 
tion of his Majesty, and the whole Nation; an Obligation so great and so 
publick, that it must be acknowledg'd by better Hands than those of — 

Your very affectionate Friend, and Servant, 


From the same Hand. — To Dr. Wren, at Oxford, London, 

July 2, 1668. 


Yesterday my Lords of Canterbury, London, and Oxford, met on purpose 
to hear your Letter read once more, and to consider what is now to be 
done in order to the Repairs of St. Paul's. They unanimously resolv'd, 
that it is fit immediately to attempt something; and that without you 
they can do nothing. 

I am therefore commanded to give you an Invitation hither, in his Grace's 
Name, and the rest of the Commissioners with all Speed; that we may 
prepare something to be propos'd to his Majesty (the Design of such a 
Quire at least, as may be a congruous Part of a greater and more magni- 
ficent Work to follow) and then for the procuring Contributions to de- 
fray this, we are so sanguine, as not to doubtof it,if we could but once re- 
solve what we would do, and what that would cost. So that the only Part 
of your Letter we demurr to, is the Method you propound of declaring 
first, what Money we would bestow; and then designing something just 
of that Expence; for quite otherwise, the Way their Lordships resolve 
upon, is to frame a Design handsome and noble, and suitable to all the 
Ends of it, and to the Reputation of the City, and the Nation, and to take 
it for granted, that Money will be had to accomplish it; or however, to 
let it lie by, till we have before us a Prospect of so much as may reason- 
ably encourage us to begin. 
Thus far I thought good to prepare you for what will be said to you, 

k3 133 

when you come, that you may not be surprised with it; and if my Supi- 
mons prevail not,my Lord the Bishop ofOxford, hath undertaken to give 
it you warmer, ore tenus, the next Week, when he intends to be with you, 
if at least you be not come towards us before he arrives; which would be 
a very agreeable Surprise to us all, and especially to — 

Your very affectionate humble Servaftt, 


Le Neves This excellent Man was nominated Dean of St. Paul's in 1 664, where he 

Lives of set himself with unwearied Diligence to repair that Cathedral, till the 

Archbish- Fire in 1666, employed his Thoughts on the more noble Undertaking 

ops, vol. I , of rebuilding it ; towards which he gave ^ 1 400, besides what he contri- 

p. 1 99 buted by his Industry and Endeavours. 




REPARATION for the new Structure being 
thus made, and several Designs presented to 
the King for the Form and Fashion thereof; 
which was intended to equal, if not exceed the 
Splendor and Magnificence of the old Cathe- 
dral, when it was in its best Estate; his Majesty 
I well approving one of them, commanded a 
.Model to be made thereof in so large & exact 
fa Manner, that it might remain as a perpetual 
and unchangeable Rule and Direction for the 
Conduct of the whole Work. And for the more speedy Procedure in this 
vast and mighty Building, issued out his Letters Patents under the Great 
Seal of England, bearing Date the 12th day of November in the 25th 
Year of his Reign Anno scil. 1 673, unto several Lords spiritual and tem- 
poral, and other Persons of emirient Rank and Quality, and Christopher 
Wren Doctor of Laws, Surveyor General of the Royal Works ; authoriz- 
ing them, or so many of them, as are therein appointed and enabled to 
act, to proceed in that great Undertaking, & to endeavour the perfecting 
thereof, by such Ways and Means, and according to such Rules & Orders 
as are therein mentioned. A Transcript of the Preamble of which Com- 
mission is here inserted. 

Whereas — Since the issuing out of our Commission (viz. Anno 1663, 
1 5 Car. IL) the late dreadful Fire in London hath destroyed & consum- 
ed the cathedral Church of St. Paul to such a Degree, that no Part of the 
ancient Walls or Structures can with any Safety be relied upon, or left 
standing; insomuch, that it is now become absolutely necessary totally 
to demolish and raze to the Ground all the Relicks of the former Build- 
ing, and in the same Place, but upon new Foundations, to erect a new 
Church ; (which that it may be done to the Glory of God, & for the pro- 
moting of his divine Worship and Service therein to be celebrated; and 
to the End the same may equal, if not exceed the Splendor and Magnifi- 
cence of the former cathedral Church, when it was in its best Estate, 
and so become much more than formerly, the principle Ornament of our 
royal City, to the Honour of our Goverment, and of this our Realm, we 
have caused several Designs to that Purpose tobe prepared by Dr. Chris- 
topher Wren, Surveyor General of all our Works and Buildings, which 
we have seen, and one of which we do more especially approve, & have 

k4 13s 

commanded a Model thereof to be made after so large & exact a Manner, 
that it may remain as a perpetual unchangeable Rule and Direction for 
the Conduct of the whole Work) And whereas our former Commission, 
in which the upholding and repairing the ancient cathedral Church, is 
only designed and mentioned, doth not sufficiently authorize & impower 
our said Commissioners therein named, to begin and compleat a new 
Fabrick upon new Foundations. 

Know ye, &c. 

The Royal Warrant under the Sign-manual & Privy-seal for beginning 
the Works of the new Cathedral of St. Paul, transcribed from the 
Original annexed to the Surveyor's Drawings. 


WHeras We have been informed that a Portion of the Imposition laid 
on Coals, which by Act of Parliament is appointed and set apart for the 
rebuilding of the cathedral Church of St. Paul, in our capital City of 
London, doth at present amount to a considerable Sum, which, tho' not 
proportionable to the greatness of the Work, is notwithstanding suffi- 
cient to begin the same; & with all the Materials, and other Assistances, 
which may probably be expected, will put a new Quire in great Forward- 
ness: and whereas among divers Designs which have been presented to 
Us, We have particularly pitched upon one, as well because We found 
it very artificial, proper, and useful; as because it was so ordered that it 
might be built and finish'd by Parts : We do therefore by these Presents 
signify Our Royal Approbation of the said Design, hereunto annexed; 
and do will and require you forthwith to proceed according to the said 
Design, beginning with the East-end or Quire, and accomplishing the 
same with the present Stock of Money, & such Supplies as may probably 
accrue, according to the Tenor of the Commission to you directed; and 
for so doing this shall be your Warrant. Given at Our Court at White- 
hall, the 14th Day of May, 1675, in the a/thYear of our Reign. 

By His Majesty's Command, 


To Our Commissioners for rebuilding the 
Cathedral of St. Paul, London. 

In the Management of the former Repairs of the old Fabrick, under the 
Conduct of Inigo Jones, Surveyor of the royal Works, no other Fund 
was advanced towards defraying the Expence, but the voluntary Contri- 

butions of pious and charitable People, which came in so slowly, in pro- 
portion to the greatness of the Work, that notwithstanding the royal 
Munificence, the considerable Sums of Money brought, from Time to 
Time, into the Chamber of London, from private Benefactions; theZeal 
of Archbishop Laud, for the Honour of God, and the Church of Eng- 
land, in promoting by his own Example, and exciting others to liberal 
Donations for the Restitution of so signal a Monument of the Piety of 
our Ancestors, being the principal Ornament of the Realm, that cele- 
brated Architect was not able to execute a third Part of what was 

Before such Time, therefore, as a Tax on Sea-coal had been granted by 
Parliament, for the Building the Church (which duty commenced not 
till the first of May, 1 670) it seemed in vain in any new Designs, to pro- 
pose an Edifice too large and costly to be brought to a good and timely 

Upon this Consideration the Surveyor was at first directed to contrive a 
Fabrick of moderate Bulk, but of good Proportion; a convenient Quire, 
with a Vestibule, and Porticoes, and a Dome conspicuous above the 
Houses. A long Body with Ailes was thought impertinent, our Religion 
not using Processions. It was to be vaulted underneath for Burials, that 
the Pavement above might be preserved. A Model in Wood was made 
of this Church, which tho' not so large, would have been beautiful, and 
very fit for our Way of Worship; being also a convenient Auditory (for 
the Sermons anciently accustomed to be without Doors from a Stone 
Pulpit in the Church-yard, were now to be brought into the Church) 
and by the Help of the Vestibule, it was capable of any grand Ceremony. 
It had Porticoes on the Outside, which might prevent Disturbance 
within. This was applauded by Persons of good Understanding, as con- 
taining all that was necessary for the Church of a Metropolis; of a 
beautiful Figure, and of an Expence that reasonably might have been 
compass'd; but being contriv'd in the Roman Stile, was not so well 
understood & relish'd by others, who thought it deviated too much from 
the old Gothick Form of cathedral Churches, which they had been used 
to see and admire in this Country. Others observed it was not stately 
enough, and contended, that for the Honour of the Nation, and City ot 
London, it ought not to be exceeded in Magnificence, by any Church in 

After this, in order to find what might satisfy the World, the Surveyor 
drew several Sketches meerly for Discourse-sake, and observing the 
Generality were for Grandeur, he endeavour'd to gratify theTasteof the 
Connoiseurs and Criticks, with something coloss and beautiful, with a 
Design antique & well studied, conformable to the best Stile of the Greek 
and Roman Architecture. Some Persons or Distinction, skill'd in An- 


tiquity and Architecture, express'd themselves much pleased with the 
Design, and wished to see it in a Model; The Surveyor comply'd with 
their Desires as well as his own and made a very curious large Model in 
Wood, accurately wrought, and carv'd with all its proper Ornaments, 
consisting of one Order, the Corinthian only (as St. Peter's in Rome.) 
This Model was for many Years kept in the Office of the Works at St. 
Paul's, in a Shed built for that Purpose; thence, after the finishing the 
new Fabrick,it was deposited (together with the other Models, and par- 


ticularly one for the high Altar, to consist of rich Marble-columns 
writhed, &c., in some Manner like that of St. Peter's at Rome) over the 
Morning-prayer-chapel, on the North-side; where, it is to be hoped, 
such publick Care will be taken, that it may be preserv'd, &, if damag'd, 
repair'd, as an eminent and costly Performance, & a Monument, among 
the many others of the Skill of the greatest Geometrician and Architect 
of his Time. [The original Designs drawn in a large Scale for the King's 
Use, are extant.] (a) . 

Thus much is specified, upon Recollection, that the Surveyor in private 
Conversation, always seem'd to set a higher Value on this Design, than 
any he had made before or since ; as what was labour'd with more Study 
and Success; and (had he not been over-rul'd by those, whom it was his 
Duty to obey), what he would have put in Execution with more Chear- 
fulness, and Satisfaction to himself than the latter. 
But as yet nothing could be fully resolv'd upon; the Chapter, and some 
others of the Clergy thought the Model -not enough of a Cathedral- 
fashion ; to instance particularly, in that, the Quire was^design'd Circular, 
&c., in the mean Time, the Money granted by Parliament upon the 
Coal-duty began to come in; something was to be done in order to make 
a Beginning without more Delay. The Surveyorthen turn'd hisThoughts 
to a Cathedral-form (as they call'd it) but so rectified, as to reconcile, as 
near as possible, the Gothick to a better Manner of Architecture; with 
a Cupola, and above that, instead of a Lantern, a lofty Spire, and large 
Porticoes. - 

King Charles approved those Designs, & that there might be no further 
Interruption, the * Warrant, as before recited, wasissued under the Privy- * i May, 
seal, for beginning the Works. ^^75 

From that Time, the Surveyor resolved to make no more Models, or 
publickly expose his Drawings, which (as he had found by Experience) 
did but lose Time, & subjected his Business many Times, to incompetent 

By these Means, at last, the Scheme of the present mighty Structure 
(different in some Manner from the former, & preferable in his Majesty's 
own Judgment, upon After-thoughts) was no sooner concluded on, and 
order'd by his Majesty, but begun and prosecuted by his Surveyor, with 
Vigour, in the Year 1675. And the King was pleas'd to allow him the 
Liberty in the Prosecution of his Work, to make some Variations, 
rather ornamental, than essential, as from Time to Time he should see 
proper; and to leave the Whole to his own Management. 

(a) The Model of Bramante s first Design of St. Peter^s Church ts preserved 
•with great Care in the Vatican Palace. 




|HE pulling down the Walls, being about 80 

Feet high, and 5 Feet thick, was a great and 

troublesome Work; the Men stood above, and 

work'd them down with Pickaxes, whilst La- 

I bourers below moved away the Materials that 

fell, and dispersed them into Heaps: the want 

of Room made this Way slow, and dangerous, 

I and some Men lost their Lives; the Heaps 

grew steep and large; and yet this was to be 

done before the Masons could begin to lay 

the Foundations. 

The City having Streets to pave anew, bought, from the Rubbish, most 
of the Stone, call'd Kentish-rag, which gave some Room to dig, and to 
lay Foundations; which yet was not easy to perform with any Exactness, 
but by this Method, 

The Surveyor placed Scaffolds high enough to extend his Lines over the 
Heaps that lay in the Way; and then by Perpendiculars set out the 
Places below, from the Lines drawn with Care upon the level Plan of 
the Scaffold. 

Thus he proceeded, gaining every Day more Room, till he came to the 
middle Tower that bore the Steeple; the Remains of the Tower being 
near 200 Feet high, the Labourers were afraid to work above, thereupon 
he concluded to facilitate this Work by the Use of Gunpowder. 
He dug a Hole of about 4 Feet wide, down by the Side of the North-west 
Pillar of theTower,the 4 Pillars of which were each about 14 Feet dia- 
meter; when he had dug to the Foundation, he then, with Crows & Tools 
made on purpose, wrought a Hole 2 Feet square, level into the Center of 
the Pillar; there he placed a little Deal-box, containing eighteen Pounds 
of Powder, & no more : a Cane was fix'd to the Box with a Quick-match, 
(as Gunners call it) within the Cane, which reach'd from the Box to the 
Ground above, and along the Ground was laid a Train of Powder, with 


a Match: after the Mine was carefully clos'd up again with Stone and 
Mortar to the Top of the Ground, he then observ'd the Effect of the 

This little Quantity of Powder not only lifted up the whole Angle of the 
Tower, with two great Arches that rested upon it, but also two adjoining 
Arches of the Ailes, and all above them; and this it seem'd to do some- 
what leisurely, cracking the Walls to the Top, lifting visibly the whole 
Weight about nine Inches, which suddenly jumping down, made a great 
Heap of Ruin in the Place without scattering, it was half a Minute be- 
fore the Heap already fallen open'd in two or three Places, and emitted 
some Smoke. By this Description may be observ'd the incredible Force 
of Powder: 1 8 Pounds only of which lifted up above 3000 Tun, & saved 
the Work of 1 000 Labourers. 

The Fall of so great a Weight from an Height of 200 Feet, gave a Con- 
cussion to the Ground, that the Inhabitants round about took for an 

Encourag'd by this Success, he thought to proceed this Way, but being 
oblig'd to go out of Town in the King's Service, he left the Management 
of another Mine begun, to the Care of his next Officer, who too wise in 
his own Conceit, put in a greater Quantity of Powder, and neither went 
low enough, nor sufficiently fortified the Mouth of the Mine; and tho' it 
had the EflFect, yet one Stone was shot out to the opposite Side of the 
Church-yard, through an open Window, into a Room of a private House, 
where some Women were sitting at Work, without any Harm done; this 
Accident frighted the NeighlDours to that Degree,that he was importun 'd 
to use no more Powder, and was so directed also by his Superiors; tho' 
with due Caution it might have been executed without Hazard, and 
sav'd much Time and Money. 

He then turn'd his Thoughts to another Method; to gain Time, prevent 
much Expence, and the endangering of Men's Lives; and that was, to 
make an Experiment of that ancient Engine in War, the Battering-ram. 
He took a strong Mast of about 40 Feet long, arming the bigger End 
with a great Spike of Iron, fortified with Bars along the Mast,& Ferrels; 
this Mast in two Places was hungup to one Ring with strong Tackle, and 
so suspended level to a Triangle-prop, such as they weigh great Guns 
with: thirty Men,iifteen on a Side, vibrated this Machine to and again, 
and beat in one Place against the Wall the whole Day; they belie v'd it 
was to little Purpose, not discerning any immediate Effisct; he bid them 
not despair, but proceed another Day: on the second Day the Wall was 
perceiv'd to tremble at the Top, and in a few Hours it fell. The Reason 
to be given for it may be this; 'tis not by any present Violence the Ram is 
able to overturn a Wall of such Bulk & Compacture,but incessantly vi- 


brating by equidistant Pulses, it makes a small intestine Motion through 
all the insensible Parts of the Wall, and by Degrees loosens all the Bond 
of the Mortar, and moves every Stone from its Bed, and tho'not the hun- 
dredth Part of an Inch at every Blow, yet this Motion once begun hath 
its Effects more and more, till at length it is quite loose & falls. He made 
good Use of this Machine in beating down all the lofty Ruins; & pleas'd 
himself that he had recover'd this notable Engine, of so great Service to 
the Ancients in besieging of Towns; tho' great Guns have now put them 
out of Use, as more'expeditious, and requiring fewer Men to manage. 
It has been before observ'd, (SECT. I.) that the Graves of several Ages 
and Fashions in strata,or Layers of Earth one above another, particularly 
at the North-side of Paul's, manifestly shew'd a great Antiquity from the 
British and Roman Times, by the Means whereof the Ground had been 
raised; but upon searching for the natural Ground below these Graves, 
the Surveyor observed that the Foundation of the old Church stood upon 
a layer of very close and hard Pot-earth, and concluded that the same 
Ground which had born so weighty a Building, might reasonably be 
trusted again. However, he had the Curiosity to search further, and ac- 
cordingly dug Wells in several Places, and discern'd this hard Pot-earth 
to be on the North-side of the Church-yard about six Feet thick, & more, 
but thinner and thinner towards the South, till it was upon the declining 
of the Hill scarce four Feet: still he searched lower, and found nothing 
but dry Sand, mix'd sometimes unequally, but loose, so that it would run 
through the Fingers. He went on till he came to Water and Sand mixed 
with Periwincles and other Sea-shells; these were about the Level of 
Low-water Mark. He continued boreingtill became to hard Beach, and 
still under that, till he came to the natural hard Clay, which lies under 
the City, and Country, and Thames also far and wide. 
By these Shells it was evident the Sea had been where now the Hill is, on 
which Paul's stands. 

The Surveyor was of Opinion, the whole Country between Camberwell- 
hill, and the Hills of Essex might have been a great Frith or Sinusof the 
Sea, & much wider near the Mouth of the Thames, which made a large 
Plain of Sand at Low-water, through which the River found its Way; 
but at Low-water, as oft as it happen'd in Summer-weather, when the 
Sun dried the Surface of the Sand, & a strong Wind happen'd at the same 
Time, before the Flood came on, the Sands would drive with the Wind, 
and raise Heaps, and in Time large and lofty Sand-hills; for so are the 
Sand-hills rais'd upon the opposite Coasts of Flanders and Holland. The 
Sands upon such a Conjuncture of Sun-shine and Wind, drive in visible 
Clouds: this might be the Effect of many Ages, before History, and yet 
without having Recourse to the Flood. 


This mighty broad Sand (now good Meadow) was restrained by large 
Banks still remaining, and reducing the River into its Channel; a great 
Work, of which no History gives Account: the Britains were too rude 
to attempt it; the Saxons too much busied with continual Wars; he con- 
cluded therefore it was a Roman Work; one little Breach in his Time 
cost j^ 1 7000 to restore. 

The Sand-hill at Paul's in the Time of the Roman Colony, was about 1 2 
Feet lower than now it is ; & the finer Sand easier driving with the Wind 
lay uppermost, and the hard Coat of Pot-earth might be thus made; for 
Pot-earth dissolv'd in Water, and view'd by a Microscope is but im- 
palpable fine Sand, which with the Fire will vitrify; and, of this Earth 
upon the Place, were those Urns, sacrificing Vessels, and other Pottery- 
ware, made, which (as noted before) were found here in great Abundance, 
more especially towards the North-east of the Ground. 
In the Progress of the Works of the Foundations, the Surveyor met with 
one unexpected Difficulty; he began to lay the Foundations from the 
West-end, & had proceeded successfully through the Dome to the East- 
end, where the Brick-earth Bottom was yet very good; but as he wenton 
to the North-east Corner, which was the last, and where nothing was ex- 
pected to interrupt, he fell, in prosecuting the Design, upon a Pit, where 
all the Pot-earth has beenrobb'd by the Potters of old Time: Here were 
discovered Quantities of Urns, broken Vessels, and Pottery-ware of 
divers Sorts and Shapes; how far this Pit extended northward, there was 
no Occasion to examine; no Ox-sculls, Horns of Stags, and Tusks of 
Boars were found, to corroborate the Accounts of Stow, Camden, and 
others; nor any Foundations more Eastward. If there was formerly any 
Temple to Diana, he supposed it might have been within the Walls of 
the Colony, and more to the South. It was no little Perplexity to fall into 
this Pit at last: He wanted but six or seven Feet to compleat the Design, 
and this fell in the very Angle North-east ; he knew very well, that under 
the Layer of Pot-earth, there was no other good Ground to be found till 
he came to theLow-water Mark of the Thames, at least forty Feet lower: 
his Artificers propos'd to him to pile, which he refus'd; for, tho' Piles 
may last for ever, when always in Water (otherwise London-Bridge 
would fall) yet if they are driven through dry Sand, tho' sometimes moist, 
they will rot: His Endeavours were to build for Eternity. He therefore 
sunk a Pit of about eighteen Feet square, wharfing up the Sand with 
Timber, till he came forty Feet lower into Water and Sea-shells, where 
there was a firm Sea-beach which confirmed what was before asserted, 
that the Sea had been in Ages past, where now Paul's is ; he bored through 
thisBeachtill he cametothe original Clay; being then satisfied, he began 
from the Beach a square Peer of solid good Masonry, ten Feet square, 


till he came within fifteen Feet of the present Ground, then he turned a 
short Arch under Ground to the former Foundation, which was broken 
off by the untoward Accident of the Pit. Thus this North-east Coin of 
the Quire stands very firm, &, no doubt, will stand. This Narrative may 
be of Use to others not to trust Piles, unless always, and in all Parts wet; 
for almost all Sorts of Timber under Water will prove everlasting, but 
wet and dry will soon perish. The same cannot be said of Iron, for that 
will decay;under Water: but this has been observ'd,in taking out Cramps 
from Stone-work at least four hundred Years old, which were so bedded 
in Mortar, that all Air was perfectly excluded, the Iron appear'd as fresh 
as from the Forge. Therefore in cramping of Stones, no Iron should lye 
within nine Inches of Air, if possible; for the Air is the Menstruum that 
consumes all Materials whatever. When there is a Necessity to use Iron 
for Want of Stones large enough. Care is to be taken to exclude suffi- 
cientlythe Air fromit. Tomention another Caution of Use to Artificers; 
some Cornices of large Projections, tho' the upper Joints are as close 
fitted as good Workmen can make them, yet in the melting of Snow, the 
Water will dribble through, and stain the Cornice. The Surveyor thus 
avoided this Inconvenience; he caused the Masons so to work the Stone 
next the Joint, as to leave half a Quarter of an Inch rising on each Side, 
that the Water might soon fall off, then soak to the Joint; and this he 
observ'd in the Paveing of the upper Portico of the principal Front of St. 
Paul's; besides, that the Joints are run with Lead: and the same is done, 
where-ever he was obliged to cover with Stone only. 
The Reasons for changing the Site of the Church, and taking up all the 
old Foundations, were chiefly these; first, the Act of Parliament for re- 
building the City had enacted, that all the high Streets (of which that 
which leads round the South-side of St. Paul's was one) should be forty 
Feet broad, but the old Foundations streightened the Street towards the 
East-end to under 30 Feet. 

Secondly, the Church-yard on the North-side was wide, and afforded 
Room that Way to give the new Fabrick a more free and graceful 

Thirdly, To have built on the old Foundations must have confined the 
Surveyor too much to the old Plan and Form; the ruinous Walls in no 
Part were to be trusted again, nor would old and new Work firmly unite, 
or stand together without Cracks. 

It being found expedient therefore to change the Foundations, he took 
the Advantage of more Room northward, and laid the middle Line of 
the new Work more declining to the North-east than it was before, 
which was not due East and West ; neither did the old Front of the Cathe- 
dral lie directly from Ludgate, as it does not at present, which was not 


practicable, without purchasing and taking down a great Number of 
Houses; and the Aid of Parliament. This, tho' much wished for, he was 
not able to effect; the Commissioners for rebuilding the City, had, in the 
first Place, marked and staked out all the Streets, and the Parliament con- 
firmed their report, before any Thing had been fully determined about 
the Design for the new Fabrick. The Proprietors pf the Ground with 
much Eagerness and Haste, had begun to build accordingly; an incre- 
dible Progress had been made in a very short Time ; many large & fair 
Houses erected; and every Foot of Ground in that trading and populous 
Part of the Town was highly estimated. 

li H5 



IN order to satisfy such Persons who are 
, charmed with the Grandeur of the Vatican 
' Church of St. Peter at Rome; with the stately 
Colonades, and spacious Area in the Front; 
I and think no Structure of this Sort is to be es- 
teemed truly noble and majestic, that does not 
arise, or nearly approach to that Magnificence; 
it is to be considered, that at St. Paul's the 
1 Surveyor wanted Room, and had but small 
Hopes of procuring more than he found, for 
the Reasons above-mentioned ; and when all theadjacent Ground&new- 
built Streets were in private Possessions, under various Titles, which on 
account of their good Situation for Trade in the greatest and richest City 
in all Europe, were valued at a very high Rate; so that proper & neces- 
sary Ground as well for the Grandeur as graceful Approach to all Parts 
of the Fabrick could only be had by a special Act of Parliament, to 
oblige the numerous Proprietors to part with their Estates upon equit- 
able Terms; and for applying a Part of the Fund on Coals or otherwise to 
that particular Purpose; which alas! was never obtained. And for this 
Reason, no more Space was left, especially before the West-front, and to 
the North-west, tho' great Sums of Money were expended, even with 
the Assistance of Parliament to purchase Houses, and to gain what pre- 
sent Room there is.* 

Some have enquired why the Surveyor chose to make two Orders, rather 
than one single Order, with an attick Story, as at St. Peter's in Rome. It 
is most certain his Intention and Desires from the Beginning were to 
have followed that Example, had all Things succeeded to his Wish. 
This appears by all his first Designs, and in particular by the great Model 
before mentioned. 

* The magnificent Portico before the Church of St. Peter is not to be equalled, 
but yet the whole Front of that Structure terminating in a strait Line at the Top, 
cannot be said to afford so agreeable an Aspect, nor that rational Variety as is 
discerned by the Elevation of the Pediment in the Middle, and beautiful. Cam- 
panile Towers at each End of the Front of St. PauVs. 

Bramante knew the Quarries of Tivoli* would yield Blocks large enough * No fine 
for his Columns at St. Peter's, of nine Feet Diameter, but then he was at Stone, but 
a Loss to find Stones for his Cornices; &this was the Reason that obliged yellowish & 
him to diminish the Proportions of the proper Members of his Cornice, porous 
At St. Paul's the Surveyor was cautious not to exceed Columns of four 
Feet, which had been tried by Inigo Jones in his Portico; the Quarries 
of the Isle of Portland would just afford for that Proportion, but not 
readily, for the Artificers were forced sometimes to stay some Months 
for one necessary Stone to be raised for their Purpose, and the farther the 
Quarry-men pierced into the Rock, the Quarry produced less Stones than 
near the Sea. All the most eminent Masons of England were of Opinion, 
that Stones of the largest Scantlings were there to be found, or no where. 
An Enquiry was made after all the good Stone that England afforded. 
Next to Portland, Rock-abbey Stone, & some others in Yorkshire seemed 
the best and most durable; but large Stone for the Paul's Works was not 
easily to be had even there. 

For these Reasons the Surveyor concluded upon Portland-stone, & was 
also to use two Orders, and by that Means to keep the just Proportions 
of his Cornices; otherwise he must have fallen short of the Heighth of 
the Fabrick, which now exerts itself over all the Country, as well as City, 
as it did of old, when that Structure, tho' rude, was lofty & majestick. 
At the Vatican Church, Bramante was ambitious to exceed the ancient 
Greek and Roman Temples, which generally were built from the noble 
Quarries of Marble of the Isles of the Archipelago, and Egypt, where 
Stones were to be had of the largest Size Architects could have Occasion 
to use; and altho' by Necessity he failed in the due Proportions of the 
proper Members of his Cornice, because the Tivoli stone would not hold 
out for the Purpose ; yet (as far as we can find) he succeeded in the -f-Dia- -f- Viz. nine 
meter of his Columns, for the greatest of the antique Pillars that remain Feet. Q. 
(supposed to have been of the Frontispiece of Nero's golden House, 
thence brought by Vespasian to the Temple of Peace, and now before XViz. 6 
the Temple of Santa Maria Major) is less in JDiameter than those of St. Feet, 2 
Peter's. The Glory however of the Roman Pillar must be acknowledged Inches one 
in this wonderful Particular, that consists but of one solid || Stone of Quarter 
Parian Marble, of the Corinthian Order. English. 

A Query has been made, why all the Pilasters of the Outside were Palm 8 Pal. 
doubled? They are of the same Use as Buttresses, and to give Space for 3 Overbeke, 
large Windows between, which in our darker Weather is necessary: as 2 torn. p. 43 
also for the good Regularity of the Arcades within, and the Roof, they || Above 
will appearproper tothosewho consider well thewhole Design together. 60 Feet 
Again, why were the Columns of the West Portico doubled? This, no English 
doubt, is not according to the usual Mode of the Ancients in their ordi- in Heighth 
nary Temples, which, for the Generality, were small; but was followed 
I2 147 

in their Coloss, or greater Works; for Instance, in the Portico of the 
^See the §Temple of Peace, the most magnificent in old Rome, the Columns were 

Plan in the very properly & necessarily doubled to make wider Openings, after the 
Architec- Manner of the middle Openings in the Porticies of the Greek Temples, 
tureofSebas- to five Doors at unequal Distances, viz., three near together, which lead 
tian Serlio into the greatMiddleNave,orBodyof theTemple,and onetoeach Side- 
aile, at greater Distances, {a) Bramante used double Columns without 
Scruple, as did Michael Angelo within and without the Cupola of St. 
Peter's, in the Vatican : the like is done in the Portico of the Church of 
Santa Maria Major in Rome; and also in other public and private Edi- 
fices by the most celebrated Architects; to instance among others, in the 
^Palazzi *Facade of the Palace of SSrs. CafFarelli alia Valle, built by Raphael 
diRoma Urbin in the Year 1515; which contains 26 duplicated Columns in 

da Pietro Front. The French Architects have practised the same to a good Effect, 

Ferrerio especially in the beautiful Facade of the Louvre. It is to be observed in 

the Portico of St. Paul's, two Columns are brought nearer together, to 
make greater Inter-columns alternately, to give a proper Space for three 
Doors. The Ancients, particularly the Greeks, in their Temples, gene- 
rally made the middle Inter-column wider than the rest; and as they 
shifted the Columns of the Porticoforthe better Approach to one Door; 
so at St. Paul's, for the same Reason, where there are three Doors (the 
two Side-doors are for daily Use, and the middle for Solemnities) the 
Columns are widened, to make a more open and commodious Access to 
each; and this falls out gracefully, by placing the Pillars alternately, 
Eustyle, and Pyenostyle. Hermogenes, who first contrived the Pseudo- 
dipteron, by taking away a whole Range of Columns to enlarge the Por- 
tico, went farther than his Masters durst before him, yet is commended 
by Vitruvius for this very Thing, because useful. The Romans, after the 
Greek Examples, not only widened the middle Openings in the Colon- 
ades before their Temples, but followed the like Manner in Arcades also: 
thus in the Colosseum, or Amphitheatre of Vespasian in Rome, of the 
eighty Arches, four which lead principally to the Arena, were made 
wider than all the rest. They generally took such Liberties, well know- 
ing that the Orders were to be adapted to their proper Use, and not the 
Design too servilely to the Orders; of which a hundred Examples may be 
given. Those who duly examine by Measure the best Remains of the 
Greek or Roman Structures, whether Temples, Pillars, Arches or 
Theatres, will soon discern, that even among these is no certain general 

(a) The Cupola of the Temple of Bacchus, near the Gate of St. Agnes at Rome, 
anciently the Porta Viminalis, was supported on the Inside by twenty four 
coupled Columns of the Composite Order, or Oriental Granite \ Palladia. Des- 
godetz. Seb. Serlio.] 

Agreement; for it is manifest the ancient Architects took great Liberties 
in their Capitals and Members of Cornices, to shew their own Inven- 
tions, even where their Design did not oblige them, but where it did 
oblige them to a rational Variation, still keeping a good Symmetry, they 
are surely to be commended, and in like Cases to be followed. We now 
most esteem the Learning of the Augustan Age, yet, no question there 
were then many different Styles in Oratory, and perhaps some as good 
as Cicero's. This is not said as any Inducement to Masons, or every 
Novice that can draw Lines, to fall into crude Gothick Inventions, far 
from the good Examples of the Ancients, no more than to encourage a 
barbarous Style in Latin, & yet surely we cannot but with Erasmus, laugh 
at him who durst not use one Word that he could not find in TuUy. 
To proceed in examining what has been further objected, particularly 
why the Architrave within is cut off by the Arch. In this the Surveyor 
always insisted that he had the Ancients on his Side; in the Templum 
Pacis, and in all the great Halls of the Baths, and in all the great Struc- 
tures of three Ailes,this was done, & for this Reason: in those wide Inter- 
columns the Architrave is not supposed to lye from one great Column 
to another, but from the Column to the other Wall of the Aile, so 
the End of it will only appear upon the Pillar of the Inside of the great 
Navis. Vitruvius tells us, that Architecture took its Beginning from 
wooden Porticoes; suppose therefore a Portico of three Ailes in Wood, 
or at least with the Roof of Timber, the Architraves must join the 
Pillars of the Ailes, and not be in Range with the inside Pillars, but cross 
to that Line; so nothing will appear upon the Pillars of the Navis but 
the Ends of the Architraves. If it be said that in the Templum Pacis the 
Cornice is cut off as well as the Architrave, the Answer is plain, there is 
not the same Reason to cut off the Cornice of the Arches at St. Paul's, 
which rise not so high; for a Cornice may be carried within, even with- 
out Pillars (provided the Proportion be kept of its due Height) much 
more with Pillars. 

The Surveyor followed the Templum Pacis as near as our Measures 
would admit, having but three Arcades in each of the Bodies East and 
West, as there; but where there are no Arcades, and next the Dome, he 
has continued the whole Entablature. 

One Thing he seems to have varied from the Ancients, in that he has in- 
corporated lesser Pilasters with the greater, and that of the same Corin- 
thian Order: 'tis true the Imposts of old upon which the Arches rested, 
had a particular Capital of the Dorick Manner, and not of the same 
Capital with the Pillar, as is to be seen in the triumphal Arches, and 
Theatres that remain; but above all Things, they were careful, that this 
Capital of the Impost should not have more Sally or Projection than to 
lie upon the great Pillar or Pilaster: and this was easily done in the Out- 
I3 H9 

side of Buildings, where there was Room enough to advance the Pilaster 
till it could receive the Impost Mouldings to lie against the Side of the 
Pilaster; but in the Inside of St. Paul's it would have streightened the 
great Nave, & made the Breaks of the Cornice above too heavy. Whether 
Bramante was aware of this in St. Peter's, it maybe questioned, till after 
he had laid the Bases of the great Pilasters; for he has chopped off the 
Cornice Mouldings of the Imposts to give Way for the Pilaster to break 
through them; which is ungraceful, & without Authority, or good Rea- 
son. Whatever Veneration we may have for this great Man, yet surely 
in this it must be owned, he hath confessed an Oversight. If any Man 
thinks it improper to incorporate great and small Pillars together; as is 
done in the Ailes at St. Paul's, let him consider the Basilica of the 
Colonia Julia, at Fanum; which is the only Piece Vitruvius owns him- 
self to be the Author of; he will easily perceive, that there must be small 
Pillars incorporated into the great, to bear the Galleries; and he will find, 
that the whole Prize is taken up by Vitruvius to give Light. 
Bramante makes no Scruple of incorporating Pilasters in his whole Out- 
side of St. Peter's: the Surveyor at St. Paul's chose to make the Uttle 
Pilasters of the same Order with the great, in the Ailes, because the 
opposite Wall is beautified with the same smaller Order; so the Aile of 
the whole Length of the Church is of itself a long and graceful Portico, 
without being interrupted by the Legs of the Dome. 
The Surveyor in giving the Entablature to this Order, has takenthe 
Liberty to leave out Members, as the Ancients did the Inside of Porti- 
coes; the Architrave is essential in all Works, but they often used in the 
Inside to leave out the Prize and Cornice also, except some of the lower 
Members which they added to the Architrave, that it might not ap- 
pear too meagre. By this Liberty, (in which he was authorised by the 
best Ancient Porticoes) he could couch most of the Members of the En- 
tablature of the little Order within the Sally of the great Pilaster, with- 
out chopping off short the Members of an Impost. If it be said still by 
any, the little Pillars should not have been of the same Order, let them 
examine theTemplum Pacis,they will find a little Colonade continued 
through every Arch, and that of the Corinthian Order, as appears by 
some small Corinthian Capitals still adhering to the great Pile. 
This Temple, being an Example of a three ailed Fabrick,is certainly the 
best and most authentic Pattern of a cathedral Church, which must have 
three Ailes, according to Custom, and be vaulted: tho' it may not be al- 
ways necessary to vault with Diagonal-cross Vaults, as the Templum 
Pacis, and Halls of the Roman Baths are: the Romans used hemispheri- 
cal Vaultings also in some Places: the Surveyor chose those as being de- 
monstrably much lighter than the other; so the whole Vault of St. Paul's 
consists of 24 Cupolas cut off semicircular with Segments to join to the 

great Arches one Way, and which are cut cross the other Way with elip- 
tical Cylinders to let in the upper Lights of the Nave: but in the Ailes 
the lesser Cupolas are both Ways cut in semicircular Sections; and alto- 
gether make a graceful geometrical Form, distinguished by circular 
Wreaths, which is the horizontal Section of the Cupola; for the Hemi- 
sphere may be cut all Manner of Ways into circular Sections; and the 
Arches and Wreaths being of Stone carved, the Spandrels between are 
of sound B rick invested with Stucco of Cockleshell Lime, which becomes 
as hard as Portland Stone; and which having large Planes between the 
Stone Ribs, are capable of further Ornaments of Painting, if required.Be- 
esides these 24 Cupolas, there is a half Cupola at the East, and the Great 
Cupola of 1 1 2 Feet Diameter, in the Middle of the Crossing of the great 
Ailes. In this the Surveyor has imitated the Pantheon, or Rotundo in 
Rome, excepting only that the upper Order is there but umbratile, not 
extant as atSt, Paurs,out of the Wall, but only distinguished by different 
coloured Marbles. The Pantheon is no higher within than its Diameter; 
St. Peter's is two Diameters; this shews too high, the other too low; the 
Surveyor at St. Paul's took a mean Propottion, which shews its Concave 
very Way; and is very lightsome by the Windows of the upper Order, 
which strike down the Light through the great Colonade that encircles 
the Dome without, & serves for the Butment of the Dome, which is Brick 
of two Bricks thick, but as it rises every five Feet high, has a Course of 
excellent Brick of 18 Inches long, banding through the whole Thick- 
ness, {a) The Concave was turned upon a Centre; which was judged ne- 
cessary to keep the Work even and true, tho' a Cupola might be built 
without a Centre; but this is observable, that the Centre was laid with- 
out any Standards from below to support it; and as it was both Centering 
and Scaffolding, it remained for the Use of the Painter. Every Story of 
this Scaffolding being circular, and the Ends of all the Ledgers meeting 
as so many Rings, and truly wrought, it supported itself. This Machine 
was an Original of the Kind, & will be a useful Project for the like Work 
to an Architect hereafter; for since he must have Scaffolds for the Inside 
Ornaments, the same thus contrived will also serve for the Builders, and 
bear all the Weight till the Cupola be turned, & that without any Stan- 
dards. It was necessary to give a greater Height than the Cupola would 
gracefully allow within, tho' it is considerably above the Roof of the 
Church; yet the old Church having had before a very lofty Spire of 

(a) The Bricks in the Ruins of the Roman Wall, and multangular Tower at 
York, are about seventeen Inches of English Measure long, and about eleven 
inches broad, and two Inches and a half thick, measured by the ingenious Mr. 
Lister, and communicated to the Royal Society^ 1683. 
Phil. Tranf. No. 149.) 

I4 151 

Timber and Lead, the world expected, that the new Work should not 
in this Respect fall short of the old (tho' that was but a Spit, and this a 
Mountain) He was therefore obliged to comply with theHumour of the 
Age, (tho' not with ancient Example, as neither did Bramante) and to 
raise another structure over the first Cupola; Sethis was a Cone of Brick, 
so built as to support a Stone Lantern of an elegant Figure, and ending 
in Ornaments of Copper gilt. 

As the whole Church above the Vaults is covered with a substantial 
oaken Roof, and Lead, (for no other Covering is so durable in our CUmate) 
so he covered and hid out of Sight the Brick Cone with another Cupola 
of Timber and Lead; and between this and the Cone are easy Stairs that 
ascend to the Lantern. 

He took no Care to make little luthern Windows in the leaden Cupola, 
as are done out of St. Peter's, because he had otherwise provided for Light 
enough to the Stairs from the Lantern above, and round the Pedestal of 
the same, which are not seen below; so that he only ribb'd the outward 
Cupola, which he thought less Gothick, than to stick it full of such little 
Lights in three Stories, one above the other, (as is executed in the Cupola 
of St. Peter's at Rome) which could not without Difficulty be mended, 
and if neglected would soon damage the Timbers. 
The Inside of the whole Cupola is painted, and richly decorated, by an 
eminent English Artist, Sir James Thornhill, containing, in eight Com- 
partiments, the Histories of St. Paul. In the Crown of the Vault, as in the 
Pantheon, is a circular Opening, by which not only the Lantern trans- 
mits Light, but the Inside Ornaments of the painted and gilded Cone, 
display a new and agreeable Scene (a) 

(a) T/ie 'Judgment of the Surveyor was originally, instead of painting in the 
Manner it is now perform" d,to have beautified the Inside of the Cupola, with the 
more durable Ornament of the Mosaic-work, as is nobly executed in the Cupola 
of St. Peter's in Rome, which strikes the Eye of the Beholder with a most mag- 
nificent and splendid Appearance; & which, without the least Decay of Colours, 
is as lasting as Marble, or the Building itself. For this Purpose he had projected 
to have procured from Italy four of the most eminent Artists in that Profession; 
but as this Art was a great Novelty in England, and not generally apprehended, 
did not receive the Encouragement it deserved; it was imagined also the Expence 
would prove too great, and the Time very long in Execution; but tho' these and 
all Objections were fully answered, yet this excellent Design was no further 

The Painting and Gilding of the Architecture of the East-end of the Church 
over the Communion Table was intended only to serve the present Occasion, till 
such Time as Materials could have been procured for a magnificent Design of 
an Altar, consisting of four Pillars wreathed, of the richest Greek Marbles, sup- 

Altho' the Dome wants no Butment, yet, for greater Caution, it is hooped 
with Iron in this Manner; a Chanel is cut in the Bandage of Portland- 
stone, in which is laid a double Chain of Iron strongly linked together at 
every ten Feet, and the whole chanel filled up with Lead. 
Among all the Composures of the Ancients, we find no Cupolas raised 
above the necessary Loading of the Hemisphere, as is seen particularly 
in the Pantheon. In after Ages the Dome of Florence, and of the great 
Church of Venice, was raised higher. The Saracens mightily affected it, 
in Imitation of the first most eminent Pattern, given by Justinian, in his 
Temple of Sancta Sophia, at Constantinople. Bramante would not fall 
short of those Examples; nor could the Surveyor do otherwise than 
gratify the general Taste of the Age, which had been so used to Steeples, 
that these round Designs were hardly digested, unless raised to a remark- 
able Height. 

Thus St. Paul's is lofty enough to be discerned at Sea Eastward, and at 
Windsor Westward; but our Air being frequently liazy, prevents those 
distant Views, except when the Sun shines out, after a Shower of Rain 
has washed down the Clouds of Sea-coal Smoke that hang over the City 
from so many thousand Fires kindled every Morning, besides Glass- 
houses, Brew-houses, & Founderies, every one of which emits a blacker 
Smoke than twenty Houses. 

In the beginning of the new Works of St. Paul's, an Incident was taken 
notice of by some People as a memorable Omen, when the Surveyor in 
Person had set out upon the Place, the Dimensions of the great Dome, 
and fixed upon the Centre; a common Labourer was ordered to bring 
a flat Stone from the Heaps of Rubbish (such as should first come to 
Hand) to be laid for a Mark and Directions to the Masons; the Stone 
which was immediately brought & laid down for that Purpose, happened 
to be a piece of a Grave-stone, with nothing remaining of the Inscription 
but this single Word in large Capitals, RESURGAM. 
The first Stone of this Basilica was laid in the Year 1 675, and the Works 
carried on with such Care and Industry, that by the Year 1685 the Walls 
of the Quire and Side-ailes were finished, with the circular North and 
South Porticoes; and the great Pillars of the Dome brought to the same 
Height; and it pleased God in his Mercy to bless the Surveyor with 

porting a Canopy hemispherical, with proper Decorations of Architecture and 
Sculpture: for which the respective Drawings, and a Model were prepared. 
Information, & particular Descriptions of certain Blocks of Marble were once 
sent to the Right Reverend Dr. Compton, Bishop of London,from a Levantine 
Merchant in Holland, and communicated to the Surveyor, but unluckily the 
Colours and Scantlings did not answer his Purpose; so it rested in "Expectance of 
a fitter Opportunity, else probably this curious and stately Design had been 
finished at the same Time with the main Fabrick. 


Health and Length of Days, and to enable him to compleat the whole 
Structure in the Year 1710 to the Glory of his most holy Name, & Pro- 
motion of his divine Worship, the principal Ornament of the Impe- 
* Ovid's rial Seat of this Realm. * ' Majestas convenit ista Deo.' 

Fast. L. I The highest or last Stone on the Top of the Lantern was laid by the 
Hands of the Surveyor's Son, Christopher Wren, deputed by his Father, 
in the Presence of that excellent Artificer Mr. Strong, his Son, and other 
Free & Accepted Masons,chiefly employedin the Execution of the Work. 
Thus was this mighty Fabrick, the second Church for Grandeur in 
Europe, in the space of 35 Years, begun and finished by one Architect, 
and under one Bishop of London, Dr. Henry Compton: the Charge sup- 
ported chiefly by a small and easy Imposition on Sea-coal brought to the 
Port of London : whereas the Church of St. Peter in Rome (the only 
Edifice that can come in Competition with it) continued in the Building 
the Space of 145 Years, carried on by no less than 1 2 Architects succes- 
sively; assisted by the Police and Interests of the Roman-See; the ready 
Acquisition of Marble, and attended by the best Artists of the World in 
Sculpture, Statuary, Painting, and Mosaic-work, during the Reigns of 
1 9 Popes, as may be discerned in the following View. 




Names of the ARCHITECTS. 

1. Bramante 

2. Julianus a Sancto Gallo 

3. Fraterjucundus Veronensis 


4. Raphael Urbino 

5. Balthazarus Perusius 

6. Michael Angelo Bonarota 

7. Pyrrhus Lygorius 

8. Jacobus Barocius 

9. Jacobus a Porta 

10. Dominions Fontana 

under Julius II. 


1 1 . Carolus Modernus 

12. Eques Berninus 


Hadrianus VI. 
Clemens VII. 
Paulus III. 
Julius III. 
Paulus IV. 
Pius IV. 
Pius V. 

Gregorius XIII. 
Sixtus V. 
Urbanus VII. 
Gregorius XIV. 
Innocentius IX. 
Clemens VIII. 
Paulus V. 
Alexander VII. 
Urbanus VIII. 
Innocentius X. 




Principus Apostolorum 

In banc Molis Amplitudinem. 

Multiplici Romanorum Pontificum 

^dificatione Perductam 

Innocentius X. Pont. Max., &c. 

* * * * Terminavit. 


N.B. Tbe Proportion of tbe Roman Palm to tbe Englisb Foot is as 7 
is to 1000. 1000=732. 914=669,048, and so of tbe rest, ut infra. 

St. Peter's 



St. Paul's. 

Excess ( 

St. Pete 


St. Paul 



of a Foot. 





Long witbin 






Broad at tbe En- 






Front witbout 






Broad at the Cross 






Cupola Clear 






Cupola & Lantern 






Church high 






Height of Pillars 
in the Front 







Critical " The grand Cathedral of St. Paul's (says an ingenious Writer) is un- 

Review of " doubtedly one of the most magnificent modern Buildings in Europe; 
pub lick " all the Parts of which it is composed are superlatively beautiful and 

Buildings " noble; the North & South Fronts in particular are very perfect Pieces 
in London, " of Architecture, neither ought the East to go without due Appilause. 
p. ij, ijl4f " The two Spires at the West-end are in a finished Taste; & the Portico 
" with the Ascent, and the Dome that rises in the Centre of the whole, 
" afford a very august & surprizing Prospect. "-iV!5. The Critical Objec- 
tions of this Author, subsequent tothishis general Character of St. Paul's 
delivered with Candour and Modesty, are chiefly answered in the above 
Section VI. Part II. 
Travels by " The Parts (says a judicious Traveller) of the Front of that most admir- 
Ed. Wright, " ableFabrick of St. Peter's in Rome are certainly very beautiful, grand, 
Esq; vol. I , " and noble, the Pillars being nine Feet in Diameter; but the whole is 
p. 206. " terminated by a straight Line at Top, which (without any Prejudice 

Lond. 1730 " in favour of my own Country) I cannot think has so good an Effect as 
" the agreeable Variety, which is given by the Turrets at each End, and 
" the Pediment rising in the Middle of the Front of St. Paul's." 

A List of Drawings, relating to the Architecture of the cathedral 
Church of St. Paul. 

A Plan of the old Gothick Cathedral, with the Chapter-house, &c., in a 

large Scale, on Vellum, used by the Surveyor for adjusting the proposed 

Repairs, before the great Fire, Anno 1666. 
P. 98 A Plan of Part of the old Cathedral reformed; together with the Plan, 

Orthography, and Section of a Dome, Lantern and Spire, contrived to 

have been erected in the Place of the old, ruinous, middle Tower, as 

presented to King Charles II, and Commissioners for the Repairs of that 

Fabrick, before the great Fire. 
P. 1 1 6 Plan, Elevation, and Section of a Design after the great Fire; but before 

a Fund was granted by the Parliament for the Building. 
P. 1 1 7 Plan, Elevation, Section,'and diagonal View, according to a Design after 

the Coal-duty was appropriated by Parliament for the Fabrick ; of which 

a large and curious Model was made in Wood, approved by the Royal 

Commission under the Great Seal, Anno 1 673, 
P. 1 1 8 The same Designs in a large Scale, drawn for his Majesty's Perusal. 

Plan, Elevation, & Section of another Design, in a Style more conform- 
* Original able to the old Cathedral Form, with his Majesty's * Approbation, and 

Warrant to begin the Works, under the Sign-manual, and Privy-seal, 

annexed to the Drawings, Anno 1 675. 

Plans general and particular of the new Fabrick, as it is executed. 

Orthography of the whole Church from West to East, with the Section; 

in which the Dome and Western Towers are represented, as once 

Orthography and View of the whole Fabrick to the West, the Dome, 
and upper Parts of the Towers, according to a prior Intention, not 

Orthography and Sections of the whole, and distinct Parts of the Struc- 
ture, as it is executed, viz. 

The Peristyles of the Dome, outward and inward, with the Section. 
Section of the whole Cupola, Cone, & Stone Lantern, with the Copper- 
work, Ball and Cross. 
Section of the Cross-aile. 
Elevation and Section of the West-towers. 

Designs of the great Portico, the two circular Porticoes, and their Archi- 
traves, &c. 

Designs in Orthography, and Perspective of the Inside of the Church, 
Quire and Chapels. 

Designs of the Doors, Windows, Niches, the exterior & interior Finish- 
ings and Ornaments. 
Designs for Marble Altar-Pieces. 
Designs of the Morning-prayer-chapel, and Consistory. 
Design of the Organs, and their Ornaments. 
Design of the Centering of the great Cupola, &c. 



NOTHER eminent Work, in a difFerentStyle 
of Architecture, was the Reparation of the 
ancient Abbey-church of St. Peter, in West- 
' minster, prosecuted by the Surveyor, to the 
Time of his Death, the Space of 25 Years, 
with all the Application, that the Branch of 
the Coal-duty given by Parliament for that 
Purpose, would admit. A particular Account 
of which will be best understood from his 
own Words, in the following Memorial to 
the Bishop of Rochester, in the Year 171 3. 

" When I had the Honour to attend your Lordship to congratulate your 
Episcopal Dignity, and pay that Respect which particularly concerned 
myself as employed in the chief Direction of the Works and Repairs of 
the Collegiate-church of St. Peter in Westminster; you was pleased to 
give me this seasonable Admonition, that I should considermy advanced 
Age; and as I had already made fair Steps in the Reparation of that 
ancient and ruinous Structure, you thought it very requisite for the pub- 
lick Service,! should leave a Memorial of what I had done; andwhatmy 
Thoughts were for carrying on the Works for the future. 
In order to describe whatl have already done, I should first give a State 
of the Fabrick as I found it; which being the Work of 500 Years, or 
more, through several Ages and Kings Reigns, it will come in my Way 
to consider the Modes of Building in those Times, and what Light Re- 
cords may afford us; such as at present I am able to collect, give me leave 
to discourse a little upon. 

That a Temple of Apollo was here in Thorny-island (the Place anciently 
so called, where the Church now stands) and ruined by an Earthquake 
in the Reign of the Emperor Antoninus Pius, I cannot readily agree. 
The Romans did not use, even in their Colonies, to build so lightly; the 
Ruins of ancienter Times shew their Works to this Day; the least Frag- 
ment of Cornice, or Capital, would demonstrate their Handy-work. 
Earthquakes break not Stones to Pieces, nor would the Picts be at that 
Pains: but I imagine the Monks finding the Londoners pretending to a 
Temple of Diana, where now St. Paul's stands; (Horns of Stags, Tusks 
of Boars, &c., having been dug up there in former Times, and it is said 
also, in later Years) jwould not be behind Hand in Antiquity: but I must 
assert, that having changed all the Foundations of Old Paul's, and upon 
that Occasion rummaged all the Ground thereabouts, and being very 
desirous to find some Footsteps of such a Temple, I could not discover 
any, and therefore can give no more Credit to Diana than to Apollo. 

To pass over the fabulous Account, that King Lucius first founded a 
little Church here, A.D. 170, out of the Ruins of the Temple of Apollo, 
destroyed by an Earthquake a little before: but it is recorded with better 
Authority, that Sebert, King of the East-Saxons, built a Monastery and 
Church here in 605, which being destroyed by the Danes, was about 360 
Years after repaired by the pious King Edgar. This, it is probable, was a 
strong good Building, after the Mode of that Age, not much altered from 
the Roman. We have some Examples of this ancient Saxon Manner, 
which was with Peers or round Pillars, much stronger than Tuscan, 
round headed Arches, and Windows; such was Winchester Cathedral 
of old; and such at this Day the Royal Chapel in the White-tower of 
London; the Chapel of St. Crosses; the Chapel of Christ-church in Ox- 
ford, formerly an old Monastery; & divers others I need not name, built 
before the Conquest; & such was the old Part of St. Paul's built in King 
Rufus's Time. 

King Edward the Confessor repaired, if not wholly rebuilt this Abbey- 
church of King Edgar; of which a Description was published by Mr. 
Camden in 1 606, from an ancient Manuscript in these Words: " Princi- 
"palis area domus, altissimis erecta fornicibus quadrato opere, parique 
"commissura circumvolvitur; ambitus autem ipsius aedis duplici lapi- 
" dum arcu ex utroque latere hinc inde fortiter solidata operis compage 
"clauditur. Porro crux templi quae medium canentium domino chorum 
" ambiret, & sui gemina hinc inde sustentatione mediae turris celsum 
"apicem fulciret, humili primum & robusto fornice simpliciter surgit; 
" deinde cochleis multipliciter ex arte ascendentibus plurimis intumes- 
"cit; deinceps vero simplici muro usque ad tectum ligneumplumbo dil- 
"igenter vestitum pervenit." 

The Sense of which I translate into Language proper to Builders, as I 
can understand it. 

"The principal Aile or Nave of the Church being raised high, & vaulted 
"with square and uniform Ribs, is turned circular to the East. This on 
" all Sides is strongly fortified with double Vaulting of the Ailes in two 
" Stories, with their Pillars and Arches. The Cross-building fitted to con- 
" tain the Quire in the Middle, and the better to support the lofty Tower, 
"rose with a plainer and lower Vaulting; which Tower then spreading 
"with artificial Winding-stairs, was continued with plain Walls to its 
" Timber Roof, which was well covered with Lead." 
These ancient Buildings were without Buttresses, only with thicker 
Walls: the Windows were very narrow, and latticed, for King Alfred is 
praised for After-invention of Lanterns to keep in the Lamps in Churches. 
In the Time of King Henry the Third, the Mode began, to build Chapels 
behind the Altar to the Blessed Virgin: what this Chapel here was, is not 
now to be discovered, I suppose the Foundations of it, are under the Steps 


of King Henry the Seventh's Chapel, and this Work probably semicir- 
cular (as afterwards four more were added without the Ailes) was also 
intended for his own Sepulture; some of his own Relations lying now, 
just below those Steps, and may be supposed to have been within his 
Chapel: of this he laid the first Stone, Anno 1220, and took down the 
greatest Part of St. Edward's Church to rebuild it according to the Mode, 
which came into Fashion after the Holy War. 

This we now call the Gothick Manner of Architecture (so the Italians 
called what was not after the Roman Style) tho' the Goths were rather 
Destroyers than Builders; I think it should with more Reason be called 
the Saracen Style; for those People wanted neither Arts nor Learning; 
and after we in the West had lost both, we borrowed again from them, 
out of their Arabick Books, what they with great Diligence had trans- 
lated from the Greeks. 

They were Zealots in their Religion, and where-ever they conquered, 
(which was with amazing Rapidity) erected Mosques and Caravansara's 
in Haste; which obliged them to fall into another Way of Building; for 
they built their Mosques round, disliking the Christian Form of a Cross, 
the old Quarries whence the Ancients took their large Blocks of Marble 
for whole Columns and Architraves, were neglected, and they thought 
both impertinent. Their Carriage was by Camels, therefore their Build- 
ings were fitted for small Stones, and Columns of their own Fancy, con- 
sisting of many Pieces; and their Arches were pointed without Key- 
stones, which they thought too heavy. 

The Reasons were the same in our Northern Climates, abounding in 
Free-stone, but wanting Marble. 

The Crusado gave us an Idea of this Form ; after which King Henry built 
his Church, but not by a Model well digested at first; for, I think, the 
Chapels without the Ailes were an After-thought, the Buttresses be- 
tween the Chapels remaining being useless, if they had been raised to- 
gether with them; & the King having opened the East-end forSt. Mary's 
Chapel, he thought to make more Chapels for Sepulture; which was very 
acceptable to the Monks, after Licence obtained from Rome to bury in 
Churches, a Custom not used before. 

The King's Intention was certainly to make up only the Cross to the 
Westward, for thus far it is of a different Manner from the rest more 
Westward built after his Time, as the Pillars and Spandrils of the Arches 

I am apt to think the King did not live to compleat his Intention, nor to 
reach four Inter-columns West of the Tower; the Walls of this Part might 
probably be carried up in his Time, but the Vaulting now covering the 
Quire, tho' it be more adorned and gilded, is without due Care in the 
Masonry, and is the worst performed of all done before. This Stone Vault 

was finished 2 3 Years after his Decease, in the Reign of King Edward the 
First, so that the old Verse is not punctually right, 

"Tertius Henricus est tenipli conditor hujus." 

But alas! it was now like to have been all spoiled; the Abbots would have 
a Cloyster, but scrupled, I suppose, at moving some venerable Corpses 
laid between the Outside Buttresses; then comes a bold, but ignorant 
Architect, who undertakes to build the Cloyster, so that the Buttresses 
should be without the Cloyster spanning over it, as may be seen in the 

This was a dangerous Attempt. It is by due Consideration of the Statick 
Principles, and the right Poising of the Weights of the Butments to the 
Arches, that good Architecture depends; and the Butments ought to 
have equal Gravity on both Sides. Altho' this was done to flatter the 
Humour of the Monks, yet the Architect should have considered that 
new Works carried very high, and that upon a newer Foundation, would 
shrink: from hence the Walls above the Windows are forced out ten 
Inches, and the Ribs broken. I could not discern this Failure to be so bad, 
till the Scaffold over the Quire was raised to give a close View of it; and 
then I was amazed to find it had not quite fallen. This is now amended 
with all Care, and I dare promise it shall be much stronger, and securer 
than ever the first Builders left it. 

After what had bjeen done by King Henry the Third and his Successor, 
it is said, the Work was carried further by the Abbots and Monks toward 
the West, and I perceive also the contiguous Cloyster after the Manner 
it was begun by King Henry the Third with Butments spanning over 
the Cloyster, which they were necessitated to proceed upon, according 
as it had been begun, tho', by Error, not to be amended till it was carried 
beyond the Cloyster; but then they proceeded with regular Butments 
answerable to the North-side, till they came to the West-front. This 
West-vault was proceeded on with much better Care and Skill, and was 
a Work of many Years, during the Reigns of the three succeeding Ed- 
wards, and King Richard the Second.! suppose there was a great Inter- 
mission or Slackness of Work, till the Lancastrian Line came in; for then, 
in the very first Bay of this Work, I find in the Vaulting, and the Key- 
stones, the Rose of Lancaster. 

In the tumultuous and bloody Wars between the two Houses of York 
& Lancaster, little was done to the Abbey, but by the Zeal of the Abbots, 
who drove the Work on as well as they were able, tho' slowly, to the 
West-end, which was never compleatly finished. 
When King Henry the Eighth dissolved the Monastery, the Cloyster 
was finished, and other Things for the Convenience of the Abbey. 
The Consistory (no contemptible Fabrick) was, I think, done in the 
m I 161 

Time of King Edward the First, and, in order to join it to the Church, 
the East-side of the Cloyster was taken out of the West-side of the cross 
Part of the Church (by ill Advice) for it might have otherwise been done 
by a more decent Contrivance, but it maybe the King was to be obeyed, 
who founded this octagonal Fabrick: the Abbot lent it to the King for 
the Use of the House of Commons, upon Condition the Crown should 
repair it, which, tho' it be now used for Records, hath lately been done. 
The Saracen Mode of Building seen in the East, soon spread over Europe, 
and particularly in France ; the Fashions of which Nation we affected to 
imitate in all Ages, even when we were at Enmity with it. 
Nothing was thought magnificent that was not high beyond Measure, 
with the Flutter of Archbuttresses, so we call the sloping Arches that 
poise the higher Vaultings of the Nave. The Romans always concealed 
their Butments, whereas the Normans thought them ornamental. These 
I have observ'd are the first Things that occasion the Ruin of Cathedrals, 
being so much exposed to the Air and Weather; the Coping, which can- 
not defend them, first failing, & if they give way, the Vault must spread. 
Pinnacles are of no Use,.and as little Ornament. The Pride of a very high 
Roof raised above reasonable Pitch is not for Duration, for the Lead is 
apt to slip; but we are tied to this indiscreet Form, & must be contented 
with original Faults in the first Design. But that which is most to be la- 
mented, is the unhappy Choice of the Materials, the Stone is decayed 
four Inches deep, and falls off perpetually in great Scales. I find, after the 
Conquest, all our Artists were fetched from Normandy; they loved to 
work in their own Caen-stone, which is more beautiful than durable. 
This was found expensive to bring hither, so they thought Rygate-stone 
in Surrey, the nearest like their own, being a Stone that would saw and 
work like Wood, but not durable, as is manifest; and they used this for 
the Ashlar of the whole Fabrick, which is now disfigur'd in the highest 
Degree: this Stone takes in Water, which, being frozen, scales off, 
whereas good Stone gathers a Crust, and defends itself, as many of our 
English Free-stones do. And though we have also the best Oak Timber 
in the World, yet these senseless Artificers in Westminster-hall, & other 
Places, would work their Chesnuts from Normandy; that Timber is not 
natural to England, it works finely, but sooner decays than Oak. The 
Roof in the Abbey is Oak, but mixed with Chesnut, and wrought after 
a bad Norman Manner, that does not secure it from stretching, & damag- 
ing the Walls, and the Water of the Gutters is ill carried off. All this is 
said, the better, in the next Place, to represent to your Lordship whathas 
been done, and is wanting still to be carried on, as Time and Money is 
allowed to make a substantial and durable Repair. 
First, in Repair of the Stone-work, what is done shews itself: beginning 
from the East-window, we have cut out all the ragged Ashlar, & invest- 

ed it with a better Stone, out of Oxfordshire, down the River, from the 
Quarries about Burford. We have amended and secured the Butresses in 
the Cloyster-garden, as to the greatest Part; and we proceed to finish 
that Side; the Chapels on the South-side are done, and most of the Arch- 
buttresses all along as we proceeded. We have not done much on the 
North-side, for these Reasons: the Houses on the North-side are so close, 
that there is not Room left for the raising of Scaffolds and Ladders, nor 
for Passage for bringing Materials : besides, the Tenants taking every 
Inch to the very Walls of the Church to be in their Leases, this Ground 
already too narrow, is divided as the Backsides to Houses, with Wash- 
houses, Chimnies, Privies, Cellars, the Vaults of which, if indiscreetly 
dug against the Foot of a Buttress, may inevitably ruin the Vaults of the 
Chapels (and indeed I perceive such Mischief is already done, by the 
Opening of the Vaults of the octagonal Chapel on that Side) and unless 
effectual Means be taken to prevent all Nusances of this Sort, the Works 
cannot proceed, and if finished, may soon be destroyed. I need say no 
more, nor will I presume to dictate, not doubting but proper Means will 
be taken to preserve this noble Structure from such Nusances, as directly 
tend to the Demolition of it. 

And now, in further Pursuance of your Lordship's Directions, I shall 
distinctly set down, what yet remains to finish the necessary Repairs for 
Ages to come. And then, in the second Place (since the first Intentions 
of the Founders were never brought to a Conclusion) I shall present my 
Thoughts and Designs, in order to a proper compleating of what is left 
imperfect, hopeing we may obtain for this, the Continuance of the Par- 
liamentary Assistance. 

I have yet said nothing of King Henry the Seventh's Chapel, a nice 
embroidered Work, and performed with tender Caen-stone, & tho' lately 
built, in Comparison, is so eaten up by our Weather, that it begs for some 
Compassion, which, I hope, the sovereign Power will take, as it is the 
regal Sepulture. 

I begin, as I said, to set down what is necessary for compleating the Re- 
pairs, tho' Part thereof at present I can only guess at, because I cannot as 
yet come at the North-side to make a full Discovery of the Defects there, 
but I hope to find it rather better than the South-side; for it is the Vicis- 
situdes of Heat and Cold, Drought and Moisture, that rot all Materials 
more than the Extremities that are constant, of any of these Accidents: 
this is manifest in Timber, which, if always under Ground & wet, never 
decays, otherwise Venice and Amsterdam would fall: it is the same in 
Lead-work, for the North-side of a steep Roof is usually much less de- 
cayed than the South ; and the same is commonly seen in Stone Work; 
besides, the Buttresses here are more substantial than those of the South- 
side, which I complained before were indiscreetly altered for the sake of 
ma 163 

theCloyster; and I find some Emendations have been made about eighty 
Years since, but not well. Upon the whole Matter I may say, that of the 
necessary Repairs of the outward Stone Work, one third Part is already 
compleated. The most dangerous Part of the Vaulting over the Quire 
now in Hand will be finished in a few Months, but the Roof over it can- 
not be opened till Summer. The Repairs of the Stone Work, with all the 
Chapels, Arch-buttresses, Windows, and Mouldings of the North-side 
are yet to be done, excepting Part of the North-cross Aile: a great Part 
of the Expence will be in the North Front, and the great Rose Window 
there, which being very ruinous, was patched up for the present to pre- 
vent further Ruin, some Years since, before I was concerned, but must 
now be new done: I have prepared a proper Design for it. The Timber 
of the Roof of the Nave, and the Cross, is amended and secured with the 
Lead; and also the Chapels: but the whole Roof, & Ailes from the Tower 
Westward, with Lead & Pipes to be new-cast, remains yet, with all the 
Timber Work, to be mended, as hath been done Eastward of the Tower 
already. The Chapels on the North-side must have their Roofs amended, 
when we can see how to come at them, after the Removal of one little 

And nowhaving given asummaryAccountof what will perfect the meer 
Repairs, let me add what I wish might be done to render those Parts 
with a proper Aspect, which were left abruptly imperfect by the last 
Builders, when the Monastery was dissolved by King Henry the Eighth. 
The West-front is very requisite to be finished, because the two Towers 
are not of equal Height, and too low for the Bells, which hang so much 
lower than the Roof, that they are not heard so far as they should be: the 
great West-window is also too feeble, & the Gabel-end of the Roof over 
it, is but Weather-boards painted. 

The original Intention was plainly to have had a Steeple, the Beginnings 
of which appear on the Corners of the Cross, but left off before it rose so 
high as the Ridge of the Roof; & the Vault of the Quire under it, is only 
Lath and Plaister, now rotten, and must be taken care of. 
Lest it should be doubted, whether the four Pillars below, be able to bear 
a Steeple, because they seem a little swayed inward, I have considered 
how they may be unquestionably secured, so as to support the greatest 
Weight that need be laid upon them; &this after a Manner that will add 
to their Shape and Beauty. 

It is manifest to the Eye, that the four innermost Pillars of the Cross are 
bended inward considerably, and seem to tend to Ruin, and the Arches 
of the second Order above are cracked also: how this has happened, and 
how it is to be secured, I shall demonstrate. 

I conceive the Architect knew very well, that the four Pillars above the 
Intersection of the Cross-nave would not prove a sufficient Butment to 

stand against the Pressure of so many Arches, unless they were very much 
bigger than the other Piers; but that could not be without cumbering up 
the principal Part of the Church : but tho' these angular Pillars could not 
be made bigger, yet they could be made heavier to stand against the Pres- 
sure of the several Rows of Arches, which might prove an Equivalent, 
as may appear thus: 

Let A B C be an Arch rest- 
ing at C, against an immove- 
able Wall K M, but at A 
upon a Pillar A D, so small 
as to be unable to be a suffi- 
cient Butment to the Pres- 
sure of the Arch A B: what 
is then to be done? 1 cannot 
add F G to it to make it a 
Butment, but I build up E 
so high, as by Addition of 
Weight, to establish it so 
firm, as if I had annexed F G 
to it to make it a Butment : 
it need not be enquired how 
much E must be, since it can- 
not exceed, provided A D 
be sufficient to bear the 
Weight imposed on it: and 
this is the Reason why in 
all Gothick Fabricks of this 
Form, the Architects were 
wont to build Towers or 
Steeples in the Middle, not 

only for Ornament, but to confirm the middle Pillars against the Thrust 
of the several Rows of Arches, which force against them every Way. 
The Architect understood this well enough, but knowing that it might 
require Time to give such a Butment as the Tower to his Arches, which 
was to be last done; and lest there should be a Failing in the mean Time, 
he wisely considered, that if he tied these Arches every Way with Iron, 
which were next to the Middle of the Cross: this might serve the Turn, 
till he built the Tower to make all secure, which is not done to this Day. 
These Irons which were hooked on from Pillar to Pillar have been stolen 
away; and this is the Reason of the four Pillars being bent inward, and 
the Walls above cracked ; but nothing can be amended, till first the Pil- ' 
lars are restored, which I have considered how to perform, and repre- 
m3 165 





.A r. 



1 1 



sented in a Model. This must be first done, otherwise the Addition of 
Weight upon that which is already crooked and infirm, will make it 
more so: but the Pillars being once well secured from further Distortion, 
it will be necessary to confirm all by adding more Weight upon them,- 
that is, by building a Tower according to the original Intention of the Ar- 
chitect, and which was begun, as appears by the Work, but left off before 
it rose to the Ridge of the Roof. In my Opinion the Tower should be 
continued to at least as much in Height above the Roof, as it is in Breadth; 
and if a Spire be added to it, it will give a proper Grace to the whole 
Fabrick, and the West-end of the City, which seems to want it. 
I have made a Design, which will not be very expensive but light, and 
still in the Gothick Form, and of a Style with the rest of the Structure, 
which I would strictly adhere to, throughout the whole Intention: to 
deviate from the old Form, would be to run into a disagreeable Mixture, 
which no Person of a good Taste could relish. 

I have varied a little from the usual Form, in giving twelve Sides to the 
Spire instead of eight, for Reasons to be discerned upon the Model. 
The Angles of Pyramids in the Gothic Architecture, were usually in- 
riched with the Flower the Botanists call Calceolus, which is a proper 
Form to help Workmen to ascend on the Outside to amend any Defects, 
without raising large Scaffolds upon every slight Occasion; I have done 
the same, being of so good Use, as well as agreeable Ornament. 
The next Thing to be considered is, to finish what was left undone at the 

It is evident, as is observed before, the two West-towers were left imper- 
fect, and have continued so since the Dissolution of the Monastery, one 
much higher than the other, though still too low for Bells, which are 
stifled by the Height of the Roof above them; they ought certainly to 
be carried to an equal Height, one Story above the Ridge of the Roof, 
still continuing the Gothick Manner, in the Stone-work, and Tracery. 
Something must be done to strengthen the West- window, which is crazy; 
the Pediment is only boarded, but ought undoubtedly to be of Stone. I 
have given such a Design, as I conceive may be suitable for this Part: the 
Jerusalem-Chamber is built against it, and the Access fromTothill-street 
not very graceful. 

The principal Entrance is from King-street, and I believe always will 
continue so, but at present, there is little Encouragement to begin to 
make this North-front magnificent in the Manner I have designed,whilst 
it is so much incumbered with private Tenements, which obscure and 
smoke the Fabrick, not without danger of fireing it. 
The great North-window had been formerly in danger of Ruin, but was 
upheld, and stopt up, for the present, with Plaister. It will be most neces- 
sary to rebuild this with Portland-stone, to answer the South-rose-win- 

do w, which was well rebuilt about forty years since ; the Stair-cases at the 
Corners must now be new ashlar'd, & Pyramids set upon them conform- 
able to the old-Sty le, to make the Whole of a Piece. I have therefore made 
a*Design in order to restore it to its proper shape first intended, but which ^This front, 
was indiscreetly tamper'd with some years since, by patching on a little commonly 
Dorick Passage before the great Window, & cropping off the Pyramids, called Solo- 
and covering the Stair-cases with very improper Roofs of Timber and mon'sPorch, 
Lead, which can never agree with any other part of the Design. the Surveyor 

For all these new Additions I have prepared perfect Draughts & Models, lived tofinish 
such as I conceive may agree with the original Scheme of the old Archi- in the Tear 
tect, without any modern Mixtures to shew my own Inventions; in like 1 722 
manner as I have among the Parochial Churches of London given some 
few Examples (where I was oblig'd to deviate from a better Style) which 
appear not ungraceful, but ornamental, to the East part of the City; and 
it is to be hoped, by the publick Care, to the West part also, in good Time, 
will be as well adorned; arid surely by nothing more properly than a lofty 
Spire, and Western-towers to Westminster- Abbey. 

N.B. By the foregoing Epistle, at the Beginning, and also in Part IL 
Sect. L It appears that Sir Christopher Wren gave no Credit to the 
Stories; how, of old, a Temple of Diana stood on the Situation of the 
presentChurchof St. Paul,in London; & another of Apollo, in Thorney- 
Island, the Site of Westminster Abbey; what induced him to reject these 
Accounts as fabulous, was, that in digging the Foundations of St. Paul's 
Cathedral, he could make no Discoveries in favour of such Conceits; no 
doubt, the many Antiquities said to have been found there, in proof of 
those Relations, were never brought to his View ; however, the following 
Extracts from good Authority, shew the Conjecture, particularly in Re- 
ference to the Temple of Diana, was not groundless. 

" Erasmus observed, while he was in England, a popular Custom at Erasmi 
" London, that on such a Day, viz, St. Paul's Conversion, the People in Ecclesiastae 
" a sort of wild Procession, bring into the Church of St. Paul, the Head 
" of a kind of Deer frequent in that Island, fixed upon the Top of a long Dr. Knight's 
" Spear or Pole, with the whole Company blowing Hunters-horns in a Life of 
" sort of hideous Manner, and so in this rude Pomp they go up to the Erasmus, 
" High-Altar, and offer it there; you would think them all the mad Vo- p- 298 
" taries of Diana." This, probably at first Pagan Custom, continued to, 
and could hardly be swept away at the Reformation. Though the Church 
was now dedicated to the Memory of the great Apostle St. Paul; yet they 
seemed willing not to forget the Goddess Diana, to whom (we are told) 
in this very Place, was anciently a Temple erected; and that in the Time 
of Melitus, the first Bishop of London, Ethelbert, King of Kent, built a 
Church to the Honour of St. Paul, where before stood a Temple of 
m 4 1 67 

lb. 299 Diana,as an antient Manuscript in theCotton Library tells us. 'Immolat 

Dianae Londonia, thurificat Apollini suburbana Thorneia ' (Thorney is 
now Westminster). 
lb. 301 An earthen Lampwas found in digging the Foundation of St. Paul' 

presenting the Figure of a Building, which the late Mr. Kemp, into 
whose Hands this Lamp came, supposed to be the Temple of Diana; and 
he was the more confirmed in this Opinion, from another Lamp of the 
same Sort, which was found in the same Place, & at the same Time with 
'^Monument the former, together with several Boars Tusks.* 

Kemp. Par. Mr. Camden thinks it not improbable, that there was antiently a Temple 

\.p. 179, of Diana, where St. Paul's Church now stands, from the great Number 

1*80 ' of Ox-heads that were found there in digging up the Church-yard, in 

the Reign of K. Edw. L and were looked upon as Gentile Sacrifices, and 

in this Opinion he is followed by his learned Editor; as also by Mr. 

Samms, Mr. Howel, and others; particularly the ingenious Dr. Wood- 

Ib. 102 ward acquaints us, that he has<in his Collection, Tusks of Boars, Horns 

of Oxen, and of Stags, as also the Representations of Deer, and even of 

Diana herself, upon the sacrificing Vessels digged up near St. Paul's 

Church; and likewise a small Image of that Goddess, found not far off. 

Now it appears from ancient Writers, that not only Stags, but Oxen and 

Swine also were sacrificed to Diana. 

There is extant an earthen Lamp, which was procured of the above- 
mentioned Mr. Kemp, and is supposed to have been dug up among the 
other Lamps and Antiquities at St. Paul's; on it is embosssed the Figure 
of Diana in a Hunting-posture, in the same Manner as she is represented 
on the ancient Greek Coins of Ephesus, and conformable to an antique 
Statue of Marble in the Gallery of the Kingof France at Versailles. This 
Lamp, as the other before-mentioned, is of very mean Work; on the Re- 
verse, in the Center are some Letters, probajsly the Potter's Name, as 
usual, but so ill executed as to be hardly legible. 



[HE large, and magnificent Cathedral-church 
of Salisbury, (in like manner as Westminster- 
Abbey) discovering manifest Decays, and 
[ threatening Ruin, arising partly from the Want 
Jof true Judgment in the first Architect, partly 
[from Injuries of Time and Weather, the lofty 
I Spire especially having been much shaken and 
icrackt by some Tempest & Storm of Light- 
ening, required the Skill and Direction of the 
Surveyor for a speedy Amendment; in order to 
which, the Faults of the Steeple of Necessity claimed the first considera- 
tion, because it could not be ruined alone, without drawing with it the 
Roof and Vaults of the Church. This therefore he took special Care to 
strengthen, and effectually secure, by braceing with Bandages of Iron 
wrought by Anchor-smiths, accustomed in great Work for Ships, and 
these so judiciously placed, and artfully performed, that it continues de- 
monstrably stronger than at the first Erection. 

He had taken an accurate Survey in the Year 1669, of the whole Struc- 
ture of this ancient Cathedral, at the Request of his excellent Friend Di^. 
Seth Ward, Bishop of that See; in his Report to whom, & the Dean and 
Chapter, after enumerating the fundamental Errors, Defects, & present 
Decays, he gave his Advice & full Instructions, for the necessary amend- 
ing, restoring, and keeping it from farther Declension, together with the 
Diseases suggesting the Cures. As this Church is justly esteemed one of 
the best Patterns of Gothick-building, a short Architiectonical Account, 
thereof, taken from the first Part of the Surveyor's Report, may bespeak 
the Attention of the Curious, as a further Taste of that Style of Archi- 

" The Figure of the Church is a Cross, upon the Intersection of which, 
" stands aTower and Spire of Stone, as highfrom the Foundation, as the 
" whole Length of the Navis, or Body of the Church ; and it is founded 
" only upon the four Pillars and Arches of the Intersection. Between the 
" Steeple and the East-end is another crossing of the Navis, which on the 
" West-side only wants its Ailes; all other Sides of the main Body & the 
" Crosses are supported on Pillars with Ailes annexed, and buttressed 
" without the Ailes, from whence arise Bows or flyiijg Buttresses to the 
" Walls of the Navis which areconcealed\within theTimberRoof of the 
" Ailes. The Roof is almost as shal-p as an ^Equilateral Triangle, made of 
" small Timber after the ancient Manner without principal Rafters; but 
" the Wall-plats are double, and tied together with Couples above forty 
" Feet long. The whole Church is vaulted with Chalk between Arches 


" and Cross-springers only, after the ancienter Manner, without Orbs 
" and Tracery, excepting under the Tower, where the Springers divide, 
" and represent a wider Sort of Tracery; and this appears to me to have 
" been a later Work, and to be done by some other Hand than that of the 
" first Architect, whose Judgment I must justly commend for many 
" Things, beyond what I find in divers Gothick Fabricks of later Date, 
" which, tho' more elaborated with nice and small Works, yet want the 
" natural Beauty which arises from the Proportion of the first Dimen- 
" sions. For here the Breadth to the Height of the Navis,and both to the 
" Shape of the Ailes bear a good Proportion. The Pillars and the Inter- 
" columnations, (or Spaces between Pillar and Pillar) are well suited to 
" the Height of the Arches, the Mouldings are decently mixed with 
" large Planes without an Affectation of filling every Corner with Orna- 
" ments, which, unless they are admirably good, glut the Eye, as much 
" as in Musick, too much Division the Ears. The Windows are not made 
" too great, nor yet the Light obstructed with many MuUions and Tran- 
" somes of Tracery^work; which was the ill Fashion of the next foUow- 
" ing Age: our Artist knew better, that nothing could add Beauty to 
" Light, he trusted to a stately and rich Plainness, that his Marble Shafts 
" gave to his Work: I cannot call them Pillars, because they are so small 
" and slender, and generally bear nothing, but are only added for Orna- 
" ment to the Outside of the great Pillars, and decently fastened with 
" Brass. 

" Notwithstanding this Commendation of the Architect, there are some 
" original Errors, which I must lay to his Charge, the Discovery of 
" which will give us light to the Cause of the present Decays. 
" First, I must accuse him, that building in a low and marshy Soil, he did 
" not take sufficient Care of the Foundation, especially under the Pillars. 
" That Foundation which will bear a Wall, will not bear a Pillar, for 
" Pillars thrust themselves into the Earth, & force open the solid Ground, 
" if the Foundation under them be not broad; and if it benot hardStone, 
" it will be ground and crushed as Things are bruised in a Mortar, if the 
" Weight be great. 

" A second Fault, was the not raising the Floor of the Church above the 
" Fear of Inundations; many sufficient Foundations have failed after the 
" Earth hath been too much drenched with unusual Floods; besides, it 
" is unhandsome to descend into a Place. 

" The third Fault, is in the Poise of the Building: generally the Substruc- 
" tions are too slender for the Weights above. 

" The Pillars appear small enough, and yet they shew much greater than 
" they are; for the Shafts of Marble that encompass them, seem to fill out 
" the Pillars to a proportionable Bulk; but indeed they bear little or no 
" Weight, and some of those that are pressed, break and split; if those 

" Ornaments should be taken off, the Pillar would then appear too little 
" for its Burthen; but this no where so enormous as under the Steeple, 
" which being four hundred Feet in Height, is borne by four Pillars, not 
" much larger than the Pillars of the Ailes: and therefore out of Fear 
" to over-burden them in the Inside of the Tower, for forty Feet high 
" above, the Navis is made with a slender hollow Work of Pillars and 
" Arches; nor hath it any Buttresses, and the Spire itself is but seven 
" Inches thick, tho' the Height be above one hundred and fifty Feet. 
" This Work of Pillars and Arches within the Tower, makes me believe 
" that the Architect laid his first Floor of Timber forty Feet higher than 
" the Vault beneath, (which, as I said, was since added) and without 
" doubt intended a Belfry above (as appears by Places left in the Walls 
" for Timber, and fastening of the Frames for the Bells) and so would 
" have concluded with the Tower only, without a Spire. And if this 
" Addition of a Spire was a second Thought, the Artist is more excusable 
"for having omitted Buttresses to the Tower; & his Ingenuity commend- 
" able for supplying this Defect, by bracing the Walls together with 
" many large Bands of Iron within and without, keyed together with 
" much Industry, and Exactness: and besides these that appear, I have 
" Reason to believe, that there are divers other Braces concealed within 
" the Thickness of the Walls; and these are so essential to the Standing 
" of the Work, that if they were dissolved, the Spire would spread open 
" the Walls of the Tower, nor could it stand one Minute. But this Way 
" of tying Walls together with Iron, instead of making them of that 
" Substance and Form, that they shall naturally poise themselves upon 
" their Butment, is against the Rules of good Architecture; not only be- 
" cause it is corruptible by Rust; but because it is fallacious, having un- 
" equal Veins in the Metal, some Pieces in the same Bar being three 
"Times stronger than other; and yet all sound to Appearance. I shall 
" not impute to our Artist those Errors which were generally the Mis- 
" takes of Builders in that Age; yet it will not be amiss to insist a little 
" upon those which seem to concern us, and to occasion some of the In- 
" firmities in our Buildings. 

" Almost all the Cathedrals of the Gothick Form are weak & defective 
" in thePoiseof the Vault of the Ailes; as for the Vault of the Navis, both 
" Sides are equally supported, and propped up from the Spreading by the 
" Bows or flying Buttresses, which rise from the outward Walls of the 
" Ailes; but for the Vaults of the Ailes, they are indeed supported on the 
" Outside by the Buttresses, but inwardly they have no other Stay but 
" the Pillars themselves, which (as they are usually proportioned) if they 
" stood alone without the Weight above, could not resist the Spreading 
" of the Ailes one Minute. True indeed, the great Load above the Walls 
" and Vaults of the Navis, should seem to confirm the Pillars in their 


" perpendicular Station, that there should be no need of the Butment 
" inward; but Experience hath shewn the contrary, and there is scarce 
" any Gothick Cathedral, that I have seen, at home or abroad, wherein 
" I have not observed the Pillars to yield and bend inwards from the 
" Weight of the Vault of the Aile; but this Defect is most conspicuous 
"upon the angular Pillars of the Cross, for there, not only the Vault 
" wants Butment, but also the angular Arches that rest upon that Pillar, 
" and therefore both conspire to thrust it inward towards the Center of 
" the Cross: and this is very apparent in the Fabrick we treat of: for this 
" Reason, this Form of Churches has been rejected by modern Archi- 
" tects abroad, who use the better and Roman Art of Architecture." 
These Surveys, & other occasional Inspections of the most noted cathe- 
dral Churches & Chapels in England, and foreign Parts; a Discernment 
of no contemptible Art, Ingenuity, and geometrical Skill in the Design 
and Execution of some few, and an Affectation of Height and Grandeur, 
tho' without Regularity and good Proportion, in most of them, induced 
the Surveyor to make some Enquiry into the Rise and Progress of this 
Gothick Mode, and to consider how the old Greek and Roman Style of 
building, with the several regular Proportions of Columns, Entabla- 
tures, &c. came within a few Centuries to be so much altered, and almost 
universally disused. 

He was of Opinion (as has been mentioned in another Place) that what 
we now vulgarly call the Gothick ought properly and truly to be named 
the Saracenick Architecture refined by the Christians; which first of all 
began in the East after the Fall of the Greek Empire by the prodigious 
Success of those People that adhered to Mahomet's Doctrine, who out 
of Zeal to their Religion, built Mosques, Caravansaras, & Sepulchres, 
wherever they came. 

These they contrived of a round Form, because they would not imitate 
the christian Figure of a Cross; nor the old Greek Manner, which they 
thought to be idolatrous, and for that Reason all Sculpture became offen- 
sive to them. 

They then fell into a new Mode of their own Invention, tho' it might 
have been expected with better Sense, considering the Arabians wanted 
not Geometricians in that Age, nor the Moors, who translated most of 
the most useful old Greek Books. As they propagated their Religion with 
great Diligence, so they built Mosques in all their conquered Cities in 
Haste. The Quarries of great Marble, by which the vanquished Nations 
of Syria, Egypt, and all the East had been supplied; for Columns, Archi- 
traves, and great Stones, were now deserted; the Saracens therefore were 
necessitated to accommodate their Architecture to such Materials, 
whether Marble or Free-stone, as every Country readily afforded. They 
thought Columns, and heavy Cornices impertinent, & might be omitted; 

snd affecting the round Form for Mosques, they elevated Cupolas in 
ome Instances, with Grace enough. The Holy War gave the Christians, 
who had been there, an Idea of the Sa.racen Works, which were after- 
wards by them imitated in the West; and they refined upon it every Day, 
as they proceeded in building Churches. The Italians (among which 
were yet some Greek Refugees) and with them French, Germans, and 
Flemings, joined into a Fraternity of Architects, procuring papal Bulls 
for their Encouragement, & particular Privileges ; they stiled themselves 
Freemasons, and ranged from one Nation to another, as they found 
Churches to be built (for very many in those Ages were every where in 
Building, through Piety or Emulation.) Their Government was regular, 
and where they fixed near the Building in Hand, they made a Camp of 
Huts. A Surveyor govern'd in chief; every tenth Man was called a War- 
den, and overlooked each nine: the Gentlemen of the Neighbourhood, 
either out of Charity or Commutation of Pennance, gaVe the Materials 
and Carriages. Those who have seen the exact Accounts in Records of 
the Charge of the Fabricks of some of our Cathedrals near four hundred 
Years old, cannot but have a great Esteem for their Economy, & admire 
how soon they erected such lofty Structures. Indeed great Height they 
thought the greatest Magnificence; few Stones were used, but what a 
Man might carry up a Ladder on his Back from Scaffold to Scaffold, tho' 
they had Pullies,and spoked Wheels, upon Occasion, but having reject- 
ed Cornices, they had no need of great Engines; Stone upon Stone was 
easily piled up to great Heights; therefore the Pride of their Works was 
in Pinnacles & Steeples. In this they essentially differed from the Roman 
Way, who laid all their Mouldings horizontally, which made the best 
Perspective: the Gothick Way on the contrary carried all their Mould- 
ings perpendicular, so that the Ground-work being settled, they had 
nothing else to do but to spire all up as they could. Thus they made their 
pillars of a Bundle of little Torus's, which they divided into more, when 
they came to the Roof; and these ToruS's split into many small ones, and 
traversing one another, gave Occasion to the Tracery-work, (as they 
called it) of which this Society were the Inventors. They used the Sharp- 
headed-arch, which would rise with little centering, required lighter 
Key-stones and less Butment, & yet would bear another Row of doubled 
Arches rising from the Key-stone; by the diversifying of which, they 
erected eminent Structures, such as the Steeples of Vienna, Strasburg, 
and many others. They affected Steeples, though the Saracens them- 
selves most used Cupolas. The Church of St. Mark at Venice, is built 
after the Saracen Manner. Glass began to be used in Windows, & a great 
part of the Outside-ornament of Churches consisted in the Tracery 
Works of disposing the MuUions of the Windows, for the better fixing 
in of the Glass. Thus the Work required fewer Materials, & the Work- 

manship was for the most part performed by Flat-moulds, in which the 
Wardens could easily instruct hundreds of Artificers. It must be con- 
fessed, this was an ingenious Compendium of Work, suited to these 
northern Climates; and I must also own, that Works of the same Height 
and Magnificence in the Roman Way, would be very much more expen- 
sive, than in the other Gothick manner managed with Judgment. But, 
as all Modes, when once the old rational Ways are despised, turn at last 
into unbounded Fancies; this Tracery induced too much mincing of the 
Stone into open Battlements and spindling Pinnacles, and little Carvings 
without Proportion of Distance; so the essential Rules of good Perspec- 
tive and Duration were forgot. But about two hundred Years ago, when 
ingenious Men begaato reform the Roman Language to the Purity, 
which they assigned and fixed to the Time of Augustus & that Century: 
the Architects, also, ashamed of the modern Barbarity of Building, be- 
gan to examine carefully the Ruins of Old Rome, and Italy; to search 
into the Orders and Proportions, and to establish them by inviolable 
Rules; so to their Labours and Industry, we owe in a great Degree the 
Restoration of Architecture. 
Account of The ingenious Mr. Evelyn, makes a general and judicious Comparison, 
Architec- in his Account of Architecture, of the ancient and modern Styles, with 
ture,p. 9 Reference to some of the particular Works of Inigo Jones, and the Sur- 

veyor ; which in few Words, gives a right Idea of the majestick Sym- 
metry of the one, and the absurd System of the other. 
" The ancient Greek & Roman Architecture answer all the Perfections 
" required in a faultless and accomplished Building; such as for so many 
" Ages were so renowned and reputed by the universal Suffrages of the 
" civilised World, and would doubtless have still subsisted, & made good 
" their Claim, and what is recorded of them; had not the Goths, Van- 
" dais, and other barbarous Nations, subverted and demolished them,to- 
" gether with that glorious Empire, where those stately and pompous 
" Monuments stood; introducing in their stead, a certain fantastical and 
" licencious Manner of Building, which we have since called Modern or 
" Gothick. Congestions of heavy, dark, melancholy, and monkish Piles, 
" without any just Proportion, Use or Beauty, compared with the truly 
" ancient; so as when we meet with the greatest Industry, and expensive 
" Carving, full of Fret and lamentable Imagery; sparing neither of Pains 
" nor Cost; a judicious Spectator is rather distracted or quite confounded, 
" than touched with that Admiration, which results from thetrue&just 
" symmetry, regular Proportion, Union, and Disposition; and from the 
" great and noble Manner in which the august and glorious Fabricks of 
" the Ancients are executed. 

It was after the Irruption & Swarms of those truculent People from the 
North; the Moors and Arabs from the South and East, over-running the 

civilised World; that where-ever they fixed themselves, they soon began 
to debauch this noble and useful Art; when instead of those beautiful 
Orders, so majestical & proper for their Stations, becoming Variety, and 
other ornamental Accessories; they set up those slender and misshapen 
Pillars, or rather Bundles of Staves and other incongruous Props, to sup- 
port incumbent Weights, & ponderous arched Roofs, without Entabla- 
ture; and though not without great Industry (as M. D'Aviler well ob- 
serves) nor altogether naked of gaudy Sculpture, trite & busy Carvings; 
'tis such as gluts the Eye, rather than gratifies and pleases it with any rea- 
sonable Satisfaction: For Proof of this (without travelling far abroad) I 
dare report myself to any Man of Judgment, and that has the least Taste 
of Order and Magnificence; if after he has looked a while upon King 
Henry the Vllth's Chapel at Westminster, gazed on its sharp Angles, 
Jetties, narrow Lights, lame Statues, Lace, and other Cut-work, and 
Crincle-crancle; and shall then turn his Eyes on the Banquetting-hall 
built at Whitehall by Inigo Jones, after the ancient Manner; or on what 
his Majesty's Surveyor, Sir Christopher Wren, has advanced at St. Paul's, 
and consider what a glorious Object the Cupola, Porticoes, Colonades, 
and other Parts present to the Beholder, or compare the Schools and Li- 
brary at Oxford with the Theatre there; or what he has built at Trinity- 
College, in Cambridge, & since all these, at Greenwich and other Places; 
by which Time our Home-traveller will begin to have a just Idea of the 
ancient and modern Architecture: I say, let him well consider, and com- 
pare them judicially, without Partiality and Prejudice; and then pro- 
nounce which of the two Manners strikes the Understanding as well as 
the Eye, with the more Majesty and solemn Greatness; tho' in so much 
a plainer and simple Dress, conform to the respective Orders and Entab- 
lature; and accordingly determine to whom the Preference is due: Not 
as we said, that there is not something of solid, and odly artificial too, 
after a Sort: but then the universal and unreasonable Thickness of the 
Walls, clumsy Buttresses, Towers, sharp-pointed Arches, Doors, & other 
Apertures, without Proportion: nonsensical Insertions of various Mar- 
bles impertinently placed; Turrets and Pinnacles thick set with Mon- 
kies and Chimeras, and Abundance of busy Work & other Incongruities 
dissipate and break the Angles of the Sight, and so confound it, that one 
cannot consider it with any Steadiness, where to begin or end; taking off 
from that noble Air and Grandeur, bold and graceful Manner, which the 
Ancients had so well, and judiciously established: but, in this Sort have 
they and their Followers ever since filled not Europe alone, but Asia and 
Africa besides, with Mountains of Stone, vast and gigantick Buildings 
indeed, but not worthy the Name of Architecture, &c. 





/s^^^3-2^«KSaaLLHALLOWS Bread-street Church, in the 
New Ftew M^^^A wLX^ Ward of Bread-street within the Walls of 
of London, j^B^Pf§^j\J| London, was rebuilt, & finish'd in 1 684, and 
^7°° ^Bl^r ^*^^ ^^''*^^ the Steeple, in 1 697. It is a pleasant Church 

of the Tuscan Order; the Length 72, Breadth 
35, and Altitude 30 Feet. The Steeple, (as 
the Church) is of Stone, built square, of the 
Dorick Order,& well adorn'd ; the Key-stones 
over the Windows being Carved Heads, and 
between each a large Festoon; its Height is 
about 86 Feet. 

II. AUhallows the Great, situated on the South-side of Thames-street, in 
the Ward of Dowgate, within the Walls of London, was re-erected, and 
finished in 1683, of the Tuscan Order, supported & adorn'd with Pillars 
and Membrettos of that Order, and strong built of Stone. Its Length is 
about 87 Feet, Breadth 60, Height 33, with a square Stone Tower, 86 
Feet high. 

III. AUhallows Lombard-street Church, situated on the North-side of 
that Street, in the Ward of Langbourni was rebuilt and finish'd in 1 694. 
In the Church is only one Pillar, which, as also the Pilasters, are of the 
Tuscan Order; the Length is 84 Feet, Breadth 52, Heightabout 30; the 
Altitude of the Tower is about 85, built square. 


IV. St. Alban Wood-street Church, 
situated on the East-side of Great- 
Wood-street, in the Ward of Cripple- 
Gate, was rebuilt & finished in 1 685 ; 
the Building both of the Outside and 
Inside is Gothick, as the same was be- 
fdre the Fire, in Length about 66, 
Breadth 59, Height 33 Feet ; the 
Tower is of Stone, built square, with 
Gothick Pinnacles ; its Altitude is 
851^ Feet, or to the Top of the Pin- 
nacles 92. 

V. The Church of St. Anne & Agnes, 
situated on the North -side of St. 
Anne's-lane, within Aldersgate, was 
re-erected and finish'd in 1680, and 
beautify'd in 1703, very pleasant, and 
ornamental,tho' small; 5 3 Feet square, 
and about 35 Feet high; & the Tower 
to the Top of the Turret, about 84. 
The Roof is supported by four hand- 
some Corinthian Pillars, which are 
posited in a Geometrical Square, from 
each other ; its Ornament consists of 
four Arches of Fret-work, with Flow- 
ers, Fruit, Leaves, Cherubims, &c. At 
the four Angles, the Roof is lower, & 
consists of four Quadrangles, within 
each of which, is a Circle form'd by 
a Circumference of very rich Fret- 
work. ^ 

VI. St. Andrew's Wardrobe Church, 
situated on the East-side of Puddle- 
dock-hill, in the Ward of Castle-Bay- 
nard, was re-edify'd and finish'd in 
1692, built of Brick, but finished or 
rendered over in imitation of Stone ; 
the Facias and Corners are Stone, and 
very good rustick Quoins. The Roof 
is supported by twelve Tuscan Pillars, 
and well ornamented with Fret-work: 

n I 




The Length of this Church is about 
75, Breadth 59, Ahitude 38 Feet; and 
that of the square Tower about 86. 

VII. St. Andrew's Holbourn Church, 
situated on the South-side of Hol- 
bourn-^hill, in the Ward of Farendon, 
without the Walls of London, but 
within the Liberty, was rebuilt and 
finished in 1687, beautiful, and spa- 
cious; the Columns that support the 
Roof; adorn'd with Fret-work, are of 
the Corinthian Order; the Walls of 
Stone; the Length is 1 05, Breadth 63, 
and Height 43 Feet; the Altitude of 
the Tower, or square Steeple, is 1 10 
Feet ; it has four large Windows front- 
ting E. W. N. & S. adorn'd with Pil- 
asters, Architrave, Friese, Cornice, 
PedimentSj and of the Dorick Order; 
finish'din 1704. 

VIII. St. Anthony's, tf/wj St. Antholin's Church, situated at the West- 
end of Watlia-street, in Cordwainer-street Ward, was re-erected and 
Hnish'd in 1682, built of Stone, the Outside of the Tuscan Order, butthe 
Roof within (which is an eliptical Cupola adorn'd with Fret-work ot 
Festoons, with four Port-hole Windows) is supported by eight Pillars 
of the Composite Order; the Length is about 66, Breadth 54, & Height 
within 44 Feet. It has a neat Spire Steeple, in Altitude about 1 54 Feet. 

IX. St. Augustin's neat little Church, situated on the North-side of 
Watlin-street, near St. Paul's Cathedral, was finish'd in 1683, and the 
Steeple in 1695 ; the Church and Steeple are of Stone, the latter being a 
Tower with Acroteria, a Cupola, a Lantern adorn'd with Vases, and a 
Spire whose lower Part is of a parabolical Form. The Roof is camerated, 
divided into Pannels, adorn'd with Fret-work, & supported with Pillars 
of the lonick Order; the Length of the Church is about 5 1 , Breadth 45, 
and Height 30 Feet; and that of the Steeple 145 Feet. 

X. St. Benedict (vulgarly St. Bennet) Gras-church situated on the East- 
side of Gras-church-street, in the Ward of Bridge-within, />. within the 
Walls of London, was re-edify'd and finished in 1685; its Length within 
is about 60, Breadth 30, Height 32; and of the Steeple 149 Feet. 


XI. St. Bennet's Paul's Wharf Church, 
situated on the North-side of Thames- 
street, in the Ward of Castle -Bay- 
nard, was rebuilt in 1683, of Brick 
and Stone, ornamented on the Out- 
side with Festoons carv'd in Stone 
round the Fabrick; the quadrangular 
Roof within is supported by four Pil- 
lars and Pilasters of the Corinthian 
Order, with their Architrave, Friese, 
and Cantaliever Cornice; the Length 
within is 54, Breadth 50, Height 36 
Feet; the Steeple (which is of Brick 
and Stone, as the Church) consists of 
a Tower, Dome and Turret, the Alti- 
tude about 1 1 8 Feet. 

XII. St. Benedict's (vulg6 St. Bennet) 
Fink-church, situated on the North 
side of Thread-needle-street, in the 
Ward of Broad-street, was built in S'^BENNET'S 93 
1673, of Stone, and is a fine Piece of Architecture ; the Body of the 
Church within is a compleat elipsis, (a very commodius Form for the 
Auditory) and the Roof is an eliptical Cupola, (at the Center of which is 
a Turret glaz'd round) environ'd with a Cantaliever Cornice, & support- 
ed by six Columns of the Composite Order; between each of which is a 
spacious Arch, and six large light Windows, with strong Munions and 
Transums: The Length (or greater Diameter) of the Church is 63, the 
Breadth, (or lesser Diameter) 48, the Altitude 49 Feet. The Steeple con- 
sists of a square Tower, over which is a large Cupola, and above that a 
Spire, which are together above 110 Feet; and the Tower is adorn'd with 
Fresco- work of Festoons &c. 

XIII. St. Bartholomew's Exchange (or the Little) Church, situated on 
the East-side of Bartholomew-lane, and near the Royal Exchange, in the 
Ward of Broad-street, was rebuilt in 1679; 'tis a strong Building, the 
Roof flat, adorn'd with Fret-work, and supported with Columns of the 
Tuscan Order, and large Arches. Here are three fine Door-cases, on the 
N.S. and W. Sides of the Church, whose Pilasters, Entablature, & Pedi- 
ments are of the Corinthian Order, adorn'd with Cherubims, Shields, 
Festoons, &c. that towards the South being more particularly spacious 
and fine: The Length is 78, Breadth 60, Height 41 ; and that of the 
square Tower, about 90 Feet. 

n2 179 


1 80 


XIV. St. Bridget, alias St. Bride's 
Church, situated on the South-side of 
Fleet -street, in the Ward of Faren- 
don, without the Walls of London, 
but within the Liberty of the City, was 
rebuilt with great Beauty & Strength, 
in 1 680, and further adorn'd in 1 699; 
the Roof is elevated on Pillars, and 
Arches, with Entablaments of the 
Tuscan Order; the Length is iii. 
Breadth 57, Height 4 1 Feet; The Al- 
titude of the Steeple is 234 Feet; it 
consists of a Tower, and lofty Spire of 
Stone, adorn'd with Pilasters, and En- 
tablature of the Corinthian Order, 
arched Pediments, Urns, &c. & spiry 
Arcades, of a most elegant Effect. 

XV. Christ-church, situated on the 
North -side of Newgate -street, was 
rebuilt in 1687; the Fabrick is of 
Stone, spacious & beautiful, with But- 
tresses on the Out-side, and adorn'd 
with Acroteria, Pine -apples, Pedi- 
ments, &c. the Spire was finish'd in 
1704, which is likewise of Stone, a- 
dorn'd with Vases, &c. the Roof of 
the Nave of the Church is camer- 
ated, and those of the two Side-ailes 
are flat ; the first supported by ten 
Pillars of the Composite Order, the 
others by as many Pilasters of the 
same Order; the Length is 1 14 Feet, 
Breadth 8 1, Height 38; the Altitude 
of the Steeple (which consists of a 
Tower and Spire) is about 153 Feet. 

XVL St. Christopher's Church, situ- 
ated on the North-side of Thread- 
needle-street, in the Ward of Broad- 
street, was not totally destroy'd by the 
great Fire, (the Walls partly escaping 
the Flames) & had probably far'd bet- 

ter, had it not been fiU'd with Paper. 
It was soon after the Fire repair'd, in 
1671; afterwards beautify'd in 1696; 
all the Old Part left by the Fire is 
Gothick, but the Pillars within are 
Tuscan ; the Length is 60, Breadth 
52, Height 40 Feet ; Altitude of the 
Tower about 80 Feet. 

XVII. St. Clements Danes Church, 
situated on the North-side of the 
Strand, a little Westward of Temple- 
Bar, in the Liberty of Westminster, 
" being greatly decay'd, was taken 
" down in the Year 1680, and rebuilt 
" and finish'd in 1 682, &c. Sir Chris- 
" topher Wren his Majesty's Survey- 
" or, freely and generously bestowing 
" his great Care and Skill towards the 
" contriving and building of it, &c." 
The Fabrick is of Stone, strong and CHRIST-CHURCH © 
beautiful, of the Corinthian Order, with a Tower, and the late Addition 
thereon of an ornamental *Steeple. The East-ends both of the Church 
and Chancel are eliptical. The Roof is camerated, supported with Corin- 
thian Columns, & enrich'd with Fret-work. On the South, fronting the 
Strand, is a circular Portico of six lonick Pillars. The Length is 96 Feet, 
Breadth 63, Height 48 ; Altitude of the Tower about 1 1 6 Feet. 

XVIII. St. Clements East-cheap Church, situated on the East-side of St. 
Clements-lane, near great East-cheap, in the Ward of Candlewick- 
street, was rebuilt of Brick and Stone, in 1686, of the Composite Order, 
having a Tower, flat Roof, and Pilasters round the Inside of the Church. 
The Ceilingis adorn'd with a spacious Circle, whose Periphery is curious 
Fret-work. The Length is 64, Breadth 40, Height 34; and that of the 
Tower 88 Feet. 

XIX. St. Dionis Back Church, situated on the West-side of Lime-street, 
in the Ward of Langbourn, was rebuilt in 1 674; & the Steeple, in 1 684. 
The Building is chiefly of Stone; the Tower, and the Pillars within are 
strong; but part of the Walls are of Brick finish'd-over; the said Pillars 
and the Pilasters that strengthen the Walls within, & support the Roof, 
are of the lonick Order; as is also the End fronting Lime-street. The 
Length is 66 Feet, Breadth 59, Height 34; and that of the Tower and 
Turret 90 Feet. 

n 3 181 

Inscribed on 
a Stone of 
'white Mar- 
ble on the 
of the chancel 
*by Mr. 

XX. St. Dunstan's in the East, is sit- 
uated in the Middle- way between 
Tower- street, North, and Thames- 
street, South; in Tower-street Ward. 
The Church was only repair'd, and 
new beautify'd, but the Steeple was 
erected as it now appears, in 1698. 
The Windows and Steeple are of a 
modern Gothick Stile, but the Pillars 
and Arches within are Tuscan. The 
Altitude of the Steeple, consisting of 
a Stone-tower & Spire, at each Corner 
of which Tower are four neat smaller 
Spires,& the fifth or principal erected 
on four Gothick Arches is 75 Feet. 

XXI. St. Edmund the King, situated 
on the North-side of Lombard-street, 
in Langbourn Ward, is well built of 

Stone, and of the Tuscan Order: The 

S'^DuNSTAN'S © Roof is flat, and there are no Pillars 

within to support it. The Length is 69 Feet, Breadth 39, Height 33 ; and 
that of the Tower about 90 Feet, the Church was rebuilt in 1 690. 

XXn. St. George Botolph-lane Church, situated on the West-side of 
Botolph-lane, in the Ward of Belinsgate, was rebuilt of Stone, in 1674. 
The Roof over the two Side-ailes is flat, but that over the Nave is came- 
rated, and supported by Columns of the Composite Order. The Outside 
of the East-end is adorn'd with a Stone Cornice and Pediment, and en- 
rich'd with a Cherub and Festoons; the Roof with fretted Arches; and 
an Entablament above the Columns. The Length is 54 Feet, Breadth 
36, Height 36; and of the Steeple about 84 Feet. 

XXIIL St. James's Garlick-hill Church, situated on the East-side of that 
Hill, near Thames-street, in the Ward of Vintry, was rebuilt, in 1683, 
of Stone, with handsome outer Door-cases of the Corinthian Order. The 
Roof within is flat, and supported with 1 2 Columns, besides Pilasters, of 
the lonick Order. The Length is 75, Breadth 45, Height 40 Feet; and 
of the Steeple (which is a Tower, with Rail and Banister above the Cor- 
nice) about 90 Feet. 

XXIV. St. James's, Westminster, Church, situated on the North-side of 
Jermyn-street, fronting towards St. James's-square, within the Liberty of 


the City of Westminster, was erected 
at the Charge and Credit of Henry 
Jermyn, Earl of St. Albans, and of the 
Inhabitants, Owners & Occupiers of 
the Houses & Lands in this Precinct; 
and with the Authority of an Act of 
Parliament passed 3tio Jacobi zdi. 
constituting this Church parochial. 
The Walls are of Brick, with Rustick 
Quoins, Facias, Doors, and Windows 
of Stone. The Roof is arched, sup- 
ported by Pillars of the Corinthian 
Order ; & the Door-cases of the lonick 
Order. The Beauty of this Church 
consists chiefly, ist. in its Roof with- 
in, divided into Pannels of Crocket 
and Fret-work, and the twelve Col- 
umns that support it; and in the Cor- 
nice. 2dly, In the Galleries. 3dly, In 
the Door-cases, especially that front- 
ing Jermyn-street. 4thly, In the Win- 
dows, especially two at the East-end; 

the Upper Order a Venetian Window, adorned with two Columns and 
two Pilasters, of the Composite Order ; the lower of the Corinthian : 
The Length is 84, Breadth 63, Height 42; & that of the Steeple, which 
consists of aTower and Clock-spire, 149 Feet. 

XXV. St. Lawrence Jewry Church, situated on the North-side of Cat- 
eaton-street, and West-side of Guildhall-yard, in the Ward of Cheap,was 
rebuilt in 1677 of Stone, and in the Corinthian Order. The Roof is flat, 
adorned with Fret- work; and the Columns, Pilasters, and Entablement, 
of the same Order. The Length is 8 1 , Breadth 68, Height 40 Feet; and 
that of the Steeple, (which is a Tower-lanthorn, and small Spire) about 
1 30 Feet. 

XXVI. St. Magnus Church, situated on the East-side, and North-end of 
London Bridge, in Bridge-ward, was rebuilt in 1676, and the Steeple in 
1705, of Stone. The Roof over the Nave or middle Aile is camerated, 
and enriched with Arches of Fret-work; also an Architrave, Frieze, and 
Cornice, round the Walls. Over the two other Ailes flat, supported by 
Columns of the lonick Order, &c. The Steeple consists of a Tower, a 
Lanthorn, a Cupola, and spiry Turret. The Length is 90, Breadth 59, 
Height 41 Feet. 

n4 183 


XXVII. St. Margaret Lothbury 
Church, situated on the North-side of 
Lothbury, in the Ward of Coleman- 
street, was re-edified and finish'd in 
1 690, of Stone ; with a Steeple, con- 
sisting of a spacious Tower, on which 
is a small Dome, and on that a Spire: 
The Roof is flat, supported with Col- 
umns on the South, & Pilasters on the 

,. North-side, of the Corinthian Order. 
I The Length is 66, Breadth 54,Height 

36 Feet ; and that of the Steeple 140 


XXVIII. St. Margaret's Pattens 
Church, situated on the North-side of 
Little Tower-street, in the Ward of 
Belinsgate, was rebuilt in 1 687. The 
Walls at the West-end are of Stone, 
but fronting Southward of Brick cov- 
ered with a Finishing, and Quoins of 

Stone. The Tower is also of Stone, with Acroteria & Spire, of the Dorick 
Order. The outer Door-case at the West-end is Tuscan, and the Pillars 
& Pilasters within are Corinthian. The Roof is flat, having a Quadrangle 
of Fret-work, and the Arches adorned with the like. The Length is 66, 
Breadth 52, Height 32 ; & that of the Steeple, which consists of a spacious 
Tower and Spire, is 1 98 Feet 2 Inches. 

XXIX. St. Martin's Ludgate Church, situated on the North-side of 
Ludgate-street,in the Ward of Farrendon,was rebuilt and finished,with 
the Steeple, in 1 684. The Walls, and four Columns near the four Angles 
of the Church that support the camerated Roof, are of Stone, of the Com- 
posite Order: The Steeple consists of a handsome Tower, Cupola, and 
Spire, of the Tuscan Order: Above which Cupola is a Balcony. The 
Length is 57, Breadth 66, Height 59 Feet; and of the Steeple to the Top 
of the Spire 168 Feet. 

XXX. St. Mary Abchurch, situated on the West-side of Abchurch-lane, 
in the Ward of Candlewick-street, was rebuilt in 1686, of Brick, with 
Stone-Quoins, Windows, and Door-cases: The Tower also is of the like 
Materials, which has aCupola and Spire. The Length is 63, Breadth 60, 
Height 5 1 Feet; and of the Steeple about 140 Feet. 


XXXI. St. Mary-at-hill Church, situ- 
ated on the West-side of the Street, 
called St. Mary-hill, in the Ward of 
Belinsgate, was rebuilt in 1672. The 
Front towards the Hill is Stone ; the 
rest of the Walls Stone, covered with 
a Finishing ; the Tower is also of 
Stone; the Inside of the Roof over 
the middle Aile is a little Arching, 
in the Middle whereof is a handsome 
Cupola : The Roofs of the side Ailes 
are flat, and lowest at the four Angles, 
supported with four Columns : At 
each End of the Church are two Pil- 
asters, of no Order at all ; but a Spe- 
cies,partly composed of the Dorick & 
Corinthian. The Roof of the Cupola 
is adorned with Cherubims, Arches, 
and Leaves, & the rest of the Church- 
ceiling with quadrangular Figures, 
all of Fret-work; under which is a S'^MARTIN'SiJ-S'^PAUL'S 
Cantaliever Cornice. The Length is 96, Breadth 60, Altitude to the Ceil- 
ing of the Roof 26, and to the Center of the Cupola 38 Feet; and that of 
the Steeple, consisting of a Tower and Turret, about 96 Feet. 

XXXII. St. Mary Aldermary Church, situated on the East-side of Bow- 
lane, in the Ward of Cordwainers-street, was rebuilt by a private Bene- 
faction, before the Publick Fund was settled by Parliament on Coals, for 
rebuilding the Churches demolished by the Fire. The lower Part of the 
Tower was repaired by the Surveyor, and the upper Part new-built in 
171 1. The Altitude to the Vertex of the Pinnacles 135 Feet. 

XXXIII. St. Mary Magdalen, Old Fish-street Church, situated on the 
North-side of Little Knight-rider-street, in the Ward of Castle-Baynard, 
was rebuilt in the Year 1685, mostly of Stone; with Rail and Banister 
round the Outside. There are three Ailes,^nd a handsome Stone-Tower. 
The Length is 60, Breadth 48, Height 30 Feet. 

XXXIV. St. Mary Somerset Church, situated on the North-side of 
Thames-street, in the Ward of Queenhyth, was rebuilt in 1695, of Stone, 
with the Tower. Here are two Ailes, with a flat Roof, adorned with a 
Cornice; and between the Windows with Fret-work of Cherubims, &c. 
The Length is 8 3, Breadth 36„Height 30 Feet; and of the Tower, to the 
Top of the highest Pinnacles, 1 20 Feet. 


XXXV. St. Mary-le-bow, situated on 
the South-side of Cheapside, in the 
Ward of Cordwainer - street. This 
Church was rebuilt and finished in 
1 673, upon the Walls of a very ancient 
Church, about the early Time of the 
Roman Colony, which by the Ris- 
ing oftheGound in succeeding Ages, 
were entirely buried under the Level 
of the present Street of Cheapside. It 
is built of Brick and Stone; the Walls 
covered with a Finishing; the Roof is 
arched, & supported with ten Corin- 
thian Columns; there are three Ailes, 
besides the cross Aile at the West-end. 
The Model is after that of theTemp- 
lum Pacis. 

But the principal Ornament of this 
Church is the Steeple, erected near 
the North-west Angle, & made contig- 
S'^ MAKY-LE-BOW ^B uous by a Lobby between the Church 

and Steeple, which is founded upon an old Roman Causeway, lying 
about 18 Feet below the Level of the Street. It is accounted by judi- 
cious Artists an admirable Piece of Architecture, not to be parallel'd 
by the Steeple of any parochial Church in Europe. It was designed by 
the incomparable Sir Christopher Wren, begun in i67i,and finished in 
1 680. It is built of Portland-stone, consisting of aTower and Spire: The 
Tower is square; in the North-side thereof is a Door and beautiful Door- 
case, the Peers and Arch are of the Tuscan Order, and is adorned with two 
Columns and Entablement of the Dorick Order; the Metops enriched 
with Cherubims ; above the Cornice is an elliptical Aperture, on the Key- 
piece a Cherub, whence (by way of Compartment) extend two Festoons 
of large Fruit, sustain'd lower by two Cupids in a sitting Posture, their 
Feet resting on the Cornice; and the whole farther adorned with Rus- 
tick-work,and another Door-case of the same Form, on the West-side; 
above which, on the said North-side, is another Aperture and Balcony; 
and a little higher a Modillion Cornice; above that are four Windows, 
(on each Side one) each adorned with four Pilasters, with Entablement, 
of the lonick Order: Over the Cornice a Ballustrade, and at each Angle 
four Cartouches, erected tapering; &,on the Meeting of the upper Ends, 
a spacious Vase, which terminates the Tower. 

The Spire begins with a circular Mure; and on that, a little higher than 
the tops of the said Vases, is a Range of Columns with Entablature, and 

Acroteria,of the Corinthian Order. This Balcony is adorned with Bows 
or Arches, all which you pass under in walking round this Part of the 
Spire, which (a little higher) is adorned with Pedestals, their Columns 
and Entablature of the Composite Order; so that here are all the five 
Orders, regularly executed. On the Cornice of this last Order stand Car- 
touches, whereon is erected an Obelisk of a considerable Altitude, and at 
the Vertex thereof a spacious Ball; and above that (as a Weather-cock) is 
the Figure of a Dragon of Brass gilt, about ten Feet long; in the expanded 
Wings is figur'd ^ Cross, (the Supporter of the Ensigns-armorial of the 
City of London.) The Dimensions of the Church within, are, Length 
65^ Feet, Breadth 63, Altitude 38; and that of the famous Steeple 225 

To give the Sentiments of an Author we have took Occasion sometimes Critical 
to quote: — "The Steeple of Bow-church, says he, is another Master- Review of 
" piece [of Sir Christopher Wren's] inapeculiar Kind of Building, which Buildings, 
" has no fixed Rule to direct it, nor is it to be reduced to any settled Laws London, 
" of Beauty; without doubt, if we considered it only as a Part of some ^734) Page 
" other Building, it can be esteemed no other than a delightful Absurdity ; 1 3 
" But if either considered in itself, or as a Decoration of a whole City in 
" Prospect, not only to be justified, but admir'd. That which we have 
" now mentioned is beyond Question as perfect as human Imagination 
" can contrive or execute, & till we see it outdone, we shall hardly think 
" it to be equalled." 

XXXVI. St. Mary Woolnoth Church, situated on the South-side 01 
Lombard-street, was repaired in 1677. The Sides, the Roof, and Part of 
the Ends, having been damnified by the great Fire : The Steeple was old, 
and wanted rebuilding, which, together with the whole Church, is now 
very substantially performed by the ingenious and skilled Architect Mr. 
Nicholas Hawksmoor; who formerly was, and continued for many Years, 
a Domestick-clerk to the Surveyor, and was afterwards employed under 
him in the royal, and other publick Works. 

XXXVII. St. Mary Aldermanbury Church, situated near the middle of 
Aldermanbury, in the Ward of Cripplegate, was rebuilt in 1 677, of Stone, 
with the Steeple, consisting of a Tower and Turret. The Roof within is 
camerated, & supported with twelve Columns of the Composite Order: 
At the East-end is a large Cornice and Pediment; also two large Car- 
touches, and Pine- Apples of Stone carved; the Inside of the Roof is 
adorned with Arches of Fret-work, & the said Columns with an Entab- 
lature; the Cornice Cantaliever. The Length 72, Breadth 45, Height 
38 Feet; and of the Steeple, about 90 Feet. 

XXXVIII. St. Matthew Friday-street Church, situated on the West- 


side of Friday-street, near Cheapside, 
in the Ward of Farrendon, was rebuilt 
in 1685. The Walls and Tower are of 
Brick, the Windows and Door-cases 
Stone; as is all the Front towards Fri- 
day-street. The Length is 60, Breadth 
33, Height 3 1 ; and of the Tower, 74 

XXXIX. St. Michael Basingshall 
{alias Bassishaw) Church, situated on 
the West-side of Basinghall-street,in 
the Ward of Bassishaw, was rebuilt 
and finish'd in 1 679. The Walls are 
brick ; the Tower of Stone ; three 
Ailes, the Apertures of each Side sim- 
ilar to those of their Opposites in 
Number and Model ; Pillars of the 
Corinthian Order: The Roof is cam- 
erated, & divided into Quadrangular 
S*^ MICHAEL ROYAL © Pannels of Crocket-work; also a Can- 
taliever Cornice, Friese, &c. enrich'd with Foliage, &c. the Length 70, 
Breadth 50, Height 42 Feet; and of the Tower, y^ Feet. 

XL. St. Michael Royal Church, on the East-side of College-hill, in the 
Ward of Vintry, was rebuilt in 1 694. The Walls are of Stone, and at the 
East-end some Brick; a flat square Roof, adorned with Fret & Crocket- 
work. The Length is 86, Breadth 48, Height 40; and of the Tower, 
about 90 Feet. 

XLI. St. Michael Queenhyth Church, on the South-west Angle of Little 
Trinity-lane, in Thames-street, in the Ward of Queenhyth, was rebuilt 
in 1677. The Walls are of Stone; there are three Ailes; the Roof is square 
and flat, with the Ornament of a Quadrangle bounded with Fret-work. 
The Length 7 1 , Breadth 40, Height 39; and that of the Steeple, consist- 
ing of a Tower and Spire, 135 Feet. 

XLII. St. Michael Wood-street Church, on the West-side of Great 
Wood-street, in the Ward of Cripplegate, was rebuilt in 1675, of Stone; 
the Roof flat, and adorned with Fret and Crocket-work, the Walls with 
Arches & Imposts; the Front towards Wood-street, with Stone Pilasters, 
Entablature, and pitched Pediment of the lonick Order. The Length 
within is 63, Breadth 42, Height 31 Feet; of the Tower, 90 Feet. 

XLIII. St. Michael Crooked-lane 
Church, on the East-side of St. Mi- 
chael's-lane, in the Ward of Candle- 
wick-street, was rebuilt in 1688, of 
Stone. The Length is 78, Breadth 46, 
Height 32 Feet; and of the Tower 
to the Top of the Pinnacles, about 
1 00 Feet. 

XLIV. St. Michael Cornhill Church, 
on the South-side of Cornhill, in the 
Ward of Cornhill, being demolished 
by the great Fire (except the Tower), 
was rebuilt in 1672, mostly of Stone, 
and with three Ailes; the Roof cam- 
erated, having Groins and Imposts 
covered with Lead,& supported with 
Tuscan Columns. The Length is 87, 
Breadth 60, Height 35 Feet; and, of 
the Tower to the Top of the small 
ones at the Angles, 130 Feet. 

XLV. St. Mildred Brea^- street 
Church, on the East-side of Bread- 
stfeetj&in the Ward of Bread-street, 
was rebuilt in 1683. The Front to- 
wards Bread- street is well-built of 
Free-stone; the rest of the Walls, and 
Tower, of Brick; the four Sides with- 
in the Structure are uniform, each 
having one Window under a spacious 
graceful Arch; &the Roof is a Dome, 
whose Base's Circumference touches 
the four Arches aforesaid. Here are 
two Ailes, and the Steeple is placed at 
the South-east Angle of the Church. 
The Arches and Walls within are a- 
dorned with great Variety of Fret- 
work, &c. The Length is 62, Breadth 
36, Height 40 Feet, & to the Top of 
the Dome 52 Feet; and of the Steeple 
to the Top of the Spire 140. 







XLVI. St. Mildred Poultry Church, 
on the North-side of the Poultry, near 
Stocks-market, in the Ward of Cheap, 
was rebuilt in 1 676, of Stone, and has 
three small Ailes, with a flat quadran- 
gular Roof, adorned with Fret- work, 
&c. The Outside next the Poultry 
has a Cornice, Pediment, and Acro- 
ters, with Enrichments of Foliage, 
&c. all cut in Stone. The Length is 
56, Breadth 42, Height 36 Feet; & of 
the Stone Tower "/$. 

XLVII. St. Nicholas Coleabbey 
Church, on the South-side of Fish- 
street, in the Ward of Queenhyth, 
was rebuilt in 1 677. The Walls are 
well built of Stone; the Steeple is a 
Tower, and a Frustum of a Pyramid 
covered with Lead, and a Balcony at 
the upper End; there are three Ailes; 
the Roof is flat, adorned with Pan- 
nels of Crocket-work;&the Walls with 
Corinthian Pilasters. The Length is 
63, Breadth 43, Height 36 Feet; and 
of the Steeple 135. 

XLVIIL St. Olaves Jewry Church, 
on the West-side of the Old Jewry, 
in the Ward of Coleman -street, was 
rebuilt in 1 673. The Walls are partly 
Brick, with Stone Facias, Window^j 
Door-cases; the Outside of the East- 
end is adorned with Pilasters, Cornice, 
and a spacious pitched Pediment; the 
upper Part of the Walls, at the meet- 
ing with the Roof round the Church, 
is enriched with Cherubims, Fes- 
toons, and Cartouches: There are two 
Ailes, and a very large Chancel. The 
Steeple is of Stone, consisting of a 
handsome Tower, with Pinnacles. 
The Length is 78, Breadth 34, Height 

36 Feet; and of the Tower, to the Top 
of its Pinnacles, about 88 Feet. 

XLIX. St. Peter's Church in Corn- 
hill, was rebuilt in 1 68 1 , of Stone, ex- 
cept Part of the South-side, and the 
Tower, which is Brick; the rest of 
the Steeple, viz. the Dome and Spire, 
are covered with Lead, the Roof with- 
in is camerated, and supported with 
square Pillars, adorned with Pilaster 
of the Corinthian Order; and there 
are three Ailes. The Length is 80, 
Breadth 47, Height 40; and of the 
Steeple, about i 40 Feet. 

L. St. Sepulchre's Church, on the 
North-side of Snow-hill, in the Ward 
of Farendon without, being almost 
demolished by the great Fire, (except 

part of the Wall and Steeple) was re- 5"*^ STEPHEN 'S ©. 

built in 1 670. The Walls are of Stone strengthened with Buttresses; the 
Tower is also of Stone, with four small Spires, one at each Angle, which, 
as also the Windows, are modern Gothick; the Roof over the Nave is 
camerated, but is flat; and lower about 8 Feet over the Side-ailes, sup- 
ported with twelve strong Stone Columns of the Tuscan Order. The 
Length is (besides the Passage or Ambulatory at the West-end) 1 26 Feet, 
Breadth (excluding the Chapel on the North side) 58, Height of the 
Roof over the Middle-aile 35 ; and of the Tower and Spires, about 140 

LL St. Stephen's Coleman-street, was rebuilt in 1 676, chiefly of Stone, 
with two Ailes. The Roof is flat, without Pillars to support it. On the 
Outside, the Front of the East-end is adorned with a Cornice & circular 
Pediment between two Pine-apples, &c. The Length is75. Breadth 35, 
Height 44; and of the Tower, besides the Turret, 65 Feet. 

LIL St. Stephen's Wallbrook Church, near Stocks-market, was rebuilt 
in 1676. The Walls and Tower are of Stone; the Roof within, over the 
Middle-aile is arched, in the Center of which is a spacious Cupola, & a,. 
Lantern in the middle of that: Over the rest of the Church the Roof is 
flat, supported by Corinthian Columns and Pilasters. Here are three 
Ailes, and a Cross-aile. The Length is y$. Breadth 56, Altitude of the 


middle Roof 34^ of the Cupola and 
Lantern 58 Feet; and of the Tower 
to the Top of the Rail and Banister, 
about 70 Feet. 

Walbrook Church, so little known 
among us, is famous all over Europe, 
& is justly reputed the Masterpiece 
of the celebrated Sir Christopher 
Wren. Perhaps Italy itself can pro- 
duce no modern Building that can 
vie with this, in Taste or Propor- 
tion: There is not a Beauty which 
the Plan would admit of, that is not 
to be found here in its greatest Per- 
fection ; and Foreigners very justly 
call our Judgment in question for 
understanding its Graces no better, 
and allowing it no higher Degree 
of Fame." [Critical Review of Pub- 
lick Buildings in London,P. 1 2, 1 734.] 



LIII. St. Swithin's Church, on the 
North -side of Cannon -street, near 
London-stone, in the Ward of Wal- 
brook, was rebuilt in 1679, of Stone, 
with the Tower, the Roof supported 
with Demi-columns of the Compos- 
ite Order. Here are three Ailes; and 
the whole is commodious & pleasant, 
though small. The Length is 61 Feet 
from North to South, from East to 
West 42, Height 40; & of the Tower 
and Spire 1 50 Feet. 

LIV. St. Vedast,«&j Foster Church, 
on the East-side of Foster-lane, in the 
Ward of Farendon, was rebuilt in 
1 697, of Stone, with three Ailes ; the 
Roof flat, supported on the South-side 
with Tuscan Columns, and adorned 
with an eliptical Figure within a Par- 
allelogram, environed with curious 

Fret-work, &c. The Length is 69 Feet, Breadth 51, Altitude 36; and 
of the Tower, about 90 Feet. 

In the ninth Year of the Reign of Queen Anne, 1708, an Act of Parlia- 
ment passed to erect Fifty new additional Parish Churches in the Cities 
of London and Westminster: The Surveyor, being appointed one of the 
Commissioners for carrying on the Works, attended that Service with 
all the Application his other Offices would permit; & preparatory there- 
unto, took occasion to impart his Thoughts to this Effect, in a Letter to 
a Friend in that Commission. 

SINCE Providence, in great Mercy, has protracted my Age, to the fin- 
ishing the cathedral Church of St. Paul, and the parochial Churches of 
London, in lieu of those demolished by the Fire; (all which were exe- 
cuted during the Fatigues of my Employment in the Service of the 
Crown, from that Time to the present happy Reign;) and being now con- 
stituted one of the Commissioners for Building, pursuant to the late Act, 
Fifty more Churches in London and Westminster; I shall presume to 
communicate briefly my Sentiments, after long Experience ; and without 
further Ceremony exhibit to better Judgment, what at present occurs to 
me, in a transient View of this whole Affait; not doubting but that the 
Debates of the worthy Commissioners may hereafter give me occasion 
to change, or add to these Speculations. 

I. First, I conceive the Churches should be built, not where vacant 
Ground may be cheapest purchased in the Extremities of the Suburbs, 
but among the thicker Inhabitants, for Convenience of the better sort, 
although the Site of them should cost more; the better Inhabitants con- 
tributing most to the future Repairs, and the Ministers and Officers of 
the Church, and Charges of the Parish. 

2. 1 could wish that all Burials in Churches hiight be disallowed, which 
is not only unwholesorri, but the Pavements can never be kept even, nor 
Pews upright: And if the Church-yard be close about the Church, this 
also is inconvenient, because the Ground being continually raised by the 
Graves, occasions, in Time, a Descent by Steps into the Church, which 
renders it damp, and the Walls green, as appears evidently in all old 

3. It will be enquired, where then shall be the Burials? I answer, in Ceme- 
teries seated in the Outskirts of the Town; and since it is become the 
Fashion of the Age to solemnize Funerals by a Train of Coaches, (even 
where the Deceased are of moderate Condition) though the Cemeteries 
should be half a Mile, or more, distant from the Church, the Charge 
need be little or no more than usual; the Service may be first performed 
in the Church ; But for the Poor, & such as must be interred at the Parish 
01 193 

Charge, a publick Hearse of two Wheels and one Horse may be kept at 
small Expence, the usual Bearers to lead the Horse, and take out the 
Corpse at the Grave. A Piece of Ground of two Acres in the Fields will 
be purchased for much less than two Roods among the Buildings: This 
being inclosed with a strong Brick Wall, and having a Walk round, and 
two cross Walks, decently planted with Yew-trees, the four Quarters 
may serve four Parishes, where the Dead need not be disturbed at the 
pleasure of the Sexton, or piled four or five upon one another, or Bones 
thrown out to gain Room. In these Places beautiful Monuments may be 
erected; but yet the Dimensions should be regulated by an Architect, 
and not left to the Fancy of every Mason ; for thus the Rich, with large 
Marble Tombs, would shoulder out the Poor; when a Pyramid, a good 
Bust, or Statue on a proper Pedestal, will take up little Room in the 
Quarters, & be properer than Figures lying on Marble Beds: The Walls 
will contain Escutchions and Memorials for the Dead, & the Area good 
Air and Walks for the Living. It hiay be considered further, that if the 
Cemeteries be thus thrown into the Fields, they will bound the exces- 
sive Growth of the City with a graceful Border, which is now encircled 
with Scavengers Dung-stalls. 

4. As to the Situation of the Churches, I should propose they be brought 
as forward as possible into the larger and more open Streets, not in ob- 
scure Lanes, nor where Coaches will be much obstructed in the Passage. 
Nor are we, I think, too nicely to observe East or West, in the Position, 
unless it falls out properly: Such Fronts as shall happen to lie most open 
in View should be adorn'd with Porticos, both for Beauty and Conveni- 
ence; which, together with handsome Spires, or Lanterns, rising in good 
Proportion above the neighbouring Houses (of which I have given sev- 
eral Examples in the City of different Forms) may be of sufficient Orna- 
ment to the Town, without a great Expence for enriching the outward 
Walls of the Churches, in which Plainness and Duration ought princi- 
pally, if not wholly, to be studied. When a Parish is divided, I suppose 
it may be thought sufficient, if the Mother-church has a Tower large 
enough for a good Ring of Bells, & the other Churches smaller Towers 
for two or three Bells; because great Towers, & lofty Steeples, are some- 
times more than half the Charge of the Church. 
5. 1 shall mention something of the Materials for publick Fabricks. It is 
true, the mighty Demand for the hasty Works of thousands of Houses 
at once, after the Fire of London and the Frauds of those who built by 
the great, have so debased the Value of Materials, that good Bricks are 
not to be now had, without greater Prices than formerly, and indeed, if 
rightly niade, will deserve them; but Brick-makers spoil the Earth in the 
mixing & hasty burning, till the Bricks will hardly bear Weight; though 
the Earth about London, rightly managed, will yield as good Brick as 

were the Roman Bricks, (which I have often found in the old Ruins of 
the City) & will endure, in our Air, beyond any Stone our Island affords : 
which, unless the Quarries lie near the Sea, are too dear for general Use; 
The best is Portland, or Roch-abbey Stone; but these are not without 
their Faults. The next Material is the Lime; Chalk-lime is the constant 
Practice, which, well mixed with good Sand, is not amiss, though much 
worse than hard Stone-lime. The Vaulting of St. Paul's is a rendering as 
hard as Stone ; it is composed of Cockle-shell-lime well beaten with Sand; 
the more Labour in the beating, the better and stronger the Mortar. I 
shall say nothing pf Marble, (though England, Scotland, and Ireland, 
afford good, and of beautiful Colours) but this will prove too costly for 
our Purpose, unless for Altar-pieces. In Windows and Doors Portland- 
Stone may be used, with good Bricks, and Stone Quoyns. As to Roofs, 
good Oak is certainly the best; because it will bear some Negligence: 
The Church-wardens Care may be defective in speedy mending Drips; 
they usually white-wash the Church, and set up their Names, but neg- 
lect to preserve the Roof over their Heads: It must be allowed, that the 
Roof being more out of Sight, is still more unminded. Next to Oak is 
good yellow Deal, which is a Timber of Length, and Light, and makfs 
excellent Work at first, but if neglected will speedily perish, especially 
if Gutters (which is a general Fault in Builders) be made to run upon the 
principal Rafters, the Ruin may be sudden. Our Sea-service for Oak, and 
the Wars in the North-sea, make Timber at present of excessive Price. I 
suppose 'ere long we must have recourse tothe West-Indies, where most 
excellent Timber may be had for cutting and fetching. Our Tiles are 
ill-made, and our Slate not good ; Lead is certainly the best and lightest 
Covering, and being of our own Growth and Manufacture, and lasting, 
if properly laid, for many hundred Years, is, without question, the most 
preferable; though I will not deny but an excellent Tile may be made to 
be very durable ; our Artisans are not yet instructed in it, & it is not soon 
done to inform them. 

6. The Capacity & Dimensions of the new Churches maybe determined 
by a Calculation. It is, as I take it, pretty certain, that the Number of In- 
habitants, for whom these Churches are provided, are five times as many 
as those in the City , who were burned out, & probably more than 400,000 
grown 'Persons that should come to Church, for whom these fifty 
Churches are to be provided, (besides some Chapels already built, though 
too small to be made parochial.) Now, if the Churches could hold each 
2000, it would yet be very short of the necessary Supply. The Churches 
therefore must be large; but still, in our reformed Religion, it should 
seem vain to make a Parish-church larger, than that all who are present 
can both hear & see. The Romanists, indeed, may build larger Churches, 
it is enough if they hear the Murmur of the Mass, and see the Elevation 
02 195 

of the Host, but ours are to be fitted for Auditories. I can hardly think it 
practicable to make a single Room so capacious, with Pews & Galleries, 
as to hold above 2000 Persons, and all to hear the Service, and both to 
hear distinctly, and see the Preacher. I endeavoured to effect this, in 
building the Parish Church of St. James's, Westminster, which, I pre- 
sume is the most capacious, with these Qualifications, that hath yet been 
built; and yet at a solemn Time, when the Church was much crowded, 
I could not discern from a Gallery that 2000 were present. In this Church 
I mention, though very broad, and the middle Nave arched up, yet are 
there no Walls of a second Order, nor Lanterns, nor Buttresses, but the 
whole Roof rests upon the Pillars, as do also the Galleries; I think it may 
be found beautiful and convenient, & as such, the cheapest of any Form 
I could invent. 

7. Concerning the placing of the Pulpit, I shall observe . . . A moderate 
Voice may be heard 50 Feet distant before the Preacher, 30 Feet on each 
Side, and 20 behind the Pulpit, and not this, unless the Pronunciation be 
distinct and equal, without losing the Voice at the last Word of the Sen- 
tence, which is commonly emphatical, and if obscur'd spoils the whole 
Sense. A French Man is heard further than an English Preacher, because 
he raises his Voice, and not sinks his last Words: I mention this as an in- 
sufferable Fault in the Pronunciation of some of our otherwise excellent 
Preachers ; which School-masters might correct in the young, as a vici ous 
Pronunciation, and not as the Roman Orators spoke: For tJbe principal 
Verb is in Latin usually the last Word; and if that be lost, what becomes 
of the Sentence? 

8. By what I have said, it may be thought reasonable, that the new 
Church should be at least 60 Feet broad, and 90 Feet long, besides a 
Chancel at one End, and the Bellfrey and Portico at the other. These 
Proportions may be varied; but to build more room, than that every 
Person may conveniently hear and see, is to create Noise and Confusion. 
A Church should not be so fiU'd with Pews, but that the Poor may have 
room enough to stand and sit in the Alleys, for to them equally is the 
Gospel preach'd. It were to be wish'd there were to be no Pews, but 
Benches ; but there is no stemming the Tide of Profit, & the Advantage 
of Pew-keepers; especially too since by Pews, in the Chapels of Ease, the 
Minister is chiefly supported. It is evident these fifty Churches are not 
enough for the present Inhabitants, & the Town will continually grow; 
but it is to be hoped, that hereafter more may be added, as the Wisdom 
of the Government shall think fit; and therefore the Parishes should be 
so divided, as to leave room for Sub-divisions, or at least for Chapels of 

I cannot pass over mentioning the Difficulties that may be found, in 
obtaining the Ground proper for the Sites of the Churches among the 

Buildings, and the Cemeteries in the Borders without the Town ; and 
therefore I shall recite the Method that was taken for purchasing in 
Ground at the North-side of St. Paul's Cathedral, where in some Places 
the Houses were but eleven Feet distant from the Fabrick, exposing it 
to the continual Danger of Fires. The Houses were seventeen, and con- 
tiguous, all in Leasehold of the Bishop, or Dean alone, or the Dean and 
Chapter, or the Petty-canons, with divers Undertenants. First we treated 
with the superior Landlords, who being perpetual Bodies were tp be re- 
compens'd in Kind, with Rents of the like Value for them and their Suc- 
cessors; but the Tenants in Possession for a valuable Consideration; which 
to find what it amounted to, we learn'd by diligent Inquiry, what the In- 
heritance of Houses in that Quarter were usually held at: This we found 
was fifteen Years Purchase at the most, and proportionably to this the 
Value of each Lease was easily determin'd in a Scheme, referring to a 
Map. These Rates, which we resolv'd not to stir from, were offered to 
each; and, to cut off much Debate, which may be imagin'd every one 
would abound in, they were assur'd that we went by one uniform Me- 
thod, which could not be receded from. We found two or three reason- 
able Men, who agreed to these Terms: Immediately we paid them, and 
took down their Houses. Others who stood out at first, finding themi- 
selves in Dust and Rubbish, & that ready Money was better, as the Case 
stood, than to continue paying Rent, Repairs, and Parish Duties, easily 
came in. The whole Ground at last was clear'd, and all concern'd were 
satisfied, and their Writings given up. The greatest Debate was about 
their Charges for fitting-up their new Houses to their particular Trades : 
For this we allow'd one Year's Purchase, & gave leave to remove all their 
Wainscote, reserving the Materials of the Fabrick only. This was happily 
finish'd without a Judicatory or Jury ; altho' in our present Case, we may 
find it perhaps sometimes necessary to have recourse tojParliament. 
In the Year 1671, the Surveyor began the Building of the great fluted 
Column of Portland Stone, and of the Dorick' Order, (commonly call'd 
the Monument of London, in Memory of the burning, and rebuilding of 
the City) and finish'd it in 1 677. The Artificers were oblig'd to wait 
sometimes for Stones of proper Scantlings; which occasion'd the Work 
to be longer in Execution than otherwise it would have been. It much 
exceeds in *Height the Pillars at Rome, of the Emperors Trajan, and T^he greatest 
Antoninus, the stately Remains of Roman Grandeur; or that of Theo- of the R. m. 
dosius at Constantinople. In forming this Coloss Column, the Surveyor Columns, 
took the Liberty to exceed the received Proportion of the Order, one viz. that of 
Module, or Semi-diameter. In the Place of the Brass-Urn on the Top, Antoninus, 
(which is not artfully perform'd and was set up contrary to his Opinion) was i J2\ 
was originally intended a Coloss Statue in Brass gilt, of King Charles the Feet in 
Second,asFounderof the new City; intheManne-of the Roman Pillars, Height, and 
03 197 

\2Feet, whichterminatedwiththeStatuesof theirCaesars; or else, a Figure erect 

three Inches, of a Woman crown'd with Turrets, holding a Sword, and Cap of Main- 
in Diameter, tenance, with other Ensigns of the City's Grandeur, and Re-erection. 
English The Altitude, from the Pavement, is 202 Feet ; the Diameter of the Shaft 

Measure (or Body) of the Column is 1 5 Feet; the Ground bounded by the Plinth 

or lowest Part of the Pedestal is 28 Feet square; and the Pedestal in 
Height is 40 Feet. Within, is a large Stair-case of black Marble, con- 
taining 345 Steps, 10^ Inches broad, and six Inches Risers. Over the 
Capital is an Iron Balcony encompassing a Cippus, or Meta, 32 Feet 
high, supporting a blazing Urn of Brass gilt. Prior to this, the Surveyor 
(as it appears by an original Drawing) had made a Design of a Pillar of 
somewhat less Proportion, viz : 1 4 Feet in Diameter, and after a peculiar 
Device; for, as the Romans express'd by Relievo, on the Pedestals, and 
round the Shafts of their Columns, the History of such Actions and In- 
cidents as were intended to be therby commemorated; so this Monu- 
ment of the Conflagration, and Resurrection of the City of London, was 
represented by a Pillar in Flames; the Flames blazing from the Loop- 
holes of the Shaft, (which were to give Light to the Stairs within) were 
figur'd in Brass-work gilt; and on the Top was a Phaenix risingfrom her 
Ashes, of Brass gilt likewise. 

" Our late Discoveries of new Worlds, and Conflicts at Sea; the sanglant 

" Battles that have been fought at Land; the Fortitude and Sufferings of 

" an excellent Prince; the Restoration of his Successor; the Conflagra- 

" tion, and Re-edifying of the greatest City of the World in less than 

" twenty Years (which had been near two thousand Years in building, 

" nor then half so vast, &c.) call aloud for their Medals apart: We yet see 

" in Medal none of the Column erected in Memory of that dreadful Fire, 

" the biggest and ^highest all Europe has to shew; and infinite Pity 'tis, 

" that it had not been set up where the Incendium and Burning ceas'd, 

" like a Jupiter stator, rather than where it fatally began; not only in re- 

" gard to the Eminency of the Ground, but for the Reason of the Thing, 

" since it was intended as a grateful Monument and Recognition to Al- 

" mighty God for its Extinction, and should therefore have been plac'd 

" where the devouring Flames ceas'd and were overcome, more agree- 

" ably to the stately Trophy, than where they first took Fire, and broke 

" out; and where a plain lugubrous Marble with some apposite Inscrip- 

" tion had perhaps more properly become the Occasion. But this was 

" over-ruled, and I beg Pardon for this Presumption; tho' I question not 

" but I have the Architect himself on my side, whose rare and extraor- 

*The Thea- " dinary Talent, and what he has *perform'd of great and magnificent, 

tre ofOxon, " this Column, and what he is still about, and advancing under his Di- 

St. Paul's " rection, will speak and perpetuate his Memory, as long as one Stone 

Chelsea " remains upon another in this Nation." 


Mr. Evelyn 
of Medals, 
Page 162. 

Col. 147 
Roman Feet, 
17 s, Lon- 
don, 202, 
English Feet 

« The Monument, says a modern Crltick, is undoubtedly the noblest Coll. Hamp- 
" modern Column in the World; nay in some respects, it may justly vie ton Court, 
" with those celebrated ones of Antiquity, which are consecrated to the Churches of 
" Names of Trajan, and Antonine. Nothing can be more bold and sur- London, the 
" prizing, nothing more beautiful and harmonious : The Bas-relief at the Library at 
" Base, allowing for some few Defects, is finely imagin'd, and executed as 'Trinity Coll. 
" well; and nothing material can be cavilled with, but the Inscriptions Camb. &c. 
" round about it. Nothing, indeed, can be more ridiculous than its Situ- 
" ation, unless the Reason which is assigned for so doing. I am of Opin- 
" ion, if it had been raised where Cheapside Conduit stood, it would have 
" been as effectual a Remonstrance of the Misfortune it is designed to 
" record, & would at once have added an inexpressible Beauty to the Vistai 
" and received as much as it gave." [Critical Review of London, p. 9.] 


THE Solidity of the whole Fabrick,from the Bottom of ^ 

the lowest Plinth, to the black Marble under the Urn, the ( A p j- 

Cylinder of the Stair-case only deducted, and the Stone [ 3739 

for the Carving not allowed for, is - - - -' 

The black Marble that covers the Capital - - - - 287 

The black Marble that covers the Lanthorn _ _ _ 64 

From this Solidity deduct, 
For 8 great Niches - - - 281 
For 3 Doors and Passages - - 289 
For 3 Sides reveyled - - - 486 
For rough Block - _ _ - 1499 
For Rubble-work - - - 7185 

In all 9740 
The Remainder is 27656 
To this add, upon the account of the | 
Carvings in the Front, the 4 great \ 540 
Dragons, and Festoons - -I 

28196 Feet of solid 

343 black Marble Steps. Stone. 

The whole Shaft fluted after it was built, being 

4784 superficial Feet. 
Marble Harch-pace 56 Feet. 
Marble Paving, and other small Articles, not in this Measurement. 

04 199 


QUI celsam spectas Molem, idem quoque infaustum & fatalem toti 
quondam Civitati vides Locum. Hie quippe. Anno Christi MDCLX VI. 
2 Sept. altera post mediam Noctem Hor^jCX Cas4 humili, prima se ex- 
tulit Flamma, quae, Austro flante, adeo brevi invaluit, ut non tantum tota 
fere intra Muros Urbs, sed et Aedificia quaecunque Arcem, et Templar- 
iorium Hospitium; quaecunque denique RipasFluminis,et remotissima 
Civitatis interjacent Maenia, ferali absumpta fuerint Incendio. Tridui 
spatio, C. Templa, Plateae CCCC. et pluraquam XI V. Domorum Millia 
Flammis absorpta fu6re, Innumeri Cives omnibus suis fortunis exuti, et 
sub dio agitare coacti, infinitae, et toto Orbe congestae opes in Cinerem 
et Favillam redactae: ita ut de Urbe omnium quotquot Sol aspicit am- 
plissima, et faelicissima, praeter Nomen et Famam, et immensos Ruina- 
rum Aggeres, vix quicquam superesset. 

Carolus Secundus, Dei Gratis, Rex Magnae Britanniae, Franciae, et Hi- 
berniae. Anno Regni XVIII. et plerique Angliae Proceres, consumpti 
Incendio Urbe pene universi, eademque triennio Spatio in ampliorem 
Modum instaurata,etnon ut ante ligneis aut luteis,sed partim lateritiis, 
partim marmoreis Aedificiis,etOperibus ita ornati,ut e suis Ruinis pul- 
crior multo prodiisse videatur; auctis praeterea ad immensam Magnitu- 
dinem Urbis Pomaeriis; ad aeternam utriusque Facti Memoriam, hie 
ubi tantae Cladis prima emicuit Flamma 

Monumentum Posuere. 

Discat Praesens et Futura Aetas, nequa similis ingruat Clades, tempes- 
tivis Numen placare votis : Beneficium ver6 Regis, et Procerum,quorum 
Liberalitate, praeter Ornatum, major etiam Urbi accessit Securitas, grata 
mente recognoscat. 

O quantum tibi debet AVGVSTA, 

Tot nascentia Templa, tot renata, 

Tot Spectacula? Mart. 

As Augustus said of Rome, lateritiam inveni, marmoream reliqui,so the 
Rebuilder of London might as properly say, luteum et ligneum inveni, 
lateritium et lapideum reliqui. 

Saepe majori fortunae locum fecit Injuria: multa ceciderunt, ut altius 
surgerent, et in majus. Timagenesfelicitati Urbis inimicus aiebat, Romae 
sibi Incendia ob hoc unum dolori esse, quod sciret meliora resurrectura, 
quam arsissent. 
[Seneca?,Epist. 92.] 

Mensurae Columnarum, apud Antiques, maximarum. 
Tota Columna Imp. Antonini Romae, Alta est Palmos Romanos CCXXX. Reliquia 

Diametros Scapi continet Palmos XVI. et IV PoUices. 
Tota Columna Imp.Trajani, Romae, ab ejus Imo Usque ad Statuae Sancti 
Petri verticem, alta est Palmos Romanos CXCIII. cum Dimidio; Dia- 
metros ejus prope Basin complectitur Palmos XVI. cum Sesqui-poUice; 
ita ut hie Diametros totidem in se continet PoUices, quot Moles tota 
Palmos alta esse cognoscitur. 

N.B. Palmus Romanus architectonicus continet IX. PoUices Anglicanos. 
Columna, dicta Historica, Constantinopoli, sive Imp. Theodosii, sive 
Arcadii, alta est CXLVII. Pedes. Secundum computum Petri Gylii. 

The Custom-house for the Port of London, situated on the South-side of 
Thames-street; was erected in 1668, adorned with an upper and lower 
Order of Architecture: In the latter are Stone Columns, and Entable- 
ment of the Tuscan Order; in the former are Pilasters, Entablature, and 
five Pediments of the lonick Order. The West-end is elevated on Col- 
umns, forming a Piazza. The Length of this Building is 1 89 Feet, Breadth 
in the middle Part 27 Feet, at the West-end, &c. 60 Feet. ■ 
The Frontispiece of the Middle-temple,to wards Fleet-street, was erected 
in the Year 1684, of Stone and Brick. The Basis is a Rustick Arcade of 
Stone, supporting four Pilasters, Entablature, and triangular Pediment of 
the lonick Order, and the rest of rubbed Brick. 

Urbis Roma 
per Mic. 


2d. Edit, 
p. 14.1 

* Penes Col- 



I ENER AL Plan of the Situation, with the 
' Plan and Orthography of the royal Palace at 
I the City of Winchester (the Venta Belgarum 
I of the Romans, a military Station, the Seat of 
ithe West Saxon Kings.) c@kThis Palace was 
'begun by the Commands of King Charles the 
Second, (March 23, 1683) & prosecuted with 
that Expedition, that the greatest Part was 
covered in, and finished, as to the Shell, be- 
ifore the King's Decease, February 1684-5. 
It extends to the West 326 Feet, to the South 216 Feet. " There was par- 
" ticularly intended a large Cupola, 30 Feet above the Roof, which would 
" have been seen a great Way to the Sea; & also a regular Street of hand- 
" some Houses, leading in a direct Line down the Hill, from the Front of 
" thePalace to the West-gate of the Cathedral; for which, & for the Parks, 
" the Ground was procured;" and Preparations made for proper Planta- 
tions, a necessary Ornament for that open Situation. The Surveyor had 
proj ected also to have brought from the Downs a River through the Park, 
which would have formed a Cascade of 30 Feet Fall. The whole Dis- 
position of this Palace was such, as made it esteemed by the best Judges 
an excellent Model of a Royal-hunting seat. In this Place, (where pro- 
bably had been the Roman Prastorium) "stood an ancient Castle, which 
" had been often besieged, but never so straitly, as when Maud the Em- 
" press maintained it against King Stephen. In digging for the new 
" Foundations, were discovered divers Roman and Saxon Antiquities, as 
" Coins of Constantine the Great, and others; a Brick Pavement of the 
" tessellated Work; a round* Brass Seal, with a Head engraved, and this 
" Inscription in Saxon Characters, 


Vol. II. p. 
2 1 , Land. 

From 'A Journey Through England.' 

KING Charles the second taking a Liking to the Situation of Winches- 
ter, by reason of the Deliciousness of the Country for all manner of Coun- 


try Sports, set Sir Christopher Wren, that great Architect, (who had the 
Honour of making the Plan of St. Paul's Church in London, laying the 
first Stone, and living to see it finished) to make a Plan for a Royal Palace 
where the old Castle stood; and King Charles was so fond of it, and for- 
warded it with so much Diligence, that the whole Case of the Palace was 
roofed, and near finished, when that Prince died. It will be the finest 
Palace in England, when finished, and inferior to few abroad. It fronts 
the City to the East, by a noble Area between two Wings. The Marble 
Pillars sent by the Duke of Tuscany, for supporting the Portico of the 
great Stair-case, lie half buried in the Ground. The Stair-case carries up 
to the great Guard-hall, from whence you enter into sixteen spacious 
Rooms on each Wing, nine of which make a Suite to the End of each 
Wing. There are also two Entries under the Middle of each Wing, to the 
South and North, above which are to be two Cupola's; & the Front to the 
West extends 326 Feet, in the Middle of which is another Gate, with 
a Cupola to be also over it. Under the great Apartment, on each Side from 
the Ground, is a Chapel on the left for the King, and another on the right 
for the Queen; and behind the Chapels are two Courts, finely piazza'd, 
to give Light to the inward Rooms. There was to be a Terrass round it, 
as at Windsor, and the Ground laid out for a Garden, very spacious, with 
a Park marked out, of eight Miles Circumference, and that Park to open 
into a Forest of twenty Miles Circumference, without either Hedge or 
Ditch. The King designed also a Street from the Area to the East, in a 
direct Line, by an easy Descent, to the great Door of the Cathedral. 
Queen Anne came once to see Winchester, where she staid seventeen 
Days, and designed to have finished it, as a Jointure-house to her Consort 
Prince George of Denmark; but an expensive War, and the Prince's 
Death before her, prevented it. Whether his Majesty, or the Prince, when 
they please to make a Circuit through their Dominions, may not think it 
worth while to finish so noble a Structure, Time will discover. 
Bishop Morley, who had been an Exile with King Charles, and made 
Bishop of this See after the Restoration, seeing his Majesty designing to 
make Winchester a royal Residence, thought himself obliged to keep 
pace with the King; and therefore pulled down a great Part of the old 
episcopal Palace, and, under the Direction of the same Architect, Sir 
Christopher Wren, began a new one ; but he dying about the Time with 
the King, his Palace stood still with the King's. However he had com- 
pleated one Wing in his Life-time, & left Money for finishing the rest; 
but Bishop Mew, his Successor, seeing no Probability of a Court at Win- 
chester, never minded it. Sir Jonathan Trelawny succeeding Bishop 
Mew, in Queen Anne's Time, called for the Money left by Bishop Mor- 
ley, and finished it. It is a very handsome Palace a la moderne. 
II. Plans, Elevations, & Sections, of the two royal Apartments atHamp- 


ton-court, being a Part only of the Surveyor's Design for a new Palace 


This Edifice was begun by the Commands of King William and Queen 

Mary, in the Year 1 690 (to make room for which, the principal Part of 

the old Fabrick fronting the House-park was taken down) and finished 

in 1694, just before the much lamented Death of that incomparable 


Qu^ nihil majus meliusve Regnis 
Fata donavere, bonique Divi, 
Nee dabunt, quamvis redeant in Aurum 
Tempora priscum. 

The Queen, upon observing the pleasant Situation of the Palace, pro- 
posed a proper Improvement with Building and Gardening, & pleased 
herself from time to time, in examining and surveying the Drawings, 
Contrivances, and whole Progress of the Works, and to give thereon her 
own Judgment, which was exquisite ; for there were few Arts, or Sci- 
ences, in which her Majesty had not only an elegant Taste, but a Know- 
ledge much superior to any of her Sex, in that, or (it may be) any former 
Age. This is not said as a Panegyrick, but a plain & well-known Truth, 
which the Surveyor had frequent Experience of, when, (by that Favour 
and Esteem the Queen was graciously pleased publickly to shew him, 
upon a Discernment & Trial of his Worth) he had many Opportunities 
of a free Conversation with her Majesty, not only on the Subject of Ar- 
chitecture, but other Branches of Mathematicks, and useful Learning. ' 
King William was pleased so far to approve of the Surveyor's Service in 
Certified to the Designs, & Execution of this Fabrick, as occasionally to deliver his 
the Collector Opinion, (and once particularly in the Hearing of some noble Persons of 
by the Right the first Quality in England) That these two Apartments, for good Pro- 
Honourable portion, State, and Convenience, jointly, were not parallelled by any Pal- 
Thomas ace in Europe ; &, at the same time, to excuse his Surveyor, for not raising 

Earl of the Cloysters, under the Apartments, higher; which were executed in 

Pembroke that Manner, according to his express Orders. The Facade, or King's 
Apartment, fronting the Privy-garden, & Thames, extends 328 Feet; the 
Fagade, or Queen's Apartment fronting the House-park, extends 330 
Feet ; the Access to the principal Stair-case leading to the King's-side,is 
Camder^s through a beautiful Portico of about 90 Feet long, consisting of a Colon- 
Britannia, ade of 1 6 duplicated Pillars, of the lonick Order. " Both House & Parks 
zdEdit. " being environ'd on three Sides with the River Thames, & consequently 

P. 3 6 8 " enj oying as pleasant a Situation as the Prudence of i ts first Founder Car- 

" dinal Wolsey could select for it, was indeed a Piece of Work of great 
" Beauty & Magnificence for the Age it was built in. But the Additions 
" made to it by King William and Queen Mary do so far excel what it 

" was before, that they evidently shew what vast Advancements, Archi- 
" tecture has receiv'd since that Time." 

Sic Partem Ille Domus,quam vix Faelicior AEtas Finiat, exegit 

If the World had not been depriv'd so soon of the inestimable Life of 
Queen Mary, and had the Surveyor been impower'd to have finish 'd his 
whole Design, Leland's Description of Hampton Court would have been 
a truer Resemblance of its latter than primitive State. 

Est locus insolito rerum splendore superbus, 
AUuiturque vagaTamisini fluminis unda, 
Nomine ab antiquo jam tempore dictus Avona, 
Hie rexWilhelmus tales hie condidit aedes 
Magnificas,quales toto sol aureus orbe 
Non vidit. 

III. Designof the Mausoleum which was erected in Westminster-abbey, 
at the Funeral-obsequies of Queen Mary the Second, March 5, 1 69!^. 

IV. Plans, Elevations, and Views of Chelsea-college. This noble Hospi- 
tal was founded, and near finish'd, by King Charles the Second ; prose- 
cuted by King James the Second; and compleated, and furnish'd with all 
sorts of Necessaries, and Conveniences for the comfortable Maintenance 
of maim'd and superannuated Soldiers, by King William & Queen Mary. 
The Industry, and Conduct of the Surveyor, and Sir Stephen Fox,jointly 
in the Erection and Settlement hereof, are worthy Remembrance : Sir 
Stephen Fox, a Lord of the Treasury, took care for the due Payment of 
the Works ; whilst the Surveyor vigorously prosecuted his Part in the 
Buildings ; and lastly prescrib'd the Statutes, and whole Oeconomy of 
the House, which for Cleanliness, Health, & Convenience, is deservedly 
esteem'd one of the best regulated in Europe; well suiting, in every par- 
ticular, the pious Design, and Munificence of its royal Founders. 

V. Designs of the royal Hospital at Greenwich, for disabled and super- 
annuated Seamen, begun in 1 699 . The Surveyor was among the first who 
address'd their Majesties King William and Queen Mary, to convert the 
Site and Buildings of their royal Palace to this most charitable Use ; which 
was also industriously promoted by the Lord Sommers, Mr. Evelyn,Mr. 
Bridgman Secretary of the Admiralty, and Mr.Lownds Secretary of the 
Treasury. This extensive Charity was not only calculated for the Relief 
and Support of the veteran Seamen, and such as had been wounded or 
disabled in the Service, but also for the Relief & Maintenance of such 
Widows, and the Education of such Orphans, whose Husbands, and Pa- 


rents had been slain in the Defence of the Nation at Sea. A Project so sea- 
sonably adjusted for the Encouragement and Improvement of that other 
most important Branch of the national Defence, the naval Arms of Great- 
Britain. After the Grant had pass'd the great Seal, and an ample Com- 
mission appointed, with Powers to conduct and regulate all Affairs, re- 
lating to the building of the Hospital ; and the Surveyor nominated a 
Director, and chief Architect of this great Undertaking, he chearfuUy 
engag'd in the Work, gratis, and contriv'd the new Fabrick extensive, 
durable, and magnificent, conformable to the graceful Pavilion, which 
had been erected there by King Charles the Second, and originally in- 
tended for his own Palace; contributing his Time, Labour, & Skill, and 
prosecuting the Works for several Years, with all the Expedition the 
Circumstances of Affairs would allow; without any Salary, Emolument, 
or Reward (which good Example, 'tis to be hoped, has been since fol- 
low'd;) preferring in this, as in every other Passage of his Life, the pub- 
lick Service to any private Advantage of his own, by the Acquest of 
Wealth, of which he had always a great Contempt. 

Extracts from the Account of the Buildings of Greenwich Hospital, 
publish'd by the Deputy-surveyor Mr. Hawksmoor, Anno 1728 
for the Perusal of the Parliament. 

HER Majesty Queen Mary, the Foundress of the marine Hospital, en- 
join'd Sir Christopher Wren to build the Fabrick with great Magnifi- 
cence and Order; and being ever soUicitous for the Prosecution of the 
Design, had several times honour'd Greenwich with her personal Views 
of the Building erected by King Charles IL as Part of his Palace, & like- 
wise of that built by Mr. Inigo Jones, call'd the Queen's House, &c. On 
which Views She was unwilling to demolish either, as was propos'd by 
some. This occasion'd the keeping of an Approach from the Thames 
quite up to the Queen's House, of 1 1 5 Feet broad, out of the Grant that 
was made to the Hospital, that her Majesty might have an Access to that 
House by Water as well as by Land; and she retain'd a Desire to add the 
four Pavilions to that Palace, according to Inigo Jones's Design, that She 
might make that little Palace compleat, as a royal Villafor her own Retire- 
ment, or from whence Embassadors, or publick Ministers, might make 
their Entry into London. 

Her Majesty's absolute Determination to preserve the Wing built by her 
Uncle King Charles II. to keep the Queen's House, and the Approach 
to it, on the Considerations abovesaid, naturally drew on the Disposition 
of the Buildings, as they are now placed and situated. 
The principal Front of this great Building lies open to the Thames; from 
whence we enter into the Middle of the royal Court, near 300 Foot 

square, lying open to the North, and cover'd on the West with the Court 
of King Charles II. and on the East with that of Queen Anne, equal to 
it; and on the South, the great Hall and Chapel. 

The Court of Queen Anne contains the great Range or Wing next the 
royal Court, as aforesaid, and holds 140 Men. To the East of this Court 
of Queen Anne, is another Range of Building, which contains 66 Per- 
sons, &c. 

The great Pavilion next the Thames contains four very commodious 
Apartments for Officers. 

The great Pavilion, at the South-end of Queen Anne's Court, contains 
Lodgings for Officers, and some proper Rooms for the entertaining of 
the Widows and Children. 

The Court of King Charles II. contains the great Wing on the West of 
the royal Court above mention'd, built by that Prince as Part of his own 
intended Palace. It is a noble Pile, having in the middle a tetrastyle Por- 
tico, with Arcades; the Walls are rusticated, all in Portland Stone; the 
Windows artfully decorated and proportion'd; the Order is Corinthian; 
the Body of the Building is crown'd with an Entablement of that Order; 
and the two Extreams in two great Pavilions (all in the same Style) rising 
with an Attick Order above the other Part, & make two eminen t Towers. 
This Wing, together with the Bass-wing to the West of the Court of 
King Charles II. contain 206 Persons, &c. 

The great Pavilion to the Thames, closing the North-side of this Court, 
contains four Apartments for Officers, and other Conveniences. 
The great Pavilion on the South-end of this Court, contains several 
Lodgings for Officers, and the great Kitchen, and Rooms belonging to it. 
The Wing to the West, which was built for Offices for immediate Ser- 
vice, contains Chambers for Servants and other Uses of the Family. This 
is call'd the Bass-wing of King Charles II. 

Keeping the central Lines of the whole Projection that runs through the 
royal Court and the Esplanade in the Park, the next Buildings we come 
at lie on the South-side of the royal Court, and are ist.. 
The Colonade, having a Portico on the right and left Hands of Doric 
Pillars 20 Feet high, is crown'd with an Entablement and Balustrade of 
Portland Stone, each of which Porticos is in Length 430 Feet, and both 
together sustain'd by 300 Pillars and Pilasters. 

These Porticos are intendedforCommunicationfrom the Hall & Chapel 
to the Wards and Dormitories; and to protect the Men from the Incle- 
mency of Weather, and give them Air, at anytime, without incommod- 
ing them; very useful where a Number of People are to inhabit in one 

On the West-side of this Colonade is built the Court of King William, 
containing the great Hall, Vestibule and Cupola: The Tambour of the 


Cupola is a Peristyliutn of Pillars duplicated, of the Composite Order, 
and broke upon the Quoins with Groups of Pillars; the Attickis a Circle 
without Breaks, cover'd with a Tholus and small Lantern. 
Under is a less Hall, and Room for the Guard, & common Rendez-vous 
of the House. On the West-side of this Court is a large Dormitory, and 
sundry Lodgments, This Wing will contain 200 Persons. 
On the South-side of King William's Court is another large Dormitory 
with several Rooms. This Wing will contain 320 Persons. 
On the East of the Colonade is the Court of Queen Mary, which con- 
tains the royal Chapel, with the Vestibule and Cupola; and a large Dor- 
mitory to the South, like that of King William, holding 320 Persons; 
and a Dormitory, on the East-side of this Court, to hold 100 Persons. 
Besides the Grandeur, Regularity, and Beauty of this publick Building, 
the capacious Accommodations, the Wards and Chambers, can entertain 
1 352 Men, excluding Officers and Servants, & Rooms of publick Use. 
There was once this only Exception : some Gentlemen thought the Bass- 
wing of Offices was too mean for the rest of the Building, and desir'd i 
Proposal might be made to alter that, to the Style and Dignity of King 
Charles's Front ; which was done, & shew'd to the Persons then in Power : 
And this occasion'd the doubling the great North Pavilion, and making 
it so large as now it is, with the, Flag-tower upon the Center, which com- 
pleated the Strength and Beauty of the North Front of this royal Hos- 
pital towards the Thames. 

VL Design of the Altar-piece of the old Chapel ofWhitehall, destroy'd, 
with the Palace, by the Fire in 1 697. 

Vn. Design of the Marble Altar-piece, with the original Ornaments, 
and Statues, erected in King James the Second's Chapel at Whitehall, 
which was sav'd from the Fire, and given by Queen Anne to the colle- 
giate Church of St. Peter in Westminster. 

Preface to the following Account (in Section XL) of the Design for the 
Tomb of King Charles the First. 

Echard's " IT has been made a Question, and a Wonder by many, why a particu- 
Hist. of *' lar Monument was not erected at Windsor for King Charles the First, 

England, *' after the Restoration of his Son; especially when the Parliament was 
Vol. II. " well inclined to have given a good Sum for that grateful Purpose. This 

p. 649^ " has caused several Conjectures and Reflections; and Intimations have 

" been given, as if the royal Body had never been deposited there, or else 
Fol. III. " had been afterwards removed by the Regicides; & the Lord Clarendon 
p. 200 " liimself speaks softly and suspiciously of this Matter, as if he believed 


" the Body could not be found. But to remove all Imaginations, we shall 
" here insert a Memorandum, or Certificate, sent by Mr. John Sewell, 
" Register at Windsor. Anno 1 696, September 2 1 . The same Vault in 
" which King Charles the First was buried, was opened to lay in a still- 
"born Child of the then Princess of Denmark, now our gracious Queen. 
" On the King's CofBn the Velvet Pall was strong and sound, and there 
" was about the Coffin a leaden Band, with this Inscription cut through 
"it. King Charles, 1648. Queen Jane's Coffin was whole and entire; but 
" that of King Henry the Eighth was sunk in upon the Breast Part, and 
" the Lead and Wood consumed with the Heat of the Gums he was em- 
" balmed with; and when I laid my Hand on it, it was run together, and 
" hard, and had no noisome Smell. As a further Memorandum relating 
" to the King's Interment, he says. That when the Bodyof King Charles 
" the First lay in the Dean's Hall, the Duke of Richmond had the Coffin 
" opened, and was satisfied that it was the King's Body. This several 
" People have declared they knew to be true, who were alive, and then 
" present, as Mr. Randue of Windsor, and others; so that he thinks the 
" Lord Clarendon was misled in that Matter, and that King Charles the 
" Second never sent to enquire after the Body, since it was well known 
" to the Inhabitants of the Castle and Town, that it was in that Vault." 
To this maybe added, that Mr. Fishborne, Gent, of Windsor, a Relation 
of Sir Christopher Wren's, was among those who were present at the In- 
terment of the King, went into the Vault, and brought away a Fragment 
of King Henry's Pall; he observed the Vault was so narrow, that it was 
some Difficulty to get in the King's Coffin by the side of the others. 

At non Vinsorae manes jacuere caverna. 
Nee cinis exiguus tantam compescuit umbram; 
Prosiluit busto, dissectaque membra relinquens, 
Degeneremque rogum, sequitur convexa tonantis. 
...... lUic postquam se lumine vero 

Implevit, stellasque vagas miratur et astra 

Fixa polis, vidit quanta sub nocte jaceret 

Nostra dies, risitque sui ludibria trunci. Lucan 

p I 209 



GENERAL Plan, Orthography, & Section, 
with the Statues and Ornaments, designed 
for the Tomb of King Charles the First. (@k 
King Charles the Second was pleased to order 
the Surveyor to design a Mausoleum, or 
Tomb, for his Father, the Royal Martyr, 
^^_^^ after that the House ofCommons had voted, 
Echartfs fj^^ S^ ili^^K~^d^ upon the Motion of the Lord O-Brien, on 
History of ^W BMrnK^^^m ^W *^^ ('^) 3°^^ of January, 1677-8, (the House 
England, (/ -t, j^^p^^W|f ^-^ having sat on Part of that Day) "The Sumof 
Vol. III. " Seventy Thousand Pounds, for a solemn Funeral of his late Majesty 
p. 441 " King Charles the First, and to erect a Monument for the said Prince 

London, (a) N.B. The Historian mistakes the Day; the Vote passed on the zgth, as is 

printed for seen in Dr. Sprafs Sermon before the House of Commons, at St. Margaret's, 
Henry Westminster, Jan. 30, 1677-8. 

Brome; at The beautiful Paragraph runs thus; 

the Gun in " I confess I might, and, give me leave to say it, I intended to have complained, 

St. PauFs " that the present Age had not made that Use of him {King Charles'] which it 

Church- ' ' ought; his Enemies for their Repentance and Amendment, nor even his Friends 

yard, 1 678, "yor his Praise and Honour. But, blessed be God, I am happily prevented in 

Page 4 " one Part of the Complaint; I have nothing now to wish, but that his Enemies 

" would as well perform their Duty to him, as, it must be acknowledged, you 

" \the House of Commons] his Friends have done yours, by that much desired, 

" long expected. Tester da fs Vote; in which you have given a Resurrection to his 

" Memory, by designing magnificent Rites to his sacred Ashes. So that now, for 

" the future, an Englishman abroad will be able to mention the Name of King 

" Charles the First, without blushing; and his heroick Worth will be delivered 

" down to Posterity, as it always deserved to be, not only freed from Calumny, 

" or Obscurity, but, in all Things, most illustrious; in all Things to be com- 


" of glorious Memory; the said Sum to be raised by a Two Months Tax, 
" to begin at the Expiration of the present {b) Tax for building Ships." 
The Form of this Structure (as appears by the Surveyor's original Draw- 
ings, which were laid before the King) is a Rotundo, with a beautiful 
Dome and Lantern; a circular Colonade without, of the Corinthian Or- 
der, resembling the Temple of Vesta. The Enrichments on the Outside 
and within, are designed costly & magnificent: to instance only in a few 
Articles taken from the first Estimate, and, particularly, of the Inside, 
viz.: " Eight Bases of black Marble for the great Pillars under the Dome, 
" at ^^30 each. Eight Shafts of rich Marble in whole Stones, 28 Feet long, 
" 3^ Feet Diameter, to be brought from the Levant, valued at ^^40° each. 
" EightCapitals of Brass-work gilt, for the above-named Pillars, at ^250 
" each. 3520 Feet of Incrustation with various Marbles in the lower Or- 
"der of Pilasters within the Niches. Entablatures of white Marble. In 
" the Spandrils over the Niches, Marbles inlaid. 1 606 Feet superficial ot 
" Mosaic-work, in the Heads of Niches. 4620 Feet superficial, of the 
" best Painting in Fresco, in the Cupola. Ten Figures of great Life, cast 
"in Brass and gilt, at ^400 each. Seven Genii, or Cherubims, of Brass 
" gilt, with the Ornaments appertaining, at ^i 50 each. A Coloss Statue 
" of Fame, of gilt Brass, on the Summit of the Lantern. Twenty Statues 
" of great Life, the Acroteria of the Order, on the Outside. Twenty Fes- 
" toons of Marble between the Capitals on the Outside, &g. The whole 
" Charge estimated at ;C43>663." 

The Monument, thus designed, was approved by the King, and deter- 
mined to be erected at Windsor Castle, at the East-end of St. George's ■^^hmole oj 
Chapel,inthe Place where now stands " a little Gothick Building raised ^^ (carter, 
" by Cardinal Wolsey, called the Tomb-house, in the Middle whereof ^' ^ 3° 
" he designed to erect a goodly Monument for King Henry the Eighth, 
" and had well nigh finished it before he died. But this was demolished ^y ^" 
"in April 1646, by Command of the long Parliament; and the Statues ^^^nejit 
" and Figures provided to adorn it, being all Copper gilt, & exceedingly It<^i^n 
" enriched,* were taken thence. Statuary 

" This Place King Charles the First, of ever blessed and glorious Me- 

" mended; in most 'Things to be imitated; in some Things scarce imitable^ & only 
" to be admired." 

After divine Service, the House sat, (as appears by the Order of Thanks) viz. 
Mercurii^o Die Jan. 1 677-8, Ordered, That the Thanh of this House be re- 
turned to Dr. Sprat, for his Sermon this Day preached before the House at St. 
Margaret's, Westminster, and that he be desired to preach the same, &c. 
(b) Apr. 1 6, 1 677, Car. II. 29. An Act for raising the Sum of Five hundred 
eighty-four thousand Pounds, &c.f6r the speedy building thirty Ships of War. 

[Echard, Hist. England, Vol. III. p. 421.] 
P2 211 

^Jane Sey- 
mour, his 

By the 
Mr. Gibbons 

" mory, intended to enlarge and make fit & capable, not only for the In- 
" terment of his own royal Body, but also for the Bodies of his Successors 
" Kings of England, had not bad Times drawn on, & such as, with much 
" ado, afforded him but an obscure Grave, near the first Haut-pace in the 
" Quire of the Chapel, his Head lying over-against the eleventh Stall on 
" the Sovereign's Side, and in the same Vault where the Bodies of King 
" Henry the Eighth, and his *Queen Jane, yet remain." [Echard's His- 
" tory of England, Vol. II. p. 649. Athena2 Oxon. p. 528.] 
The Tomb-house, which had been long neglected, & in a ruinous State, 
was therefore proposed to be taken down, & the Ground thereof judged 
to be a most proper Situation for the new Mausoleum. After some Time, 
the King returned the Drawings and Estimates to the Surveyor, with 
Orders to keep them till called for again: But, in conclusion, the whole 
Design of the Funeral and Tomb, through Incidents of the Times, or 
Motives unknown to the Publick, were laid aside. 
Upon his Majesty's Decease, King James 11. ordered the old Fabrick to 
be put into immediate Repair, and the Cieling to be painted by Signior 
Vario, as it now remains, with Intention, 'tis said, to convert the Room 
to a Chapter-house, for the Use of the Order of the Garter. 
In the Surveyor's original Designs (still extant) of the Mausoleum, are 
three grand Niches, (besides that which the Portal at the Entrance breaks 
into) rising from the Pavement to the Entablature of the great Columns 
within-side: Whether by these was intended, that the three royal Cof- 
fins, upon finishing the Tomb, were to have been translated thither, and 
proper monumental Statues and Ornaments placed in the respective 
Niches, or whether the two Niches were to have been left in reserve for 
other regal Monuments, is uncertain. In the Middle-niche fronting the 
Entrance, was designed the King's Monument, after this Manner. Four 
Statues, Emblems of heroick Virtues, standing on a square Basis, or 
Plinth, & pressing underneath, Prostrate Figures of Rebellion, Heresy, 
Hypocrisy, Envy, &c. support a large Shield, on which is a Statue erect 
of the royal Martyr, in modern Armour; over his Head is a Group of 
Cherubims, bearing a Crown, Branches of Palm, and other Devices. 
There are two Draughts of this statuary Design,* one adapted for Brass- 
work, the other for Marble, as should have been most approved. 

Interea in chartd tumulum signemus inanem, 
Ut nota sit busti, si quis placare peremptum 
Forte volet, plenos et reddere mortis honores. 
Proderit hoc olim, quod non mansura sepulcri 
Ardua marmoreo surrexit pondere moles. 
Pulveris exigui sparget non longe vetustas 
Congeriem, bustumque cadet, mortisque pcribunt 

Argumenta tuae. Veniet faslicior aetas 

Qua sit nulla fides saxum monstrantibus istud 

Et Vinsora fuat populis fortasse, nepotum 

Tam mendax Caroli tumulo, quam Creta tonantis. 

' [Lucan. 

In the Year 1 674, at which Time the Surveyor was rebuilding some 
Parts of the Tower of London, it happened, that the Bones of King Ed- 
ward the Fourth's Children (those two innocent Princes, King Edward 
the Fifth, and his Brother, Richard Duke of York, the one of thirteen, 
the other of eleven Years of Age, most Barbarously murdered there, in 
their Bed, by their unnatural Uncle, the Ursurper Richard the Third) 
were, after 191 Years, found, about 10 Feet deep in the Ground, in a 
wooden Chest, as the Workmen were taking away the Stairs, which led 
from the royal Lodgings into the Chapel of the White-tower. The Cir- 
cumstances of this Discovery being fully represented to the King by the 
Surveyor, Sir Thomas Chicheley, then Master of the Ordnance, & other 
Persons of Worth and Credit, Eye-witnesses in the whole Scrutiny, the 
following Warrant from the Lord Chamberlain of his Majesty's House- 
hold was directed to the Surveyor; in pursuance whereof, he designed an 
elegant Urn of white Marble, on a Pedestal, with an Inscription ; all 
which being approved by his Majesty, was erected in the East-wall of 
the North-aile of King Henry the Seventh's Chapel. 

" These are to signify his Majesty's Pleasure, That you provide a white Ex Auto- 
" Marble Coffin for the supposed Bodies of the two Princes lately found graph 
" in the Tower of London; & that you cause the same to be interred in 
" Henry the Seventh's Chapel; in such convenient Place as the Dean of 
" Westminster shall appoint: & this shall be your Warrant. Given under 
" my Hand, this 1 8th Day of February, 1 674-5. 


To Sir Christopher Wren, Knt, Surveyor 
General of his Majesty's Works. 

H. S. S. 


Edwardi Vti. Regis Angliae, et Richardi Ducis Eborac. 

Hos Fratres germanos in Arce Londinensi conclusos, 

Injectisque culcitris sufFocatos, 

Abdite et inhoneste tumulari jussit 

Patruus Richardus perfidus Regni 


P3 213 

Ossa desideratorum diu et multum quaesita 

Post Annos CXCI. 

Scalarum in ruderibus (scalae nuper istae ad sacellum 

Turris albas ducebant) 

Alth defossa Indiciis certissimis sunt reperta, 

xvii. Die Julii, Anno Domini MDCLXXIIII. 

Carolus Secundus, Rex clementissimus, acerbam 

Sortem miseratus, 

Inter avita Monumenta Principibus infelicissimis 

Justa persolvit. 

Anno Domini 1678, Annoque Regni sui, 30. 

II. A Catalogue of Designs for rebuilding the royal Palace of Whitehall. 
Sketch of a Plan for Whitehall. 

Fafade of the Palace of Whitehall, designed for King Charles II. 
Part of the said Front in a large Scale. 

1. General Plan of the Site, Palace, Gardens, &c. of Whitehall, designed 
pursuant to Order, and offered to his Majesty King William, after the 
Fire of the old Palace, in the Year 1 697. 

2. General Plan of the Palace, a Gallery of Communication with the 
Parliament-house, consisting of a long Portico of Dorick Columns on the 
Bank of the Thames, extending from Whitehall to Westminster. To- 
gether with the Plan and Orthography of the new Parliament-house, as 

3. Plan of the Palace, Gardens, Canals, and Decorations. 

4. Orthography of the Palace fronting the Thames. 

5. Orthography fronting the Park, or Gardens. 

6. Orthography fronting Charing-cross, and Westminster. 

7. Sciography of the whole Structure. 

8. Fafade of the Gallery of Communication next the River; and of the 
new Parliament-house. 

1. Plan of another Design of a Palace for Whitehall, offered to his Ma- 
jesty King William, in the Year 1 697. 

2. Orthography fronting the River Thames. 

3. Front to the Park. 

4. Front to Westminster. 

III. Divers Designs of new Buildings, Alterations, and Improvements, 
in the Castle of Windsor, in 1698, and since; with several Dispositions 
for Gardens there. 

2. Plan for rebuilding the royal Mews at Charing-cross, to contain 388 

Horses, and 42 Coaches, with all Accommodations. Designed by Order, 
for the Service of King Charles the Second. 

3. Plan of Barracks proposed in Hyde-park,for a Body of Guards of 1 000 
Horse, with Houses for Officers, Commissary, Farriers, Sadlers, Courts 
of Guard, Haybarns, Granaries, &c. by Order. 

4. Plan of Barracks in Hyde-park, for 2000 private Men, and Officers, 
and Infirmary for 1 60 Men, a Chapel, & all Accommodations. By Order, 
in 171 3; the Estimate of the whole computed at £,^?),i 1 8. 

Sir Christopher Wren was one of the Commissioners, who, at the Mo- 
tion of Sir Jonas Moore, Surveyor General of the Ordnance, had been ap- 
pointed by his Majesty to find a proper Place for erecting a royal Ob- 
servatory; and he proposed Greenwich, which was approved of: And 
August 10, 1675, the Foundation of the Building was laid; and when 
finished, under the Conduct of Sir Jonas, with the Advice and Assistance 
of Sir Christopher, was furnished with the best Instruments for making 
astronomical Observations, and the celebrated Mr. John Flamstead con- 
stituted his Majesty's first Professor there. (^) 

{a) Praef. ad Hist. Ccelest. °Johann. Flamsteadii, p. II. Edit. lyiz. J. 
Ward's Addition to the Lives ofGresham Professors, p. 337. 

P4 ^^5 




|HIS Theatre, a Work of admirable Contriv- 
ance and Magnificence, was the first publick 
Performance of the Surveyor, in Architecture; 
[which however had been executed in a greater 
land better Style, with a View to the ancient 
[Roman Grandeur discernable in the Theatre 
lof MarcellusatRome; but that he was obliged 
ito put a Stop to the Bolder Strokes of his Pen- 
fcil, & confine the Expence within the Limits 
of a private Purse. What (among other beau- 
tiful and distinguished Parts of this Structure) has been esteemed very 
observable, is the geometrical Flat-roof; which Dr. P — t has particularly 
^Natural *described, in his ' Natural History of Oxfordshire,' as follows : 
History " It was an excellent Device, whoever first contrived it, of making Flat- 

ofOxon. " Floors or Roofs of short Pieces of Timber continued to a great Breadth, 

Chap. ix. " without either Arch or Pillar to support them, but sustained only by 
" the Side-walls, and their own Texture; for by this means many times 
" the Defect of long Timber, or Mistakes of Workmen are supply 'd, and 
" rectified without any Prejudice to the Building. Of this Sort of Work 
" we have an Example in the Schools, in the Floor of the uppermost 
*L/^. /. " Room of the Tower. There is also a Diagram of such Work in the *Ar- 

de Geom. " chitecture of Sebastian Serlio. But Dr. Wallis was the first that demon- 

Cap. I . " strated the Reason of this Work, and has given divers Forms of it, be- 

" side the fore-mentioned, in his Book De Motu, whence are taken the 
See Tab. " *Diagrams, Tab. Fig. i, 2, 3, 4, 5. Upon the two first whereof depend 

xiii.Dr.Plot " the three last; and all others of the Kind whatever, whether made up 
" of Quadrats, or oblong Parallelograms, of which there are some other 
" Forms in the fore-cited Book de Motu, beside that markt Fig. 3, con- 
" sisting of great and small Quadrats; or Triangles alone, as Fig. 4, or 
" mixed with Hexagons, as Fig. 5." 

A Model of a geometrick Flat-floor, contrived by the fore-mentioned 

The Roof of the Theatre at Oxford. 
Fig. I. 

lO Feel 

Fig- 3- 

Fig. 4, 

Fig- 5- 

"III 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 
S 10 




60 Feet 

Dr. Wallis, & given to the Museum of the royal Society, is in the Design Dr. Grew's 
obvious to the Eye. The Outsides represent the Walls of the Building, on Musaeum of 
which the Flat-floor or Roof is to be laid. The Beams next adjoining to the R. S. 
the Sides, have one End lodged on those Walls; the other End sustained Pag. 362 
by another Beam, lying cross; both Ends of which, are, in like manner, 
sustained by other cross Beams; and those again by others; till they reach 
the other Walls. So that no one of them can fall, unless the Walls fail, or 
the Beams break; all mutually sustaining each other, without any Pillar 
or Prop to support them, besides the outer Walls. 

" But of all the Flat-floors having no Pillars to support them, and whose Dr. Plot 
" Main-beanis are made of divers Pieces of Timber, the most admirable ditto 
" is that of the Theatre of Oxford, from Side-wall to Side-wall, 80 Foot 
" over one Way, and 70 the other; whose Lockages being so quite dif- 
" ferent from any before-mentioned, and in many other Particulars per- 
" haps not to be parallel'd in the World, I have taken care to represent 
" an exact Draught of it." 
See Plate, Fig. I. &c. annexed. 

" Wherein aaa and bbb shew the Walls of the Theatre that support this 
" Frame of Timber, and the Places of the Pilasters of the Rail and Bal- 
" lister round it: c cc and ddd the Leads & Pipes let down into the Wall 
"for Conveyance of Water; e e e 2Si6. fff tht Wall-plate or Lintal, and 
" Places of its Joints 'yggg the Girders of the Semi-circle, each supported 
" by a King-piece or Crown-post cut off at ^ /^ /^ and screwed into the 
"Binding-beam ///; which is somewhat different from the rest of the 
" Binding-beams kkk, 11 1, mmm^nnn, having several Prick-posts let 
" into itztooooo, beside the King-posts that support this and the rest at 
^^ppppp,icc. The Letters qqqq shew the Purlines between the Binding- 
" beams, not set right against one another, because of Room to turn the 
" Screws whereby they are fastened, and r rr r two Dragon (perhaps 
" rather Trigon) Beams or Braces lying under the Joists ss ss ss, &;c. The 
" true Lengths and Distances whereof, and of all other Pieces of Timber 
" and Places whatever, are all shewn by the Scale, Fig. 2. And so are the 
" Lengths & Distances of the several Pieces of Timber set over this Flat- 
" floor, such as the principal Rafters tttt, the Crown-posts or King- 
" pieces uuuuu, the Prick-posts www. Braces or Puncheons xxx;hY 
" all which together, the Binding-beams, Girders, Joists, &c. are all held 
" up as it were by an Arch above, as in Fig. 3, which is all the Band of 
" Timber that stands next the Semi-circle, having Prick-posts, and dif- 
" ferent Lockages, from the rest of the four Bands, as is sufficiently repre- 
" sented by one Half of one of them, Fig. 4. Which is all I think need be 
" said concerning this fine Piece of Timber-work, only that there are 
" Cross-braces between the middle Crown-posts as they stand in a Line 
"from the Front to the Semicircle, as is represented. Fig. 5, marked 


Hist, of 

" with the Letters yyyyyy^ both here, and as they stand, Fig. i. And 
" that it was contrived by our English Vitruvius, the Right Worship- 
" ful and Learned Sir Christopher Wren, and erected at the sole Charge 
"of his Grace Gilbert Sheldon, Archbishop of Canterbury, and Chan- 
" cellor of the University; who, besides the Expence of the Structure, 
" gave jC2ooo to purchase Lands for the perpetualRepair of it, which is 
" like to stand a most magnificent and lasting Monument of his Grace's 
" Munificence, and Favour of good Learning to all Posterity («)." 
" The Painting of the Cieling of the Theatre is worth Examination; for 
" in Imitation of the Theatres of the ancient Greeks and Romans, which 
" were too large to be covered with Lead or Tile, this, by the Painting of 
" the Flat-roof within, is represented open : And, as they stretched a 
" Cordage from Pilaster to Pilaster, upon which they strained a Covering 
" of Cloth, to protect the People from the Injuries of the Weather, so 
" here is a Cord-molding gilded, that reaches cross and cross the House 
" both in Length and Breadth, which supporteth a great Drapery, sup- 
" posed to have covered the Roof, but now furled up by the Genii round 
" about the House toward the Walls, which discovereth the open Air, 
" and maketh way for the Descent of the Arts and Sciences, that are con- 
" gregated in a Circle of Clouds, &c. 

" The great bivalve Wooden-windows in the upper Gallery of theThe- 
" atre are so ingeniously contrived, that notwithstanding their great 
" Weight, yet can never sink so as to be brought out of a Square, as 'tis 
" usual in such Windows; for the Iron-bars crossing them from Side to 
" Side, not being set at Right-angles, but diagonally like Struts or Braces, 
" as in Fig. 6, must necessarily bend or break, before the Window can 
" sink. Nor are the Round-windows below, unworthy Consideration, 

(a) Dr. Gilbert Sheldon, educated in the University of Oxford,became Warden 
of All-Souls, and having been Chaplain to King Charles the First, and run 
through many Difficulties, was, after the Restoration, made first. Bishop ofLon- 
don,and lastly Archbishop of Canterbury ; which See he held with great Honour 
and Reputation for above 1 4 Tears, when he died at Seventy-nine Tears of Age, 
Anno 1 677. Besides his Learning and Piety, he is particulary distinguished by 
his munificent Benefactions, in which no Man more readily signalized himself ; 
and especially he immortaliz' d his Name, in that glorious Work the Theatre of 
Oxford, which cost him more than Sixteen Thousand Pounds; besides.the Gift oj 
Two Thousand Pounds, to buy Lands worth jT 1 00 per Ann. to keep it in Re- 
pair. We are assured from his Relations, That from the Time of his being Bishop 
of London, to that of his Death, it appeared in his Book of Accounts, that upon 
pubhck, pious, and charitable Uses, he had bestowed about Threescore and Six 
Thousand Pounds. 


" being contrived to admit Air in foul Weather, yet not one Drop of 
" Rain; for being opened and set obliquely, as in Fig. 7, it receives the 
" Rain within at a^ & casts it out again at b; much less will it admit Rain 
" any-ways when shut, it closing within its Frame at theTop, & without 
" it at the Bottom." 

On the 9th of July, 1669, the new Theatre was opened with great So- 
lemnity, and followed with a most splendid Act, such as had not been 
equalled in the Memory of Man. The munificent Founder honoured the 
Architect, on this first Essay of his Skill, with the Present of a golden 
Cup; & by his Statutes, appointed him jointly with the Vice-chancellor 
perpetual Curator of the Fabrick. 

" We William Townsend of Oxford, Mason, & Jeremiah Franklin, and 
" Thomas Speakman of the same. Carpenters, do hereby certify, that by 
" the Command of the Reverend Robert Shippen, Doctor in Divinity, 
" Vice-chancellor of the University of Oxford, we did, on the Day of the 
" Date hereof, survey, and strictly examine the whole Fabrick of the 
" Theatre in the said University, and do find, that all the same is in per- 
" feet Repair, and goodOrder; all the Walls thereof no where appearing 
"to be in the least defective; and the Roof which has been formerly 
" swayed or sunk in the Middle about eleven Inches, occasioned by the 
" shrinking of some of the Timber and great Weight of Books formerly 
" laid upon it, appearing to us to be in as good a Condition as it was above 
" twenty Years since, when the like Examination was made: And we do 
" further certify. That the whole Fabrick of the said Theatre is, in our 
" Opinion, like to remain and continue in such good Repair and Condi- 
" tion,for one hundred or two hundred Years yet to come. In Testimony 
"whereof we have hereunto put our Hands the eighth Day of March, 
"AnnoDom. 1720. 


iV:5.This Certificate, from Builders of the best Repute in Oxford, was 
occasioned by a groundless Rumour, at that time, that the Fabrick was 
in want of Repairs. 

After the Description of this geometrical Flat-roof, it may be expedient 
to examine the Diagrams of such Work, by the old Architect Sebastian- 


Serlio: and much later, by Dr. Wallis; in order to discern in one View, 
how much this of the Oxford Theatre has excell'd the other two; though 
it is not known that either of those Schemes was ever put in Practice, ex- 
cept that of Dr. Wallis in a small Model. 

Sebastiani Serlii Architectura, Lib. i. de Geometria. 

Complura praeter opinionem Architecto saepius accidere solent: verbi 
gratis., ut hujusce rei exemplum aliquod ofFeramus: contignatio ei forte 
fortuna pedum XV. spatio ac intervallo producenda extruendaque com- 
mittetur: veriim, compluribus tignis ipsi propositis, nullum eorum ad 
tantam utique longitidinem pertinget, quinimo singula bipedali quanti- 
tate, a praedicta deficient longitudine; quibus tamen, nulla alia prorsus 
suppetente materia, pro contignatione conficienda necessari6 erit uten- 
dum: Quid obsecro miser ille Architectus sibi consilii capiet? Rationem 
hlc descriptam persequetur, et opus suum quam solidissimun reddet, 
altero nimirum tignorum capite parieti infixo, reliquoque absque uUa 
fultura suspenso remanente, quemadmodum ex subjectiperspici potest 

Sebastiani Serlii Diagramma Contignationis planae 

Dr. Grew's A model of a geometrical Flat-floor, contrived by Dr. J. Wallis, was given 
Description tothe Royal Society by Bishop Wilkins; the following Account of which, 
of the Mu- by the Author, is an Abstract of that he hath published in his Book De 
saeum of the Motu, Cap. vi. Prop. lo. Fig. 243. 

Royal Socie- I did first, saith the Doctor, contrive and delineate it, in the Year 1 644, 
/y, Pag. 361 at Queen's-coUege in Cambridge. When afterwards I was made Profes- 
sor of Geometry at Oxford, about the Year 1650,! caused it to be framed 
of small Pieces of Timber, prepared by a Joiner, and put together by 

This I shewed soon after to divers in Oxford, & particularly to Dr. Wil- 
kins, then Warden of Wadham College. After the King's Restauration, 
I caused another to be made; and in the Year 1660, presented it to his 
Majesty, who was well pleased with it, and caused it to be reposited in 
his closet. 

On the Model first-mentioned, I read two publick Lectures at Oxford; 
the one in the Year 1 652, as to the Construction of it; the other, in the 
Year 1 653, as to the Computation of what Weight every Joint of it sus- 
tains ; whereby it might be the better judged how far it may be safely 
practised. The greatest Weight charged on any one Joint, doth not a- 
mount to ten times the Weight of one Beam; and the greatest Weight 

borne by one Beam, not to seventeen times its own Weight: And even 
this, not laid all on the same Part, but distributed to several Parts of it. 
A third Lecture, much to the same purpose, I read May 1669, in the 
same Place, before the Grand Duke of Tuscany. 

The Contrivance is obvious to the Eye. The Outsides represent the Walls 
of the Building, on which this Flat-floor or Roof is to be laid. The Beams 
next adjoining to the Sides, have one End lodged on those Walls; the 
other End sustained by another Beam, lying cross; both Ends of which, 
are in like manner sustained by other Cross-beams; and, those again by 
others; till they reach the other Walls. So that no one of them can fall, 
unless the Walls fail, or the Beams break: All mutually sustaining each 
other, without any Pillar or Prop to support them, besides the outer 

The Models I caused to be made, and that of the Royal Society in Imi- 
tation thereof, are in Breadth about four times as much as the Length of 
the longest Beam; but may be continued, at Pleasure, to farther Breadth, 
as shall be thought fit; with this Caution, that the farther the Work is 
continued, the greater Weight will be charged on every Joint; especially 
near the Middle. And tho' in this Model, no one Beam is charged with 
so much as seventeen times its own Weight; yet if the Work be con- 
tinued to a greater Breadth, the proportional Weight will be thereby in- 
creased. And therefore must be limited, according to the Strength of the 
Timber, able to bear more or fewer times its own Weight. 
I do not know, that yet it hath been reduced to Practice, in more than See the 
four Pieces in this Form. Such is one of the Floors in the Tower of the Figures 
pubUck Schools at Oxford: The Breadth whereof, to the Length of the 
Beams, is as three to two. But may doubtless be continued much fur- 
ther; especially in such a Roof, as is not to bear much more than its own 

Thus, for Instance, a Bowling-green of near an Acre of Ground, may be 
covered with a Frame of long slender Pieces, without any other Prop 
than on the Sides, for Vines, or other like Plants to run upon, so as to 
shade the whole. 

Note here. That whereas the Ends of the several Pieces are to lie upon 
those that cross them, about the Middle thereof, it will be necessary at 
every Joint to abate both Pieces half-way, ornear it; that one may be thus 
let into the other,& the whole reduced to a Flat. But whether such Piece, 
so abated, doth end even with that on which it lies, or doth lie over some- 
what beyond it, is indifferent. And though that may seem more elegant, 
this, perhaps, may be fitter for Use. 

Each Piece, I say, must be so abated half-way, or near it; For, whereas 
those Beams, especially of a considerable Length, will, with the Weight, 
bow a little; if this Abatement be somewhat less then half-way, (where- 


Guil. Wal- 

by without such bowing, the whole would somewhat rise in the Middle) 
it will by such bowing be reduced to a Flat. 

Note also, That a Frame thus contrived, needs neither Nail nor Pin; the 
several Pieces fastening, as well supporting one another. Yet, if it be to 
bear a great Weight more than its own, it will be convenient to fasten 
each Joint with Pins; and, if Need be, to strengthen it with Iron-plates, 
or line it with other Pieces of Timber, to be fastened with Iron-bolts, to 
make amends for what is weakened by the Abatements at the Joints; 
which will make the whole Frame exceeding strong. 

" Theatrum Oxoniense,in toto hoc nostro Britannico, an non e terrarum 
" orbe? nee habet uUum sibi par, nee ullum secundum; Theatrum quod 
" exoptet Apollo templum, Musae Parnassum, Plato academiam, Aris- 
" toteles Lyceum, Cicero Tusculanum, Gratiae omnes, Veneresque 
" domum. 

Carmen Pindaricum in Theatrum Sheldonianum, et ejus Architectum. 


Authore QUousque linguas oculis, litamus 

Corb. Owen, Victimas tacentes ? 

ex Mde Quousque defixi stupemus 

Christi. Saxei saxa, plumbeique plumbum, 

Musae Ang. Tanquam Nos vacuis parata conchis 

Vol. 1. Simulacra coelo dedolasset artifex ? 

Vocales ecce lapides et trabes sonorae 
Ingratam humanis taciturnitatem 

Cognatis exprobrant, Dryas quos Obstetrix 

Eduxit rupto frustra de robore, frustra 

Deucalioneo moUibant numinajactu. 

Eja quae doctis musica pulsibus 
Tot malleorum suave concinentium 

Agrestes cicurat sonos ! 
Cedant Orphei tandem miracula plectri, 

Atque Amphionae fides; 
lUe feras olim sylvasque sequaces 

Excivit et montes vagos: 
Hie Arehitecto maenia carmine 

Stupendia Thebis addidit: 
At ecce jam blando fragore 
Ipsos murorum symphonia 
Vates attonitos trahit: 


At ecce ruderibus prosae jacentem 

Me me poetam extruit: 

Cui tantos liceat sonos 
Confusae saltern pro more imitarier Echus. 


At nullum eloquium nulla sonantium 

Decora verborum strues, 
Vastarum trabium non enerrabile textum 

iEquabit, solidamve exprimet harmoniam. 

En ut sublimi pensilis acre 

Tenditur campus juga ponderosi 

Sustinens plumbi, gravidumque faeto 
Culmine montem: 

O quam justa fides nectit amantes 

Arbores, quondam solitas procari 

Blando murmure, nutibusque blandis: 
Connubiojunctas stabili vis nulla revellet, 

Divortium sera non facient saecula. 

En audax quanto machina nisu 

Muros deserit hinc et hinc relictos, 

Metumque subjectis jocosum 

Salvis incutit usque et usque tutis ! 

Non ilia planisspherii minacis 
Secura lapsum magis expavescit, 
Firma quam coeli camera arcuati 

iEterni fornicis ruinam, 
Tam stabilemjubet esse vastitatem 

Ingenium potentis architecti. 
Quo nil soliduisve latiusve, 

Quod molem aetheream vi sustinet Atlantei, 
Carcere quod veterum teneri 
Orbiculorum nesciens 
August! extendit latepomeria coeli. 


Divina WRENNVS heu ! diu Mathemata 
Vel docto nimium pulvere sordida 

Evexit assurgens in altum, 
Interque Stellas luce donavit nova 

Stellis vel ipsis invidenda. 
lUic sydereo spectator in Amphitheatro 

Vidit ferarum splendida praelia, 



Iratisque coruscantes 
Faucibus atque oculis rogos. 
Illic serenarum pictis noctium scenis 

Vidit planetas praescios coeli mimos 

Humana ludentes fata. 
Nunc ore risus comico futures 
Festivosque sales, atque hilaresjocos, 

^thereis celebrare choris. 
Nunc face lugubri radiisque puUis, 

Et scelera, & caedes nepotum 

Fingere materiem cothurnis. 
Tandem rependit gratus hospes aetheris 

Spectaculorum syderibus vices, 
Mirantur astra posse mortales manus 

Ditare terras aemula coeli domo. 
Quin et rivalem lustrat amabilem, 
Suamque coelum deperiens imaginem, 
Ut penitus speculo fruatur 
Jam plures oculos, & lumina plura requirit, 


Quamvis hianti subtrahat popello 

Modesta frontem fabrica, sicut decet 

Sacro parente procreatem virginem 

Non turba genitam promiscui; 

Profanis subducat licet 

Oculis plebis male feriatae 

Intemerandum vultus eximii decus; 

Quale nee Etrusca miratus victor in urbe 

Negavit olim Carolus 
Cuivis mortali fore fas profesti 
Luce videre; 
Non ilia coeli tamen intuentis 
Criticum lumen fugit; ultro solem 
Lynceum vocat, astraque curiosa 
Centum receptat fenestris, 
Ingentis populi videt capaces 
Pegmatum moles attonitus sol, 
Mundi Supervisor supremus, 
Interque varios undique miratur foros 
Tam bellam ordinis benignitatem, 
Dum nulla lucem pars queratur amissam. 

Tristemque puUa lugeat eclipsin. 
Hie sole melius quilibet vel ipso 
Et cunctos vidisse potest, cunctisque videri. 


Celandum nihil est, nihil tegendum; 

NuUus hie error latebras requirit; 
Perfecta surgit undiquaque moles, 
Et merito duplieis gerit ornamenta eoronae: 
Quanta debitur quotuplexque WRENNO 
Laurea vietori, servatori eiviea, 
Capitique deeentior Arehiteeto 
Turrita Cybeles eorona ? 
Devietam nimium diu 
Oppressamque suis miserabilem ruinis 
Teetonieen benignus 
Artium civem reddidit urbi 
Olim quae rudibus dedit vagisque 

Artibus urbem. 
Longa nequicquam rabies Gothorum, 

Quae eito Romanum perdidit imperium, 
Bello terebat usque pervieaei 
Artem vastoribus inimieam. 
Auxiliatrices frustra aceessere eatervae, 

Orbisque eonspiravit dedecus in suum; 
(Nam subruendae pronus architeeturae 

Ubique totus orbis erat Gothus) 
Aggressus hydram WRENN VS immensam ruit, 
Quanquam tenaeis eonsuetudinis 
Loriei squammatam adamantina. 
iEmula nee partem nodosa triumphi, 
Hereuleae ritu, elava sibi vendicat. 
Hie radio totam debili et pusillo 
Barbariem sternens, simul omnia monstra subegit 
Quotquot saeeundo tulit ignorantia partu. 


En multus altis hinc et inde muris 
En triumphalis ut resurgat areus, 
Intusque et extra nobiles eolumnae, 

Artis frequenter olim abortientis 
(Ut mos patrieiis malus puellis) 
qi 225 

Proles adultae matris absoluta! 
Hae tandem ingenio columnae 
Hae tandem docto labori 
Quamvis Herculo, stataunt nil ultra, &c. 

II. Orthography of the Campanile, or Bell-tower, over the Gate, in the 
Front and principal Access to the great Quadrangle-court of Christ- 
church, Oxon, in the Gothick Stile; begun on the old Foundation (laid 
by Cardinal Wolsey) in June 1681, and finished November 1682. 

III. Plan, Elevation, and Section, of the great Library of Trinity College 
in Cambridge. 

Proposals for the Repairs of the Publick-library and Schools at Oxford, 
with the Drawings annexed; imparted to Dr. Gregory, Now in the Bod- 
ley an Library. 

IV. Plan, Orthography, and Section of a circular Library, with a Dome 
and Lantern, and a Colonade Hexastyle in Front, of the lonick Order, 
according to an Intention for Trinity College, not executed. This is a 
very beautiful and most commodious Model for a large Library. 

V. Designs of the Chapel of Emmanuel College in Cambridge. 

VI. Plans, Elevation, & Section of a Theatre, or Commencement-house, 
with a Library annexed, according to an Intention, for the University of 
Cambridge, about the Year 1678, but not executed. 

Designs for the parochial Church at Warwick, after the Fire of the Town 
in 1694, not executed. 

Orthography of the Tower of the parochial Church of St. Mary at War- 
wick, erected after an unsuccessful Attempt in Execution of a defective 
prior Design by other Hands, 

Orthography of the North Front, (commonly called Solomon's Porch) 
finished some time before the Surveyor's Decease, in 1723, with the De- 
signs intended for the middle Tower and Spire, & two western Towers, 
for the collegiate Church of St. Peter in Westminster; contrived in the 
Gothick Stile, conformable to the old Structure of the Abbey-church 
and Porch. 



■^ URING the Time of the Surveyor's Employ- 
ment in the Service of the Publick, and of the 
Crown, by virtue of Letters-patents, consistent 
with the Pleasure of six Crowned-heads, under 
the Great-seals of King Charles the second, 
King James the second. King William and 
Queen Mary, Queen Anne, and King George 
the first, (besides the ordinary Duties of his 
Office, in the Survey and Care of the Repairs 
' and New-buildings of all the royal Palaces) he 
began and compleated the cathedral Church of St. Paul, the second 
greatest Structure in Europe; fifty-one parochial Churches; the great 
Column called the Monument, and other publick Edifices of London; 
the two royal Palaces of Hampton-court & Winchester; the royal Hos- 
pitals of Chelsea and Greenwich; the North Front, and other Repairs of 
Westminster-abbey, from the Year 1698 to the Time of his Decease in 
1723; the Theatre of Oxford; the Theatre-royal in Drury-lane; the 
Duke's Theatre in Salisbury-court, sometime since taken down ; the 
magnificentLibrary of TrinityCoUege inCambridge;the elegantChapel 
of Emmanuel College there; with many other Fabricks of less Note, and 
private Seats. 

" That I take the Boldness (says the learned and ingenious John Evelyn, "^ London, 
" Esq.) to adorn this little Work [Account of Architects and Architec- 1706. Dedi- 
" ture*] with the Name of the Master of the Works, (whose Patronage cation to Sir 
" alone can give it Reputation) I have no Excuse for, but an Ambition Christopher 
' " of publicly declaring the great Esteem I have ever had of his Virtues Wren 
" and Accomplishments; not onlyin the Art of Building, but through all 
" the learned Cycle of the most useful Knowledge, & abstruser Sciences, 
" as well as of the polite and shining. All which is so justly allowed him, 
" that he needs no Panegyrick, or other History to eternize them; than 
" the greatest City of the Universe, which he hath rebuilt & beautified, 
" and is still improving; witness the Churches, the royal Courts, stately 
" Halls, Magazines, Palaces, and other publick Structures; besides what 
" he has built of great and magnificent in both the Universities, at Chel- 
"sea, and in the Country; and is now advancing of the royal Marine 
" Hospital at Greenwich, &c. All of them so many Trophies of his Skill 
"and Industry, and conducted with that Success, that if the whole Art 
" of Building were lost, it might be recovered, and found again in St. 
" Paul's, the historical Pillar, and those other Monuments of his happy 
" Talent and extraordinary Genius." 

All these Works form such a Body of civil Architecture, as will appear 
qz 227 

rather the Production of a whole Century, than the Life and Industry of 
one Man, of which no parallel Instance can be given. 
Anno mm In an Act of Parliament in the ninth Year of the Reign of King William, 
Gulielmi For the Compleating and adorning the cathedral Church of St. Paul, 

Reg. London, a Clause was inserted. To suspend a Moiety of the Surveyor's 

Salary, until the said Church should be finished; thereby the better to 
encourage him to finish the same with the utmost Diligence and Ex- 

It was at that Time a common Notion and Misreport, that the Surveyor 
received a large annual Salary for that Building, and, consequently, it 
was his Interest to prolong the finishing of the Fabrick, for the Contin- 
uance of this supposed Emolument; which, it would seem, occasioned 
that Clause. 

The Surveyor's Salary for building St. Paul's, from the Foundation to the 
Finishing thereof, (as appears from the publick Accounts) was not more 
than jC^oo per Annum. This, in Truth, was his own Choice, but what 
the rest of the Commissioners, on the Commencement of the Works, 
judged unreasonably small, considering the extensive Charge; the Pains 
and Skill in the Contrivance ; in preparing Draughts, Models, and In- 
structions for the Artificers, in their several Stations and Allotments; in 
almost daily overseeing & directing in Person; in making Estimates and 
Contracts; in examining and adjusting all Bills and Accounts, &c. Nev- 
ertheless, he was content with this small Allowance, nor coveted any 
additional Profit, always preferring the publick Service to any private 
Anno nono Upon the compleating this great Fabrick, a Clause passed in the Act of 
AnnaeReg. Parliament of the ninth Year of the Reign of Queen Anne declaring the 
Church finished, to impower the Commissioners to Pay the Surveyor 
the Arrears of this Moiety of his Salary. 

His Allowance for building all the parochial Churches of the City of 
London was about j^i coper Annum, and the same for the Repairs of 

In the Year 1 685, Sir Christopher Wren was elected & returned a Bur- 
gess for the Borough of Plympton in the County of Devon, and served in 
that Parliament which began at Westminster, 29 Maii, imo. Jacobi II. 

In the Parliament which met at Westminster, 22 January 1689, he was 
elected and returned a Burgess for the Borough of New-windsor, in the 
6 Aug. County of Berks, by the Inhabitants paying Scot and Lot; but, upon a 

Petition, the Resolution of the House was. That the Right of Election 
was in the Mayor, Bailiffs, and select Number of Burgesses only. 
In the Year 1 690, 2 do. Gulielmi & Marias, R.R. he was elected and re- 
turned for the same Borough, by the Mayor, Bailiffs, & select Number 

of Burgesses only. On Report of the Merits of this Election, the Ques- ly Mail 
tion being put, " That the House do agree with the Committee, that the 
Right of Election is in the Mayor, Bailiffs, & select Number of Burgesses 
only. It passed in the Negative, viz. Yeas 1 38, Noes 144." 
In the Year 1 700, he was elected and returned a Burgess for the Borough 
of Weymouth and Melcomb-regis, in the County of Dorset, & served in 
that Parliament which began at Westminster, 10 Feb. 1 2mo. Gulielmi 
R. Illti. 

In the Year 1 7 1 8, Sir Christopher Wren's Patent for the Office of Sur- Quarto 
veyorof the royal Works was superseded, in the fourscore and sixth Year GeorgiiR. 
of his Age, and after more than fifty Years spent in continued active and primi 
laborious Service to the Crown and Publick; at which Time his Merit 
and Labours were not remembered by some. 

He then betook himself to a Country Retirement,* saying only with the *^t Hamp- 
Stoick, — Nunc me jubet fortune expeditiis philosophari. — In which Recess, ton-court 
free from worldly Affairs, he passed the greatest Part of the five last fol- 
lowing Years of his Life in Contemplation and Studies, and principally 
in the Consolation of the holy Scriptures; chearful in Solitude, & as well 
pleased to die in the Shade as in the Light. 

" Heroick Souls a nobler Lustre find Ex MS. D. 

" Even from those Griefs which break a vulgar Mind; Sprat 

" That Frost which cracks the brittle common Glass, 
" Makes Crystal into stronger Brightness pass. 

It was the Observation of a French Virtuoso, in his Panegyrick upon Monsieur 
another great Genius of the first Rank in Philosophy, the incomparable Fontenelle 
Sir Isaac Newton, that he had the extraordinary Fortune- to see his own 
apotheosis: — alluding to the Poet : 

Scil. — Vivo sublime dedisti 

Nomen, ab obsequiis quod dare, fama, soles. 0*^^"^ 

An Honour, the most worthy very rarely acquire ; the Reason is this, — 
says the Poet : 

Urit enim fulgore suo qui praegravat artes 
Infra se posites; extinctus ambitur idem. 

Hor. Ep. L. 2. Ep. 1 . 

If therefore, it might be, the Surveyor had not the equal Chinee to be so 
generally distinguished in his Life-time, by the same Compliment with 
his Friend, yet was he alike secured of the posthumous Praise 

Aerias tentasse domos, animoque rotundum 

Percurrisse polum. ^'"'• 

q 3 2^9 

And has a just Claim to the peculiar Dignity reserved for those — 

Inventas et qui vitam excoluere per artes: 
Quique sui memores alios fecere merendo: 
yirg. Omnibus his nivea cinguntur tempora Vitta. 

To these illustrious Astronomers may, most aptly and emphatically, be 
applied the general Encomium of the Roman Poet — 

Felices animae, quibus haec cognoscere primis, 

Inque domos superas scandere cura fuit! 
Credibile est illas pariter vitiisque locisque 

Altius humanis exseruisse caput. 
Non Venus et vinum sublimia pectora fregit 

OfEciumve fori ; milit aeve labor. 
Non levis ambitio, perfusaque gloria fuco; 

Magnarumve fames sollicitavit opum. 
Admovere oculis distantia sidera nostris; 

^theraque ingenio supposuere suo. 
Sic petitur coelum: ut ferat Ossan Olympus; 

Summaque Peliacus sydera tangat apex. 
Nos quoque sub ducibus coelum metabimur illis 

Ponemusque suos ad stata signa dies. 

— Ovid. Fast. 

" Thrice happy they, who first with Souls refin'd, 

" To these Pursuits their generous Care confin'd; 

" Who, nobly spurning Earth's impure Abodes, 

" Assay'd to climb the Mansions of the Gods. 

" Such Breasts sublime, Intemp'rance never broke; 

" Such ne'er submitted to Love's shameful Yoke. 

" Such fled the wrangling of the noisy Bar, 

" The hideous Din of Arms, and painful Toils of War ; 

" Foes to Ambition, and her idle Lure, 

" From Thirst of Fame, from Thirst of Gold, secure, 

" Such Souls, examining the distant Skies, 

" Unveiled its hidden Lights to mortal Eyes. 

" Let huge Olympus lofty Ossa bear; 

" Let Pelion tow'r on Ossa high in Air; 

" Mountains on Mountains short of Heaven must rise; 

" This only Ladder reaches to the Skies. 

" Led by these Guides, to measure Heav'n we try, 

" And to each Sign its stated Days apply." 

Dr. Isaac Barrow, in his Oration at Gresham College, in the Year 1662, 

gives him this most extraordinary Character : " Certissime constat, ut 
praecosiores neminem unquam praetulisse spes,itanec maturiores quen- 
quam fructus protulisse; prodigium olim pueri, nunc miraculum viri, 
imo daemonium hominis; atque ne mentiri videar, sufFecerit nominasse' 
ingeniosissimum et optimum Christophorum Wrennum "{a) . 

Part of his Thoughts for Discovery of the Longitude at Sea; a Review of 
some former Tracts in Astronomy and Mathematics, had a Share in the 
Employment of those Hours he could spare from Meditations and Re- 
searches in holy Writ, during his last Retreat; when it appeared, that 
though Time had enfeebled his Limbs, (which was his chief Ailment) 
yet had it little Influence on the Vigour of his Mind, which continued, 
with a Vivacity rarely found at that Age, till within a few Days of his 
Dissolution; & not till then could cease the continued Aim of his whole 
Life, to be (in his ovvn Words) beneficus humano generi ; for his great Hu- 
manity appeared to the last, in Benevolence and Complacency, free from 
all Moroseness in Behaviour or Aspect. 

After a shortIndisposition,it was the Will of the omnipotent Author and 
Dispenser of all Beings to release him from this mortal State, and to in- 
vest him with Immortality, on the 25 th Day of February, in the Year of 
Grace 1723, and in the ninety-first of his Age. 

Sic bene complevit Nestor sua fata, novemque 
Addiderat lustris, altera lustra novem. 

Ovid. Trist. L. 4. 

Jucundum est, esse secum quam diutissime, cum quis se dignum quo 
frueretur, effecit. Sen. Ep. 59. 

As to his bodily Constitution, it was naturally rather delicate than strong, 
especially in his Youth, which seem'd consumptive ; and yet, by a judi- 
cious Regularity and Temperance, (having acquir'd good Knowledge in 
Physick) he continued healthy, with little Intermission, even to this ex- 
treme old Age. Further 'tis observable, that he was happily endued with 
such an Evenness of Temper, a steady Tranquillity of Mind, and chris- 
tian Fortitude, that no injurious Incidents, or Inquietudes of human Life, 
could ever ruffle or discompose; and was in Practice a Stoick. Such was 
Seneca's good Man, " Certus judicii, inconcussus, intrepidus, quem ali- 
qua vis movet, nulla perturbat; quem fortuna, cum in eum, quod habuit 
telum nocentissimum, vi maxima intorsit, pungit, non vulnerat, & hoc 
rar6. [Ep. 45.] Talis est sapientis animus, qualis mundi status super 
lunam; semper illic serenum est. [Ep. 60.] In a Word, (as was said on 

(a) J. Ward^s ' Lives of Professors ofGresham College,' Appendix, Number X. - 
q4 ■ 231 

Dr. Sprat, another Occasion by an elegant Writer) " His Knowledge had a right 

Hist. R. S. "Influence on the Temper of his Mind, which had all the Humility, 

onMr.R. "graceful Modesty, Goodness, calmness. Strength, and Sincerity of a 

Rooke " sound and unaffected Philosopher. Lastly, to whose Merits his Coun- 

" try is further indebted, than has been yet acknowledg'd."He is interr'd 

in the Vaults of the cathedral Church of St. Paul, under the South-aile 

of the Quire. Over the Grave is this inscription on a small Table of 

Marble : 

Subtus conditur 

Hujus Ecclesiae, & Urbis Conditor 

Chr ist oph or us Wren, 

Qui vixit annos ultra nonaginta 

Non sibi, sed Bono-publico. 

Lector, si Monumentum requiris, 


Obiit 25 Feb. Anno 1723. MtzX 91. 

[Marmora parva quidem, sed non cessura, viator, 
Mausoli saxis Pyramidunque, legis.] 


[Umbrae dii tenuem dent, & sine pondere terram, 
Spirantesque crocos, & in urna perpetuum ver. j 

Juven. Sat. VII. 

P. S. 

An After-Thought for the Inscription. 

H. S. E 

Christophorus Wren, 

Hujus Ecclesiae & Urbis Conditor 

Qui vixit annos ultra Nestoreos, 

Non sibi, sed Patriae. 

Viator, si Tumulum requiris 


Si Monumentum, 


Obiit 25 Feb. Anno 1723. yEtat. 91. 

Blazonry of the Coat of Arms, viz. Argent, a Chevron between three 
Lions Heads erased Azure, on a Chief Gules three Cross-croslets Or. 
Crest on the Helmet, A Lion's Head erased Azure, transfix'd by a Spear 
bloody on the Point. 

N.B. The Colours on the Modern Arms differ from the Antient. 

Suspice & Mirare. 

Christophorus Wren EquesAuratus 

Totius hujus Fabricae 

Magnus Architectus. 

Moli huic Immensae, 

Sacrae, Eximiae, 

Quam Animo Conceperat, 

Quam Inchoaverat, 

Quam Perfecerat, 

Unius Hominis Opus, 

Haud Mortal! datum. 


Factus Immortalis 

De Coelo Invigilat 

Mente Permeat, Corpore Sustentat 

Quantilli Corpori 

Quantus Animus, 

Qualis Mens. 

Depositum servet Ecclesia 



Fundator, Curator. 

Quam Grande Opus ! 
Quam Perenne Monumentum ! 

By a St. PauPs Scholar, March 7, 1 723. 

Sir Christopher Wren being at his Father's House, anno 1 651, at Knoyle Aubrey's 
Wilts, dreamt that he saw a Fight in a great Market-place, which he Miscel.Cap. 
knew not, where some were flying, & others pursuing; and among those "y. Pag. 52 
that fled, he saw a Kinsman of his, who went into Scotland to the King's ex Ore C. W. 
Army. They heard in the Country that the King was come into England, 
but whereabout He was they could not tell. The next Night his Kins- 
man came to his Father's at Knoyle, and was the first that brought the Fought 
News of the Fight at Worcester. Sep. 3. 

When Sir Christopher Wren was at Paris, about 1665, he was taken ill 
and feverish, made but little Water, and had a Pain in his Reins: He sent 
for a Physician, who advis'd him to let Blood, thinking he had a Pleurisy; 
but Bleeding much disagreeing with his Constitution, he would defer it 
a Day longer: That Night he dreamt that he was in a Place where Palm- 
trees grew, (suppose Egypt) and that a Woman in a romantick Habit 
reach'd him Dates. The next Day he sent for Dates, which cur'd him of 
the Pain in his Reins. 


Cap. V. 

anno 1709, 
No. 52 

By way of Parallel to this, " The Plague raging in the Army of the Em- 
"peror Charlemain, he dreamt, that the Decoction of the Root of the 
" Dwarf-thistle [a Mountain Plant, since call'd the Caroline-thistle] 
" would cure that Disease." See Gerard's Herbal, who tells us this. N.B. 
" He says the Army was thus deliver'd from the Plague, but mentions 
" not the Dream, p. 1 1 58. 

Narrat. Plinius (25 Lib. Gap. 2. Nat. Hist.) Historiam hujusmodi. 

" Nuper cujusdam militantis in praetorio mater vidit in quiete, ut radi- 
" cem sylvestris rosae (quam Cynorrhodon vocant) blanditam sibi as- 
" pectu pridie in fruteto, mitteret filio bibendam: In Lusitanii res gere- 
" batur, Hispaniae proxima parte: Casu accidit, ut milite a morsu canis 
" incipiente aquas expavescere, superveniret epistola orantis ut pareret 
"religioni: Servatusque est ex insperato; et postea quisquis auxilium 
" simile tentavit. . . . 

" Cum Ptolomaeus familiaris Alexandri M. in praelio, telo venenato 
" ictus asset, e6que vulnere summo cum dolore moreretur, Alexander 
" assidens somno est consopitus; tum secundum quietem visus ei dicitur 
" draco is, quem mater Olympias alebat, radiculam ore ferre, et simul 
" dicere quo ilia nasceretur, ejus autem esse vim tantam, ut Ptolomaeum 
" facile sanaret. Cum Alexander experrectus narrasset amicis somnium 
" emisit qui illam radiculam quaererent. Qua invent^, et Ptolomaeus sa- 
" natus dicitur, et multi milites, qui erant eodem genere teli vulnerati." 
\Cicero de Divinatione, Lib. 11.] — ['ONAP 'EK. A102 EITI. Homer. Iliad. A. 

Nestor of Athens was not only in his Profession the greatest Man of that 
Age, but had given more Proofs of it, than any other Man ever did; yet 
for want of that natural Freedom, and Audacity, which is necessary in 
Commerce with Men, his personal Modesty overthrew all his publick 
Actions. Nestor was in those Days a skilful Architect, and in a manner 
the Inventor of the Use of mechanick Powers, which he brought to so 
great Perfection, that he knew to an Atom what Foundation could bear 
such a Superstructure: And they record of him, that he was so prodigi- 
ously exact, that for the Experiment-sake, he built an Edifice of great 
Beauty, and seeming Strength, but so contrived as to bear only its own 
Weight, and not to admit the Addition of the least Particle. This Build- 
ing was beheld with much Admiration by all the Virtuosi o£ thzX Time, 
but fell down with no other Pressure but the settling of a Wren upon the 
Top of it: Yet Nestor's Modesty was such, that his Art and Skill were 
soon disregarded for want of that Manner with which Men of the World 
support and assert the Merits of their own Performances. Soon after this 
Instance of his Art, Athens was, by the Treachery of its Enemies, burnt 
to the Ground. This gave Nestor the greatest Occasion that ever Builder 

had to render his Name immortal, and his Person venerable: For, all the 
new City rose according to his Disposition, and all the Monuments of 
the Glories & Distresses of that People were erected by that sole Artist ; 
nay, all their Temples, as well as Houses, were the Effects of his Study, 
and Labour; insomuch that it was sai'd by an old Sage, sure Nestor will 
now be famous, for the Habitations of the Gods, as well as Men, are built 
by his Contrivance. But this bashful Quality still put a Damp upon his 
great Knowledge, which has as fatal an Effect upon Men's Reputations, 
as Poverty; for, as it was said, *The poor Man by his Wisdom delivered 
the City ; yet no Man remembered that same poor Man : So here we find, 
The modest Man built the City, & the modest Man's Skill was unknown. 
But surely Posterity are obliged to allow him that Praise after his Death, 
which he so industriously declined while he was living. 


In Eundem. 

[Stylo Martialis.J 

Quanta quies placidi est, et quanta scientia Wrenni ! 

Sed cohibet vires, ingeniumquepudor. 
Ante fores dubitat fortunam admittere stantem; 

Seque piget curae praemia ferre suae. 
Laudes ex meritis, magnisque laboribus ortas. 

Ore verecundo noluit esse suas. 
Palladiam tenui frontem redimire corona 
Contentus, famae nee dare vela suae. 
Sed tamen hunc nostri scit temporis esse *Rabirum 
Artis mira suae qui monumenta videt. 

In eundum, Astronomum et Architectum, Basilicae Divi Pauli, et Urbis 

Londini Conditorem. 

Astra polumque suo concepit pectore Wrennus, 

Paulinam mira qui struit arte domum. 
Ista manus Triviae templi revocasset honores; 

Seu Mausolei; seu Babylonis opus. 
Grandior ex flammis *Augusta renascitur, artem 

Stantia non poterant tecta probare suam. 

De Londino post Incendium Restaurato. 

Qualiter Assyrios renovant incendia nidos, 

Una decern quoties saecula vixit avis: 
Taliter exuta est veterem -f-Nova Troja senectam, 

Et sumpsit vultus JPrincipis ipsa sui. 


tes, c. ix. 



eximius, tem- 
pore Imp. 

^Vetus Lon- 
dini nomen 

L. V. Ep. 7 
■fVetus lon- 
dini nomen. 



[From some rough Draughts, imperfect.] 


(ARCHITECTURE has its political Use; pub- 
ilick Buildings being the Ornament of aCoun- 
\try; it establishes a Nation, draws People and 
rCommerce; makes the People love their na- 
f tive Country, which Passion is the Original of 
all great Actions in a Common-wealth. The 
' Emulation of the Cities of Greece was'the true 
Cause of their Greatness. The obstinate Val- 
our of the Jews, occasioned by the Love of 
their Temple, was a Cement that held together 
that People, for many Ages, through infinite Changes. The Care of pub- 
lick Decency and Convenience was a great Cause of the Establishment 
of the Low-countries, and of many Cities in the World. Modern Rome 
subsists still, by the Ruins and Imitation of the old; as does Jerusalem, by 
the Temple of the Sepulchre, and other Remains of Helena's Zeal. 
Architecture aims at Eternity; and therefore the only Thing uncapable 
of Modes and Fashions in its Principals, the Orders. 
The Orders are not only Roman and Greek, but Phoenician, Hebrew, 
and Assyrian ; therefore being founded upon the Experience of all Ages, 
promoted by the vast Treasures of all the great Monarchs, and Skill of 
the greatest Artists and Geometricians, every one emulating each other; 
and Experiments in this kind being greatly expenceful, and Errors incor- 
rigible, is the Reason that the Principles of Architecture are now rather 
the Study of Antiquity than Fancy. 

Beauty, Firmness, and Convenience, are the Principles; the two first de- 
pend upon geometrical Reasons of Opticks and Staticks; the third only 
makes the Variety. 

There are natural Causes of Beauty. Beauty is a Harmony of Objects, be- 
getting Pleasure by the Eye. There are two Causes of Beauty, natural and 
customary. Natural is from Geometry, consisting in Uniformity (that is 
Equality) and Proportion. Customary Beauty is begotten by the Use of 
our Senses to those Objects which are usually pleasing to us for other 

Causes, as Familiarity or particular Inclination breeds a Love to Things 
not in themselves lovely. Here lies the great Occasion of Errors ; here is 
tried the Architect's Judgment: but always the true Test is natural or 
geometrical Beauty. 

Geometrical Figures are naturally more beautiful than other irregular; 
in this all consent as to a Law of Nature. Of geometrical Figures, the 
Square and the Circle are most beautiful, next, the Parallelogram & the 
Oval. Strait Lines are more beautiful than curve ; next to strait Lines, 
equal & geometrical Flexures; an Object elevated in the Middle is more 
beautiful than depressed. 

Position is necessary for perfecting Beauty. There are only two beautiful 
Positions of strait Lines, perpendicular & horizontal : this is from Nature, 
and consequently Necessity, no other than upright being firm. Oblique 
Positions are Discord to the Eye, unless answered in Parts, as in the Sides 
of an equicrural Triangle: therefore Gothick Buttresses are all ill-favour- 
ed, and were avoided by the Ancients, and no Roofs almost but Spherick 
raised to be visible, except in the Front where the Lines answer; in spher- 
ick, in all positions, the Ribs answer. Cones & multangular Prisms want 
neither Beauty or Firmness, but are not ancient. 

Views contrary to Beauty are Deformity, or a Defect of Uniformity, and 
Plainness, which is the Excess of Uniformity; Variety makes the Mean. 
Variety of Uniformities makes compleat Beauty: Uniformities are best 
tempered, as Rhimes in Poetry, alternately, or sometimes with more 
Variety, as in Stanzas. 

In Things to be seen at once, much Variety makes Confusion, another 
Vice of Beauty. In Things that are not seen at once, and have no Respect 
one to another, great Variety is commendable, provided this Variety 
transgress not the Rules of Opticks and Geometry. 
An Architect ought to be jealous of Novelties, in which Fancy blinds the 
Judgnient ; and to think his Judges, as well those that are to live Five 
Centuries after him, as those of his own Time. That which is commend- 
able now for Novelty, will not be a new Invention to Posterity, when his 
Works are often imitated, and when it is unknown which was the Ori- 
ginal; but the Glory of that which is good of itself is eternal. 
The Architect ought, above all Things, to be well skilled in Perspective ; 
for, every thing that appears well in the Orthography, may not be good 
in the Model, especially where there are many Angles and Projectures ; 
and every thing that is good in Model, may not be so when built; because 
a Model is seen from other Stations and Distances than the Eye sees the 
Building: but this will hold universally true, that whatsoever is good in 
Perspective, and will hold so in all the principal Views, whether direct 
or Oblique, will be as good in great, if this only Caution be observed, that 
Regard be had to the Distance of the Eye in the principal Stations. 


Things seen near at hand may have small and many Members, be well 
furnished with Ornaments, and may lie flatter; on the contrary, all this 
Care is ridiculous at great distances; there bulky Members, and full Pro- 
jectures casting quick Shadows, are commendable : small Ornaments at 
too great Distance, serve only to confound the Symmetry, & to take away 
the Lustre of the Object, by darkening it with many little Shadows. 
There are different Reasons for Objects, whose chief View is in Front, 
and for those whose chief View is sideways. 

Fronts ought to be elevated in the Middle, not the Corners; because the 
Middle is the Place of greatest Dignity, and first arrests the Eye; and 
rather projecting forward in the Middle, than hollow. For these Rea- 
sons, Pavilions at the Corners are naught ; because they make both Faults, 
a hollow and depressed Front. Where Hollows and Solids are mixed, the 
Hollow is to be in the Middle ; for, Hollows are either Niches, Win- 
dows, or Doors: The first require the Middle to give the Statue Dignity; 
the second, that the View frpm within may be direct; the third, that the 
Visto may be strait. The Ancients elevated the Middle with a Tympan, 
and Statue, or a Dome. The Triumphant Arches, which now seem flat, 
were elevated by the magnificent Figure of the Victor in his Chariot 
with four Horses abreast, and other Statues accompanying it. No sort of 
Pinnacle is worthy enough to appear in the Air, but Statue. Pyramids 
are Gothick ; Pots are modern French. Chimnies ought to be hid, if not, 
to be well adorned. No Roof can have Dignity enough to appear above 
a Cornice, but the Circular ; in private Buildings it is excusable. The 
Ancients affected Flatness. In Buildings where the View is sideways, as 
in Streets, it is absolutely required, that the Composition be square, In- 
tercolumnations equal, Projectures not great, the Cornices unbroken, 
and everything strait, equal, and uniform. Breaks in the Cornice, Pro- 
jectures of the upright Members, Variety, Inequality in the Parts, vari- 
ous Heights of the Roof, serve only to confound the Perspective, & make 
it deformed, while the Breaches and Projectures are cast one upon an- 
other, and obscure all Symmetry. In this sort of Building there seems no 
Proportion of Length to the Heighth ; for, a Portico the longer the more 
beautiful in infinitum : on the contrary. Fronts require a Proportion of 
the Breadth to the Heighth; higher than three times the Breadth is in- 
decent, & as ill to be above three times as broad as high. From this Rule I 
except Obelisks, Pyramids, Columns, such as Trajan's, &c. which seem 
rather single Things than Compositions : I except also long Porticoes, 
though seen direct, where the Eye wandering over the same Members 
infinitely repeated, and not easily finding the Bounds, makes no Com- 
parison of them with the Heighth. 

Vitruvius hath led us the true Way to find out the Originals of the Or- 
ders. When Men first cohabited in civil Commerce, there was Necessity 

of Forums &publick Places of Meeting. In cold Countries, People were 
obliged to shut out the Air, the Cold, & the Rain; but in the hot Coun- 
tries, where Civility first began, they desired to exclude the Sun only, 
and admit all possible Air for Coolness and Health: this brought in na- 
turally the Use of Porticoes, or Roofs for Shade, set upon Pillars. A Walk 
of Trees is more beautiful than the most artificial Portico; but these not 
being easily preserved in Market-places, they made the more durable 
Shades of Porticoes; in which we see they imitated Nature, most Trees 
in their Prime, that are not Saplings, or Dotards, observe near the Pro- 
portion of Dorick Pillars in the Length of their Bole, before they part 
into Branches. This I think the more natural Comparison, than that to 
the Body of a Man, in which there is little Resemblance of a cylindrical 
Body. The first Pillars were the very Boles of Trees turned, or cut in 
Prisms of many Sides. A little Curiosity would induce to lay the Torus 
at the Top; and the Conjecture is not amiss, to say it was first a Band of 
Iron, to keep the Clefts, occasioned by the Sun, from opening with the 
Weight above; and to keep the Weather from piercing those Clefts, it 
was necessary to cover it with the Plinth, or square Board. The Archi- 
trave conjoined all the Pillars in Length, the Couples joined them cross- 
ways. I suppose now, that the Ends of the Couples might be hollowed 
away, as in this Scheme. . . . [T'/ie rest is wanting]. 


MODERN Authors who have treated of Architecture, seem generally 
to have little more in view, but to set down the Proportions of Columns, 
Architraves, & Cornices, in the several Orders, as they are distinguished 
into Dorick, lonick, Corinthian, and Composite; & in these Proportions 
finding them in the ancient Fabricks of the Greeks & Romans, (though 
more arbitrarily used than they care to acknowledge) they have reduced 
them into Rules, too strict and pedantick, and so as not to to be trans- 
gressed, without the Crime of Barbarity; though, in their own Nature, 
they are but the Modes and Fashions of those Ages wherein they were 
used; but because they were found in the great Structures, (the Ruins of 
which we now admire) we think ourselves strictly obliged still to follow 
the Fashion, though we can never attain to the Grandeur of those 

Those who first laboured in the Restoration of Architecture, about three 
Centuries ago, studied principally what they found in Rome, above- 
ground, in the Ruins of the Theatres, Baths,, Temples, and triumphal 
Arches; (for among the Greeks little was then remaining) and in these 
there appeared great Differences; however, they criticised upon them, 


and endeavoured to reconcile them, as well as they could, with one an- 
other, and with what they could meet with in the Italian Cities: and it 
is to be considered, that what they found standing was built, for the most 
part, after the Age of Augustus, particularly, the Arches, Amphitheatres, 
Baths, &c. The Dorick Order they chiefly understood, by examining the 
Theatre of Marcellus; the lonick, from the Temple of Fortuna Virilis; 
the Corinthian, from the Pantheon of Agrippa; the Composite, from the 
triumphal Arch of Titus, &c. I have seen among the Collections of Inigo 
Jones, a Pocket-book of Pyrrho Ligorio's, (an excellent Sculptor, and 
Architect, employed by Pope Paul the third, in the building of the Vati- 
can Church of St. Peter in Rome, about the Year 1 540) wherein he 
seemed to have made it his Business, out of the antique Fragments, to 
have drawn the many different Capitals, Mouldings of Cornices, & Or- 
naments of Freezes, &c. purposely to judge of the great Liberties of the 
ancient Architects, most of which had their Education in Greece. 
In further Proof of this, we have now a very remarkable Account of an 
eminent and learned Critick in Architecture, viz. 
Hist.ofAm- " The first Story of the Coliseo at Rome is said to be Dorick, and yet the 
phitheatres, " Freeze of it is not plain and smooth. The third Story is Corinthian, but 
byC.Maffeij "without Carving or Ornaments, except in the Capitals. The fourth 
Edit. Lond. " Story is Composite, but with Corinthian Capitals, and like those of the 
1730 " third Order, the Corbills in the Freeze shewing them of the Compo- 

" site Order. The Pillars of the four Orders, one above the other, do not 
" diminish in Dimension, according to Rule, but are all of a Thickness ; 
" and the Void of the Arches, the Parts, Ornaments, and Measures in the 
" different Stories, have not that Diversity of Proportion, which is be- 
" lieved to be essential to different Orders. By the Example of this Am- 
" phitheatre, (the noblest Remain of ancient Magnificence) as well as by 
" many others, it is evident, that in the Rules of the Proportions, & dif- 
" ferent Members, &c. of the Orders, there was no certain perpetual and 
" universal Law, but the same Orders, Measures, and Manners differed, 
" according to the various Kinds of B uildings, the Judgment of the Ar- 
" chitect, and the different Circumstances of Things." 
But although Architecture contains many excellent Parts, besides the 
ranging of Pillars, yet Curiosity may lead us to consider whence this Af- 
fectation arose originally, so as to judge nothing beautiful, but what was 
adorned with Columns, even where there was no real Use of them; as 
when Half-columns are stuck upon the Walls of Temples, or Basilicae; 
and where they are hung-on, as it were, upon the Outside of triumphal 
Arches, where they cannot be supposed of any Use, but merely for Or- 
Epist. 87 nament; as Seneca observed in the Roman Baths: "Quantum colum- 
narum est nihil sustinentium, sed in ornamentum positarum, impensae 
causi ! " It will be to the Purpose, therefore, to examine whence pro- 

ceeded this Affectation of a Mode that hath continued now at least 3000 
Years, and the rather, because it may lead us to the Grounds of Archi- 
tecture, and by what Steps this Humour of Colonades came into Practice 
in all Ages. 

The first Temples were, in all Probability, in the ruder Times, only little 
Gellae to inclose the Idol within, with no other Light than a large Door 
to discover it to the People, when the Priest saw proper, and when he 
went in alone to offer Incense, the People paying their Adorations with- 
out Doors; for all Sacrifices were performed in the open Air, before the 
Front of the Temple, but in the southern Climates, a Grove was neces- 
sary not only to shade the Devout, but, from the Darkness of the Place, 
to strike some Terror and Recollection in their Approachers; therefore, 
Trees being always an adjunct to the Cellae, the Israelites were com- 
manded to destroy not only the Idols, but to cut down the Groves which 
surrounded them: but Trees decaying in Time, or not equally growing, 
(though planted at first in good Order) qr possibly not having Room; 
when the Temples were brought into Cities, the like Walks were repre- 
sented with Stone Pillars, supporting the more durable Shade of a Roof, 
instead of the Arbour of spreading Boughs; and still in the Ornaments of 
Stone Work was imitated, (as weU as the Materials would bear) both in 
the Capitals, Frizes & Mouldings, a Foliage, or sort of Work composed 
of Leaves, which remains to this Age. 

This, I am apt to think, was the true Original of Colonades environing 
the Temples in single or double Ailes. 

People could not assemble and converse, but under shade in hot Coun- 
tries; therefore, the Forum of every City was also at first planted round 
with Walks of Trees — 

Lucus in urbe suit media, laetissimus umbra. 

These Avenues were afterwards, as Cities grew more wealthy, reformed 
into Porticoes of Marble; but it is probable, at first the Columns were set 
no nearer than the Trees were before in Distance, and that both Archi- 
traves and Roofs were of Timber, because the Inter-columns would cer- 
tainly have been too large to have had the Architraves made in Stone; 
but the Architects in After-ages, being ambitious to perform all in Stone, 
and to load the Architraves also with heavy Cornices of Stone, were ne- 
cessitated to bring the Pillars nearer together; and from hence arose the 
Differences of the Eustyle, Sustyle, Diastyle, and Pycnostyle Disposition 
of Columns, by which Vitruvius and his Followers would make a syste- 
matical Science of their Art forming positive Rules, according to the 
Diameters of their Columns, for the Inter-columns, and the Propor- 
tions of the Architrave, Cornice, and all the Members of which they are 

ri 241 

But, by the way, it is to be observed, the Diameters of Columns were 
grosser at first, though Timber Architraves did not require to be borne 
by a more substantial Pillar, as in the Tuscan Order; but, because in the 
Groves, the ancient Trees of large Growth (and Antiquity always car- 
ries Veneration with it) were used to be of most Esteem. So at first the 
Columns were six Diameters in Heighth; when the Imitation of Groves 
was forgot, the Diameters were advanced to seven; then to eight; then 
to nine, as in the lonick Order ; then at last to ten, as in the Corinthian 
and Italick Orders: And herein the Architects had Reason, for the great 
Expence is in raising & carving of the Columns; and slenderer Columns 
would leave them more Opportunity to shew their Skill in carving and 
enriching their Works in the Capitals and Mouldings. Thus the Corin- 
thian Order became the most delicate of all others,& though the Column 
was slenderer, yet bore a greater Weight of entablature than the more 
ancient Orders. 

When the old Statuaries in Greece, such as Phidias, Praxiteles, and their 
Disciples, began to be celebrated for their Art, and the People grew fond 
of their Works, it is no wonder (for honos alit artes) they fell upon the 
Corinthian Capital, which in no After-age to this Time has been amend- 
ed, though the French King, Lewis the fourteenth, proposed Rewards 
to such Artists as should find outaGallickOrder; therefore Callimachus, 
the old Architect and Inventor, (according to Vitruvius's Story of the 
Nurse and Basket) must still retain the Honour of it; for, neither will the 
Flower-de-luce of the French, nor the Palms of Villalpandus,in his ima- 
ginery Scheme of the Temple of Solomon, come up to the Grace of the 
old Form of the Corinthian Capital. 

It seems very unaccountable, that the Generality of our late Architects 
dwell so much upon this ornamental, and so slightly pass over the geo- 
metrical, which is the most essential Part of Architecture. For Instance, 
can an Arch stand without Butment sufficient ? If the Butment be more 
than enough, 'tis an idle Expence of Materials; if too little, it will fall ; 
and so for any Vaulting: And yet no Author hath given a true & univer- 
sal Rule for this; nor hath considered all the various Forms of Arches. 
The Rule given by the Authors for the Butment of Arches, is this: [See 
Fig. I.] Let A B C be the Arch, of which B is a third Part ; extend the 
Line B C, and make C D equal to C B, and draw the Perpendicular C D 
F, this determines the Butment G F, (as they say) but wherefore ? for add 
to the Bottom, as K L, the Arch then must certainly press more upon the 
higher Part than the lower; or if some additional Weight be added above 
the Arch, that must still press more than before this was added. So this 
Rule (if it were built upon any sure geometrical Theorem, as it is not) is 
neither true nor universal; and what is true will be shewn to be only de- 
terminable by the Doctrine of finding the Centers of Gravity in the Parts 

i!i. 1 1 , , , 






-M -X, 



P N 
\ J 



'^-^..0 .-''' 











243 - 

of the proposed Design. In demonstrating this, I will not trouble the 
Reader with nice geometrical Speculations, or Calculations, but by easy 
Inductions ; supposing he hath read Archimedes, or the modern Geo- 
metricians, who have purposely treated of Centers of Gravity; or at least, 
that he will give Credit to those who have established all the Principles' 
of this Science by Demonstration unquestionable ; so it will not be neces- 
sary to dive into the Rudiments. 

Let a Stone be cut in this Form, F B a Parallelogram, C D a Semicircle Fig. 11. 
added, A B a Perpendicular, M the Center of Gravity of F B, and N of 
A C D, now if N be equiponderant to M on each Side the Perpendicular 
A B, it is certain the whole Stone will stand immoveable upon the Basis 
at B, although it be but half an Arch; add the like Stone on the opposite 
Side, till the Horns meet in an entire Arch, so the Whole will stand as 
well as the Halves. If any thing be added without M, that alters nothing, 
only 'tis an useless Expence; but if any thing be added above N, that al- 
ters the Center of Gravity, which therefore must be provided for, by add- 
ing more Weight to M; and the same maybe shewn in all kinds of Vault- 
ing. So it appears that the Design, where there are Arcades, must be re- 
gulated by the Art of Staticks, or Invention of the Centers of Gravity, 
and the duly poising all Parts to equiponderate ; without which, a fine 
Design will fail and prove abortive. Hence I conclude, that all Designs 
must, in the first place, be brought to this Test, or rejected. I have exam- 
ined some celebrated Works, as the Pantheon, and judge there is more 
Butment than necessary, though it is flat and low; but I suppose the Ar- 
chitect provided it should stand against Earthquakes, as indeed it hath, 
and will. The great Fabrick of St. Peter's if it had been followed as Bra- 
mante had designed it, would have been as durable; but the Butment of 
the Cupola was not placed with Judgment: however, since it was hooped 
with Iron, it is safe at present, and, without an Earthquake, for Ages to 
come. Iron, at all Adventures, is a good Caution; but the Architect should 
so poise his Work, as if it were not necessary. 

The Free-masons were not very solicitous about this, because they used 
Buttresses on the Outside of the Wall, which they extended as far as they 
guessed would be sufficient; and they had yet a farther Help, by loading 
the Buttress with a Pinnacle, to the Height of which they were not con- 
fined. The Romans never used Buttresses without, but rather within, 
though they cut off a Part of the Arch, but not of the Vaulting that de- 
pended on the Arch, as it appears in the Ailes of Dioclesian's Baths, and 
in some respects also in the Templum Pacis. 

The different Forms of Vaultings are necessary to be considered, either 
as they were used by the Ancients,or the Moderns, whether Free-masons, 
or Saracens. The Romans, though they sometimes used a Hemisphere, 
where the Room was round; or Half-hemispheres, as in the Exedrae of 
the Baths, or the Tribunes of Temples & Basilicae, yet generally they used 
rs 245 

a plain cylindrical Vaulting, where the Walls were parallel ; or Cross- 
vaulting, where two Cylinders intersect in Diagonals, as in the Templum 
Pacis; and in all the Theatres in the Passages under the Steps. The Mo- 
derns, whose Arches were not circular, but made of Sections of Circles, 
used commonly another Sort, where the Spandrils resting upon the Pil- 
lars, sprang every way round as their Arch rose. It is not easy to give a 

Fig. V. geometrical Definition, but by calling it a circular inverted Cone (A), 

resting upon its Apex (B) ; (C) the Middle, they filled up with Tracery- 
work, for which this Way gave them great Opportunity of divers Vari^^ 
ations, which I need not insist on. Another Way, (which I cannot find 
used by the Ancients, but in the later eastern Empire, as appears at St. 
Sophia, and by that Example, in all the Mosques &Cloysters of the Der- 
vises, and every where at present in the East) and of all others the most 
geometrical, is composed of Hemispheres, and their Sections only: and 
wheras a Sphere may be cut all manner of Ways, & that still into Circles, 

Fig. III. it may be accomodated to lie upon all Positions of the Pillars. Let E be a 
Cupola or Hemisphere, resting upon four Pillars A B C D, from whence 
arise the four Arches, to which the Sections, being Semicircles, must join 
on all Sides, whether A B be equal to B C or not. Cut the Hemisphere 
again horizontally, the Section will be an entire Circle, touching in the 

Fig. IF. Keys of the Arches, and G H K L will be Spandrils resting upon the Pil- 

lars, yet still are Parts of the Hemisphere; and if the horizontal Circle be 
taken away, you may build upon that Circle an upright Wall, which may 
bear a Cupola again above, as is done at St. Sophia and St. Peter's, and at 
all the Churches at Rome. I question not but those at Constantinople 
had it from the Greeks before them, it is so natural, & is yet found in the 
present Seraglio, which was the episcopal Palace of old; the imperial 
Palace, whose Ruins still appear, being farther eastward. Now, because 
I have for just Reasons followed this way in the vaulting of the Church 
of St. Paul's, I think it proper to shew, that it is the lightest Manner, and 
requires less Butment than the Cross-vaulting, as well as that it is of an 
agreeable View; and, at the same time, I shall shew how the Centers of 
Gravity are to be computed. To shew that it requires less Butment than 
the diagonal Cross-vaulting, I will compare them both together, with- 
out any perplexed Demonstration, as follows — 

It is evident that the Spandrils, or loading of the diagonal Cross-arches, 
where two cylindrical Vaults meet, must be an inverted Pyramid, whose 
Basis is a Parallelogram, with two Sides strait, and two circular ; and 
wherever it be cut horizontally, it will be cut into like Parallelograms : 
now, in the other eastern Way of Vaulting by Hemispheres, the Span- 
drils are the Solids, which are left when a Hemisphere is taken out of a 
Half-cube; each of these also must be a sort of inverted Pyramid, whose 
Bases and Sides are circular, and wherever it is cut horizontally, it is cut 
into Pieces of Circles. 

What these are that give the Butment of Arcades in the several Forms of 
Arches may be geometrically determined, for Example in the Roman 
Way of Cross-arches. 

Let A B C D represent the whole Vaulting between four Pillars, then efg Fig. VI . 
will represent the Quarter of this Vaulting resting upon D. Now, because 
the solid Half-cylinder C D is cut off by the Half-cylinder B D, it is evi- 
dent the whole Gross-vault will be equal to one Half-cylinder, whose 
Diameter is B D, the Heighth f h, and the Length A B; and because 
D g e f is one fourth Part, this being deducted out of the Cube of f D, the 
Remainder (supposing it filled up to the Crown) e, is the Body we sup- 
pose at D, for the Butment, and the Parts of this circular inverted Pyra- 
mid will bear a Proportion with the Ordinates of the Quadrant, being 
the Radius less the Ordinates squared: so the Ordinates of the Pyramid 
are known; and by the known Methods the Centers of Gravity will be 
known of the whole or Part. As for the Gothick Vaulting, turn this Py- 
ramid upon its Axis, and it will be a Conoide in the Whole, and in its 
Parts as the Circle to the Square circumscribed, and the Center will be 
given of the Whole and the Parts. Now, the third Way of Vaulting by pig, VIL 
Parts of Hemispheres may thus be considered. Let A B C D be four Pil- 
lars, and G F H be supposed the whole Hemisphere, before it be cut off 
by six Arches, and by the two horizontal Sections PON, then is D O N 
one of the eight Spandrils; therefore the said Spandril is the Sphere less 
the Cube divided by 8, or the Hemisphere less half the Cube divided by 
4, which is one Spandril, such as O N D. Now, let these several Span- 
drils in the Roman, the Gothick, or Saracen Way be compared together, 
(see Fig. VL) g f D in the Roman, is the Basis of the Square (inverted 
Pyramid; g K D in the Gothick is but the Quadrant of a Circle inscribed, 
and g M K D but the Remainder to the Square; which being evidently 
the least and lightest, and the Center of Gravity nearest to D, I have 
therefore followed in the Vaultings of St. Paul's, and, with good Reason, 
preferred it above any other Way used by Architects. But none of these 
Vaultings are in Buildings thought necessary to be filled up to the Crowns 
of the Vaultings, but so high as to give Butment to the Arches above the 
Pillars, which Architects have determined, by Practice, to be a third Part 
of the Heighth of the Arch. It seems necessary to consider the proper 
Butment of cylindrical or strait Vaultings upon parallel Walls, or two 
Pillars only of some Breadth. In order to find this by Steps, we will con- 
sider an Arch abstracted from what may be laid upon it, or affixed to it. 
Let A B be a Body (the Heighth or Thickness doth not enter into this Fig. VIII. 
Consideration) upon the level Top, to lay the Body G E D, the Line G E 
being a Quadrant, D E a Tangent to it ... . 

[The rest is wanting.] 
r4 247 


THE Tyrian Order was the first Manner, which, in Greece, was refined 
into the Dorick Order, after the first Temple of that Order was built at 
Argos : but if we consider well the Dorick Order, we manifestly may 
trace the same to be but an Imitation in Stone, of what was usually done 
in Timber, in the long Porticoes they used to build in Cities, by which 
they tolerated the Heat of the Day, and conversed together: the Roofs of 
those Porticoes were framed after this Manner. 

First, They laid the Timber, called Architrave, to join the Pillars in a 
Row, upon these they laid the Beams that j oined the opposite Rows, then 
upon these they raised the Rafters, which Vitruvius calls Capreoli, which 
meeting in a Triangle, made the Roof to cast off Weather ; the Rafters 
were fastened by two Tenons into the very Ends of the Beams, by sawing 
aslant into the Ends of them, not as we do by Mortises. Upon the Archi- 
trave they placed a Plank, the better to join the Ends of these Architraves 
together upon the Pillars ; then the Pins (improperly called Guttae) 
driven upwards, would not only fix the Capreoli to the Beams, but stay 
them from sliding upon the Architraves, and gage the opposite Archi- 
traves together, to keep a strait Range in the long Porticoes: & thus may 
be discerned the Reason of the Triglyphs, & of the whole Dorick Order; 
and these long Porticoes were the general Method of building Cities in 
the hot Climates. 

When Alexander had determined to build Alexandria, and had settled 
the Place, he left Dimocrates his Architect to compleat the same, who 
drew a long Street with Porticoes on both Sides, from the Lake Maeotis 
to the Sea, and another cross it, that lead to Pelusium, then built Walls 
and large Towers, each capable to quarter five hundred Men; the noble 
Ruins of which remain at this Day; (a) then giving great Privileges to 
Egyptians and Jews, they soon filled the Quarters between the Porticoes 
with private and publick Buildings. Thus were Cities suddenly raised, 
and thus was Tadmor built, the Ruins of which shew nothing at present 
to Travellers, but incredible Numbers of Pillars of the Dorick Order, 
some yet standing, more broken, which were certainly the Remains of 
long Porticoes to shade the Streets. Now, how was Tarsus and Anchiala 
built in a Day ? that is, I suppose, the Walls and Gates were set out in a 
Day; and this Way of setting out the principal Streets by Porticoes, oc- 
casioned that hundreds of Pillars, of all sorts, were to be bought at the 
Quarries ready made, where great Numbers of Artizans wrought for Sale 

(a) Near this City stands a Pillar, erected by one of the Ptolomys, {but vulgarly 
called Pompefs Pillar) the Shaft of which consists of one solid Stone ofGranate 
90 Feet high, and 38 in Compass. [Le Bruyn's Voyage, p. 171.] 

of what they raised ; and this is the Reason why even at Rome the Scant- SeeMonsieur 
lings are not always found conformable to the Rules, especially in sudden Desgodetz 
Works; as to instance in the Portico of the Pantheon, where are scarcely 
two Columns of the same Diameter; some of the Columns being six ^TheRoman 
*Roman Palms and ten Inches [Pollices] in Diameter, others six Palms Palm is nine 
and five Inches. However, as it is a Coloss-work, and most wonderfully inches Eng- 
rich, consisting of sixteen huge Columns of the Corinthian Order, each HshMeasure 
Column being one solid Stone of oriental Granate, the Eye cannot readily 
discern any Disproportion. And thus in the great Pillar of London, the 
Heighth exceeding the due Proportion of the Order, one Module is im- 
perceptible to the Eye. 

Pliny the younger, proposing to repair and enlarge, by the Addition of PliniiEpist. 
a Portico, an old Temple of Ceres, that stood upon his Estate in Tuscany, Lib. 9 
directs his Architect immediately to buy four Marble Columns, of any 
sort he pleased. By this Method of purchasing, at' any time, Columns of 
all Orders and Proportions, ready formed at the Quarries, as Goods in a 
Shop, or Warehouse, the Ancients had an Advantage of erecting Porti- 
coes (the stately Pride of the Roman Architecture) of any Grandeur, or 
Extent, in a very short Time, and without being over scrupulous in the 
Exactness of the Dimensions. 


AN Example of Tyrian Architecture we may collect from the Theatre, 
by the Fall of'which, Sampson made so vast a Slaughter of the Philis- 
tines, by one Stretch of his wonderful Strength. In considering what this 
Fabrick must be,, that could at one Pull be demolished, I conceive it an 
oval Amphitheatre, the Scene in the Middle, where a vastRoof of Cedar- 
beams resting round upon the Walls, centered all upon one short Archi- 
trave, that united two Cedar Pillars in the Middle ; one Pillar would not 
be sufficient to unite the Ends of at least one hundred Beams that tended 
to the Center; therefore, I say, there must be a short Architrave resting 
upon two Pillars, upon which all the Beams tending to the Center of the 
Amphitheatre might be supported. Now, if Sampson, by his miraculous 
Strength pressing upon one of these Pillars, moved it from its Basis, the 
whole Roof must of necessity fall. . *^ 

The most observable Monument of the Tyrian Style, and of great An- '^Over 
tiquity, still remaining, is the Sepulchre of Absalom* : the Body of this agamst Je- 
Structure is square, faced on every Side with Pillars, which bear up an rusalem 
hemispherical Tholus solid; a large Architrave, Freeze, and Cornice he ^ft^^^f'^ 
upon the Pillars, which are larger in proportion to their Heighth than t^VaUejof 
what we now allow to the Tuscan Order; so likewise is the Entablature Jehosaphat 


^ 249 

This whole Composition, though above 30 Feet high, is all of one Stone, 
both Basis, Pillars, and Tholus, cut as it stood out of the adjacent Cliff of 
white Marble. 

It is to be wished, some skilful Artist would give us the exact Dimen- 
sions to Inches, by which we might have a true Idea of the ancient Ty- 
rian Manner; for, 'tis most probable Solomon employed the Tyrian Ar- 
chitects in his Temple, from his Correspondency with King Hiram; and 
from these Phoenicians I derive, as well the Arts, as the Letters of the 
Grecians, though it may be the Tyrians were Imitators of the Babylon- 
ians, and they of the ^Egyptians. 

Great Monarchs are ambitious to leave great Monuments behind them; 
and this occasions great Inventions in mechanick Arts. 
What the Architecture was that Solomon used, we know but little of, 
though holy Writ hath given us the general Dimensions of the Temple, 
by which we may, in some measure, collect the Plan, but not of all the 

Villalpandus hath made a fine romantick Piece, after the Corinthian 
Order, which, in that Age, was not used by any Nation ; for the early Age 
used much grosser Pillars than theDorick: in after Times, they began to 
refine from the Dorick, as in the Temple of Diana at Ephesus, (the united 
Work of all Asia) and at length improved into a slenderer Pillar, & leafy 
Capital of various Inventions, which was called Corinthian; so that if we 
run back to the Age of Solomon, we may with Reason believe they used 
the Tyrian Manner, as gross at least, if not more, than the Dorick, and 
that the Corinthian Manner of Villalpandus is mere Fancy. 

Of the Temple of Diana at Ephesus, according to the 
Account of Pliny. 

THE Temple of Diana at Ephesus, a most surprizing Example of the 
Grecian Magnificence, introduced the lonick Order: it was two hundred 
and twenty Years in building, at the joint Expence of all the States of 
Asia, each Government contributing a Pillar. In this Structure the Capi- 
tals were first formed with Voluta's, and the Proportions changed from 
the Dorick to a slenderer Pillar. The Description in Pliny is short, and 
what no Authors, ancient or modern, seem sufficiently to explain. The 
Account, therefore, of this prodigious Fabrick, the first Instance of the 
Use of the lonick Order, requires to be as fully and clearly illustrated, as 
the most authentick Aid we can have from Antiquity will allow. 
The Length of the whole Temple was 425 Feet, the Breadth 220 Feet. 
The Pillars were in Number 1 27, each 60 Feet high. To make out this 
Number of Pillars, the Disposition must be Decastyle-dipteron, and 
the Columns thus reckoned; 40 in the Fronts, fore and aft, and 60 in the 

Plan of the Temple of Diana at Ephesus with the Shrine. 


Front of the Temple of Diana at Ephesus. 

The Shrine in the Temple. 

The Ground Plan. 

Ailes; so this Peribole makes just loo; besides these, are i6 in the Pro- 
navi,&the4Antae,makingin all i2o.TheColonadeafFordsnomore,but 
the Tabernacle, or Shrine situated in the Middle of the Cella, wherein 
stood the Coloss Image of Diana Multimammea, contains seven, and 
answers the Number in Pliny. 

This strange Idol, (which is represented in the Coins of Ephesus, & other 
Asiatick Cities) of as odd a Figure as any Indian Pagod, (the Remains of 
very ancient Superstition, before the lonick Migration, which, it seems, 
the Greeks would still preserve, believing it fell out of Heaven, and sent 
by Jupiter) was made of Cedar; & the Cella had a flat Roofing of Cedar; 
for vaulted it could not well be, for want of Butment, being 1 1 5 Feet 
broad, and near as high, & 230 feet long. Thus was the Huntress placed, 
as it were, in a Grove of Marble Pillars. 

All the ancient Idols were encircled with Groves; and this seems to be 
the Reason of the perpetual Adherence of all Architecture to this Form, 
and no other, of Colonades about Temples; meaning to represent the 
original Groves, as the Capitals, and all the Ornaments carry still the 
Figures of Leaves. 

Diana Artemis was the Moon, her Solemnities were by Night: the nine- 
teen Pillars in the Ailes represented her Period; the seven Pillars of the 
Chapel in the Middle of the Cella, the quarter of her menstrual Course. 
This, I suppose, was the NAI'IKOI we translate the Shrine of Diana; the 
Representation of which, 'tis supposed, and not of the whole Structure, 
the Silversmiths of Ephesus formed in Models for Sale to Strangers, Acts of the 
" which brought no small Gain to the Craftsmen." In like manner, at this Apostles, 
Day, small Models of Wood, garnished with Mother of Pearl, of the c. xix. v. 24 
holy Sepulchre at Jerusalem, are usually made for Sale to Pilgrims and 

The Columns being 60 Feet high, the Diameter, according to Rule, must 
be 6 Feet 8 Inches, that is, a ninth Part; thus every Column would con- 
tain at least 1 1 o Tun of Marble, besides Base and Capital, and the vast 
Stones of the Entablature, but more especially of the middle Intercol- 
umn, which being wider than the rest, to open more Way for the En- 
trance, as usual in the Greek Temples, was about 22 Feet, and could not 
bear its own Weight, unless the Architrave and Freeze were both of one 
Stone, which together would be above 150 Tun; the setting of which 
(for it seems the Architect despaired) was miraculously attributed to the 
Goddess herself, as beyond the Reach of human Skill. 
Thirty-six of the Columns were carved by Scopas, a famous Statuary of 
the School of Praxiteles; & the outward Walls of the Cella were adorned 
with Pictures, about the Time of Apelles. 

Modern Travellers tell us, there are great Heaps of Ruins at this Day, & 
large Vaults, which probably were the Substructions of the Colonades. 


I imagine the Ascent to it was easy, and not with many Steps, that the 
'ARH'NH 'lEPA', Thensa Sacra, might commodiously pass: this was a cov- 
ered Wagon, drawn by two Mules, in which the Idol was placed, and 
carried through the Streets to the Circus, upon grand Solemnities. 

[We often see this Temple represented upon Medals, with the Figure of 
Diana; but the Frontispiece, because of the small Room left in these 
sort of Monuments, is never to be seen there charged with more 
than eight Pillars, sometimes with six, with four, or only with two.] 

Observations on the Temple of Peace, built by the Emperor Vespasian. 

*3oo Feet i , THE Greatness of this *Temple, the most magnificent of old Rome, 

long, 200 is prodigious ; it is longer than our -f- Westminster-hall, and the middle 

Feet broad Nave only, besides the Ailes, is more than a seventh Part broader ; in 

•fzz^ Feet Heighth it exceeds the highest Cathedral now in the World. 

long, 66 2. The Walls are thin, where the Roof presses not ; but admirably se- 

Feet broad cured where the Weight lies ; first, by the Piles behind the Pillars, which 

are of that Thickness backward, that they are sufficient Butment to the 

Arch of the Ailes : (this not being observed in the Gothick Cathedrals, 

the Vault of the Ailes resting against the Middle of the Pillars of the 

Nave, bend them inward ; & therefore, in Westminster-abbey, they are 

cramped, in some Places, cross the Aile to the outward Wall, with vast 

Irons, to secure the Vault of the Aile from spreading.) Secondly, the 

Weight of the Roof above hath a mighty Butment from the slope Walls 

between the Windows, which answer to the Half-frontispieces of the 

Ailes ; from whence the flying Buttresses of the Gothick Fabricks seem 

to have have taken their Original. 

3. ThisTemple ascends to its vast Heighth each Way, by three Degrees; 
the mighty Nave is butted by the Ailes, and the Ailes by the Tribunals, 
and little Rooms without; which we may well suppose to be those Ar- 
chives, wherein the Sibyll's Books, the Spoils of the Jewish Temple, and 
the Records of Rome, the most sacred for Antiquity, were kept. 

4. Thus it rises to be equal in Heighth to half the whole Breadth be- 
tween the side Tribunals ; and a Line drawn from the Key of the Vault 
of the Nave, to the Key of the Arch of the Aile, determines the Breadth 
of the Aile: so that in the farthest Part you see always half the Vault of 
the Nave; which makes it seem free and spacious, containing more than 
an Acre of Ground in its Pavement, & might well contain an Assembly 
of 20,000 Persons; the common Use of it being a Hall of Justice, and for 
that Reason it was made very lightsome; whereas the consecrated Tem- 
ples were generally very obscure. . 


5. I have admired the Greatness and Firmness of this Pile, but I cannot 
commend the Architect's Judgment for obscuring the majestick Stature 
of it with an humble Portico, & low Wings, which cause the visual Ray 
to cut oiFvery much of the Height; so that in Perspective the Front will 
look exceeding broad and flat, and, to those that approach the Entrance, 
will seem as it were grafted upon the low Portico; though the Grace in 
the double Frontispiece and Acroteria, doth something make amends, 
distinguishing the mighty Breadth into several Parts. 

6. But shall I accuse Antiquity for want of Skill in Opticks, of which 
every where it shews such admirable Proofs ? since particularly here the 
Architect hath given great Testimony of it in the Contrivance of his 
Cornice, wherein he hath left out the Corona, or Hanging-square, by an 
unusual Example. The Corona seems an essential Part in all Cornices, 
as that which gives Denomination to the whole, and is necessary to the 
Beauty of a Cornice; because, by its Projecture, it shadows all the lower 
Members, receiving upon its plane Surface a terse Light from above; this 
gives the Eminence and distinct Appearance which we see in the Parts 
of a Cornice at distance; but the Artist here ingeniously apprehending 
that his Lights in this Fabrick stood Level with his Cornice, and there- 
fore it would want the Effect for which it is used, and that the Hanging- 
face of it would be fore-shortened to nothing, to the Eye which beholds 
it from beneath, wisely left out this Member, which, if these optical 
Reasons did not prevail, would never have been used, since, of all Mem- 
bers, this is that which most loads the Cornice, and makes us, for want of 
Stones of such Vastness, & Money to move them, despair, in these Days, 
of coming near the Greatness of such a Pillar and Entablement as is here 
used, where the Projecture of the Cornice is near 5 Feet. 

7. It was not therefore Unskilfulness in the Architect that made him 
chuse this flat kind of Aspect for his Temple, it was his Wit and Judg- 
ment. Each Deity had a peculiar Gesture, Face, and Dress hieroglyphi- 
callyiproper to it; as their Stories were but Morals involved: and not only 
their Altars and Sacrifices were mystical, but the very Forms of their 
Temples. No Language, no Poetry can so describe Peace, & the Effects 
of it in Men's Minds, as the Design of this Temple naturally paints it, 
without any Affectation of the Allegory. It is easy of Access, and open, 
carries an humble Front, but embraces wide, is luminous and pleasant, 
and content with an internal Greatness, despises an invidious Appearance 
of all that Heighth it might otherwise justly boast of, but rather forti- 
fying itself on every Side, rests secure on a square and ample Basis. 

8. 1 know very well the Criticks in Architecture will scarce allow this 
Temple to be accurate, doubting a Decay of the Art in the Time of Ves- 
pasian, who finished this Temple, but it was Claudius who began it, 
when we need not suspect Corruption. Nor need we scruple that theEn- 


tablement of the Columns is not continued, but that the Arches of the 
Ailes break higher than the Architraves; for these Arches resemble so 
many Tribunals, which are usually made in the Form of Niches, with 
the vaulted Head, adorned with a reticulate Work, but are not frequently 


A Plan of the Temple of Mars Ultor. 

set upon any Imposts, like the Arches of a Gate: but in the Inside of the 
best Works, the whole Entablement is seldom precisely kept ; sometimes 
the Architrave is not expressed, as within the Portico of the Temple of 
Vesta at Tivoli ; most frequently is the Freeze omitted, and always in the 

Inside of the Porticoes of Temples is the Cornice omitted, unless you will 
call the Mouldings of the Listels a Cornice. Within the Portico of the 
Pantheon, over the Capitals, runs a compound Moulding of Architrave 
and Cornice combined in one, yet all together make not the due Bigness 
of the Cornice : in the open Air it is as well the Protection from Weather 
as the Crown of the Pile, and therefore not to be interrupted nor broken 
forward, without just Reason; within, where it is an Impediment, 'tis 
often omitted, as in this Case, by its great Projection, it would have ob- 
scured the Descent of the Light. The same Order of Arches without Im- 
posts is observed throughout, in the Portico before the Temple, in the 
Windows of the Fronts, in the Passages through the Tribunals, in the 
Niches; & though we have not extant more Examples of the like, yet I 
am apt to believe the Basilicae, which were vaulted with Stone, followed 
this kind of Fabrick; and as it is vast, and well poised, so it is true, well 
proportioned, and beautiful, & was deservedly esteemed by the Romans 
themselves, as one of the most considerable Structures of Rome. 

Observations on the Temple of Mars Ultor, built by Augustus ; the 
Ruins of which are seen near the Torre de Conti, at Rome. 

Templa feres, et me victore, vocaberis Ultor. 

Ovid. Fast ^ Li. 5. 


As studiously as the Aspect of the Temple of Peace was contrived in Al- 
lusion to Peace & its Attributes, so is this Temple of Mars appropriated 
to War: a strong and stately Temple shews itself forward ; and, that it 
might not lose any of its Bulk, a vast Wall of near 1 00 Feet high is placed 
behind it; (because as Vitruvius notes. Things appear less in the open 
Air) and though it be a single Wall, erected chiefly to add Glory to the 
Fabrick, and to muster up at once a terrible Front of Trophies & Statues, 
which stand here in double Ranks, yet an ingenious Use is made of it, to 
obscure two irregular Entrances, which come from a bending Street : and 
to accommodate itself as well to the Situation, as to give Firmness to the 
Wall but 5 Feet thick, it is built in various Flexures, (because a strait 
Wall is easier ruined by Tempests) : these Flexures give Opportunity to 
form two other Frontispieces, in which are seen Niches much greater 
than ordinary, and may be supposed to contain the Trophies. — Thus 
stands the Temple like the Phalanx, while the Walls represent the Wings 
of a Battalia. 

Prospicit armipotens operis fastigia summi, 
Et probat invictos summa tenere Deos. 


Prospicit in foribus diversae tela figurae, 

Armaque terrarum milite victa suo. 
Hinc videt iEnean oneratum pondere sacro, 

Et tot liileae nobilitatis avos. 
Hinc videt Iliaden humeris ducis arma ferentem, 

Claraque dispositis acta subesse viris. 
Spectat et Augusto praetextum nomine templum, 

Et visum, lecto Caesare, majus opus. 
Digna giganteis haec sunt delubra trophaeis, &c. 

Ovid. Fast. L. 5. 


In this Court we have an Example of circular Walls ; and certainly no 
Enclosure looks so gracefully as the circular: 'tis the Circle that equally 
bounds the Eye, and is every where uniform to itself; but being of itself 
perfect, is not easily joined to any other Area, and therefore seldom can 
be used: a Semicircle joining to an Oblong, as in the Tribunal at the End 
of this Temple, is a graceful Composition. 


If I might divine in Architecture, I would say, that the two Porticoes 
that made up the Court were directly opposite to the two Side-frontis- 
pieces, and that the Walls of the Court might continue on the other Side 
of a Street, leaving open the Passages A B ; and this might be the Reason 
that Palladio sought no farther for them, finding Foundations to end at 
A and B. By this means, those that walk in either Portico, will have the 
Prospect of a Side-frontispiece before them; those that walk in the Ante- 
temple, will have that goodly Tour of Statues diffused about them; and 
those that enter the Court, have an excellent Perspective of the Whole; 
those that come down from the Temple, will have the View of the Tem- 
ple of Neptune, which, Palladio says, stood over-against it. The Romans 
guided themselves by Perspective in all their Fabricks; and why should 
not Perspective lead us back again to what was Roman ? If I presumed, 
'twas Tully that animated me, who assures us, that Reason is the best Art 
of Divination. 

I cannot omit commending the Fronts of the Porticoes: the Listels are 
invented to make Roofs, too narrow for a Vault, rise airy and light; the 
Ornaments between, consisting of a Tray le of Fillets continuing in square 
Angles, seem to me to have been borrowed from Beds of Gardens, and 
very properly would suit to that End. 


TheCornice of the Wall advises us what Cornice to use in plainer Works; 
and gracefully is the Basis of the Columns made a continued Basis to the 

whole Temple. But the Pillar with the Capital of Horses-heads, (sup- 
posed by Palladio to be one of the inward Ornaments) belongs not to 
this, but the other neighbouring Temple of Neptune; for, 'twas Neptune 
who was called Dominator Equorum. This, and the Temple of Peace, 
and the Pantheon, are those which Pliny particularly mentions among 
the most remarkable Works of Rome. 


The Squares in the Wall of the Cella opposite to the Inter-columnations, 
tell us how extremely the Ancients were addicted to square and geome- 
trical Figures, the only natural Foundation of Beauty. 


We find the most adorned Temples of the Corinthian Order have the 
Walls of the Cella channelled; so much they affected the Ostentation of 
great Stones, that where there were Joints, they would not seem to ob- 
scure them, that the Shafts of the Pillars might the better appear entire, 
and to give a darker Field behind them: the right Proportion of them is 
double in Length to their Breadth: the Appearance is best where there 
is much together. 

Of the Sepulchre of Mausolus King of Caria. 

THE Sepulchre of Mausolus is so well described by Pliny, that I have 
attempted to design it accordingly, and also very open, conformable to 
the Description in Martial. 

Aere vacuo Pendentia Mausolea. 

And yet it wanted not the Solidity of the Dorick Order, which I rather 
call the Tyrian, as used in that Age. 

The Skill of four famous Artists, Scopas, Briaxes, Timotheus, and Leo- 
chares, all of the School of Praxiteles, occasioned this Monument to be 
esteemed one of the seven Wonders of the World. These Architects liv- 
ing before theTime of Alexander, & before the Beginning of the Temple 
of Diana at Ephesus, (for Mausolus died, according to Pliny, in the se- 
cond Year of the *hundredth Olympiad, which was before the lonick *Aliter io6 
Order was first in Use) I conclude this Work must be the exactest Form 
of the Dorick. It appeared from the City Halicarnassus to the Sea, that 
is, North and South, 64 Feet, and so much everyway; for, each Artificer 
took his Side: and being hexastyle, contained in all 36 Pillars; that is to 
say, 20 for the four fronts, and 16 within, which supported the Pteron, 
(as Pliny calls it) in the Manner expressed in the Plan. 

SI 257 

Pteron is an unusual Term, and not, I think, to be found in the Authors 
we have. Harduin,in his Notes on Pliny, and others consider the Word, 
as in the plural Number, Ptera, (nTEPA') Alae, and think it imports the 
same Meaning as Pteromata in Vitruvius : Muri duo in altitudinem con- 
surgentes alarum instar. But if we take it, as it is, in the singular Number, 
it cannot bear here that Signification; but may relate, as I conclude, to 
what we now call an Attick Order, and what rose above the Cdrnice, to 
have been called by this Term, in Greek Authors of Architecture, now 

This Pteron was here raised as high again as the Order below, to bear the 
triumphal Chariot of King Mausolus. The like the Romans did in their 
triumphal Arches; but in this, it is raised so high, because it stands upon 
a second Range of Columns within, and that the Chariot might be seen 
at Sea; for such was the Situation of Caria, where all the Ships that dou- 
bled this South-west Cape of Asia must keep the usual Tract to Rhodes. 
Supposing then in the Order, which Vitruvius calls Systyle, (where the 
Inter-column is double to the Diameter of the Column) if the Column^ 
is 4 Feet Diameter, and the Inter-column 8 Feet, the whole Fa9ade will 
be 64 Feet. The Heighth of the Columns of 7 J Diameter will be 30 Feet, 
and with the Dorick Entablature of a fourth Part of the Column, will 
make 37I Feet, which is just 25 Cubits; as Pliny makes the Heighth of 
the firstStory: above theCyma of theCornice must be aZocle of 2^ Feet, 
for fixing the Statues, which will make in all 40 feet from the Floor. 
Upon the 1 6 inward Columns rose the Pteron, (the ancient Greek Term, 
as I have noted, for whatever was erected above the Cornice, which we 
now call an Attick Story) the Pilasters whereof, that they might be visi- 
ble, were supported on a Substructure, or Pedestal, of 20 Feet, so elevated 
to be seen above the Statues of 7 Feet,& being 14 Feet behind the Cyma 
of the outward Columns, could not well be lower. The Pilasters then of 
the Pteron being 24 Feet, made with their Cornice 30 Feet more; and 
upon this the Stone Covering rising 24 Feet more, in metae cacumen, (as 
Pliny phrases it) made the whole Pteron 74 Feet. Now, if round about 
the lower Colonade is added an Ascent in Steps of i o Feet, (the third of 
the Pillar) there will be to the Platform on the Top 1 24 Feet, upon wh ich 
stood the triumphal Chariot of Mausolus, in Marble, 16 Feet high; so 
the whole Heighth will be 140 Feet, as by Pliny. The whole Circum- 
ference I have computed 416 Feet, which exceeds Pliny's by 5 Feet. The 
Bottom and Fafade, Pliny reported as he was informed by Greek Mea- 
sure, I have computed by just Proportions, which indeed are very fine. 
First, the Ascent in Heighth is a third Part of the Pillar; then the Col- 
umn with the Architrave being 32, will be half the Fa9ade 64, and the 
Face of the Pteron and Pedestal, will have the Appearance of being as 
high as broad over the Heads of the Statues. The Ascent of Steps up to 

the Platform is only the proper Stone Covering, the Stones being 1 2 
Inches high, and 6 Inches saile. The Breadth at the lower Steps to the 
whole Heigh th, is as 3 to 4, which is the Sides of Pythagorick rectan- 
gular Triangles. The Ordinance of the Whole falls out so wonderfully, 
and the Artists being contemporary with the School of Plato, I know not 
but they might have something to practise from thence, in this harmon- 
ick Disposition. I have joined the 1 6 inward Pillars into four Solids, and 
continued the Same to the Top; opening also the middle Inter-column 
of the Pteron, that Solid may be upon Solid, and Void upon Void; so all 
is firm, yet airy. I have omitted Triglyphs in the Freeze, which I take to 
be the only Place for the Inscription, and Monuments were never with- 
out. I believe Triglyphs are proper for Porticoes chiefly, as in Imitation 
of Timber Entablatures. There might be round upon the first Order 20 
Statues; 16 more below upon the Solids in Niches; and 12 in Niches of 
the Pteron, in all 48, each Statuary taking 1 2. Pythis, a fifth Artist, (says 
Pliny) made the Coloss Figure of Mausolus, in a Chariot drawn by four 


The Plate of the above is omitted, on account of the Drawing 
being Imperfect. 


s 2 






Absolom, Sepulchre of 


Air, Weight of 


All Hallows, Bread St. 
„ „ The Great 
„ „ Lombard St. 

All Souls 

„ College Chapel 

Anatomical experiment 

Angelo, Michael 

Animals, Dissection of 


Anthelm, Dr. 

Apollo, Temple of 

Arches 123,125, 

„ Abutment of 

Architecture, Works in 

Ariminium, Council of 

Aries, Council of 


Ashler, Kentish 125, 


Astronomy, Chair of 
„ Professor of 

Atmosphere, Gravity of 

Atterbury, Dr. 

Auditory, Preaching 

Aylesbury, Thomas 

Azout, Mons. 


Bacon, Lord 
Balance, The 

Barocius Jacobus 
Barometer, Invention of 
Barracks, Hyde Park 
Barrow, Dr. Isaac 













29, 162 






1 06 




Bassishaw Church 1 8 8 

Bathurst, Dr. 1 9 

Battering-ram 141 

Bayley, Dr. 102 

Beaubrun 1 06 

Berkeley, Lord 1 06 

Berkenhead,Jack 98 

Bernini 105, 106 

Berninus, Eques 
Blood, Experiments in 
Bourdelet, Abbot 65, 105, 106 
Bourdon 106 









„ Dock 

Brouncker, Viscount 
Bruno, Abbe 
Burial-places, Saxon 
Busby, Dr. 







105, 106 



127, 128 


Caddorydris 95 

CafFarelli alia Valle, Palace 1 48 
Callimachus 242 

Cambridge, Theatre of 226 

Camden 126,159,168 

Campani 49 

Capital, Corinthian 242 

Cartesius 32 

Casini 49» 87, 94 

Caswell 94 

Champeine 1 06 


Chanute 4^ 

Chapel, Henry VII. 163,175 

Chapel Royal i 

Chapter House 125,126 

Charles, Abbe 105 

„ Elector Palatine 3 

„ I., Tomb of 208,210 

„ n. 42 

„ „ Restoration of 124 
Chelsea College 205 

Chemistry, Experiments in 41 
Chester, Bishop of 240 

Christ Church 1 80 

„ „ Oxon bell tower 226 
City Churches 176 

City of London,'Rebuilding of 1 1 6 
Clark, Dr. Timothy 66 

Claudius 1 1 3 

Clavis Mathematics 5 

Clerambaut, Marshal de 97 

Clerkenwell 118 

Clifford, Matthew 97 

Coaches 23 

Coals, Duty on 112 

Colbert 105 

Coliseum 148,240 

Colonnades, Origin of 241 

Colonia Julia, B asilica of 150 

Columbus 29 

Columns, Disposition of 241 

Column of London, Measure- 
ments of 199 
Column of London, Inscrip- 
tion for 200 
Comets, Hypothesis of 50 
„ Hook's Discourses of 51 
Compas, Coach 23 
Compton, Dr. Henry 1 54 
Constantine 123 
Copernicus 29 
Corinthian Order 1 24 




Court of Arches 


Covent Garden 


Coventry, Henry 
Cox, Robert 

Cromwell, Oliver 
Cursitor's Alley 











Denham, Sir John 

Denys, Mons. 

De Ortu Fluminum 

104, III 



Derham, Rev. W. * 


Descartes 33,47,48,57 

De Sorbier 39 

Dial, Reflecting 5 

Diana, Temple of 115,1 58, 250 
Diocletian 123 

Dioptrics, Theory of 36 

Diseases, Epidemical 34 

Divini 49 

Dorchester, Marquis of 64 

Dowgate 114 

Dugdale 124,125,126 

Earth-motion, Casini on 87 
East Knoyle i 
Edgar, King 159 
Edward the Confessor 159 
Eggs, Hatching of 41 
Ely ' I 
Elector Palatine, Charles 3 
Emanuel Coll. Camb. Chapel 226 
Engines, Offensive and De- 
fensive 23 
„ Water 22 


Engines, Pneumatic 2, 22 

Erasmus, Life of 1 67 

Ethelbert 123, 167 

Evelyn, John 42,131,1 74, 

205, 227 
Exeter, Bishop of 19 

Exchange, The 118 119 

Experiments, Caloptrical 46 

Eye, Artificial 22, 37, 58 

Fabrilius, Dr. 


Fire of London 8, 1 1 1 , 113, 


123, 126, 13 


Flamstead 75.83,87,93 



Fleet Ditch 


„ River 


„ Street 


Fontana Dominicos 




Forts, Sea 






Foster Church 






Fox, Sir Stephen 




Freestone, Yorkshire 124,125 


Fruits, History of 



Gabets, Robert de 






Generation, Experiments in 




Globe, Lunar 





Gnomonics, Instrument of 

use in 2 

„ Treatise on 2 

Gobert 106 

Goddard 19,49,95 

Goniscope 22 

Gothic Style 1 24, 1 60, 1 72 

Greenwich Hospital 205, 206 

Gresham College 1 9. 95? 1 1 1 

5, Life of 45 

Grew, Dr. 22, 35, 36, 37, 


Guerrick, Otto de 48 

Gunpowder, Destruction by 32 

Gunter 32 

Gurye, de 65 


Halley, Dr. 


Halls, City Companies' 


Halton Street 


Hampton Court Palace 




Harvey, Dr. 


Hevelius 49, 




History, Meteorological 


„ Rush worth's 






Holborn Bridge 


Holder, Dr. William 


Hook, Experiments of Dr. 


„ Life of 


„ Robert 35,48, 

75. 84. 


Horton, Dr. 




Hugenius, Discourse of 


Hugens, Christian 


Husbandry, Improvements in 22 






LoUius, Epistle to 


Hyde, Lord Chancellor 


London Bridge 


Hypothesis of h in Solid 


„ Stone 


„ of M oon 's Libration 




Louvre, The 



„ Design of 


Inscription over Gate of St. 

Lower, Dr. 






Instruments, Musical 




„ Diplographical 


Lucius King 




Ludgate 114, 

, 115,119 

„ Prison 

118, 119 


Lygorius Pyrrhus 


James I. 





Jones, William 


Magdeburg, Consul of 


„ Inigo 111,120. 




Jonson, Ben 




Jucundus Veronensts 



• 130 

Julianus a Sancto Gallo 




Mars Ultor, Temple of 



Matrina Januaria 






Kentish Ashlar 




,, Rag 125, 


Mausolus, Sepulchre ot 


Kepler 31 


May, Hugh 




Mazarin, Cardinal 


„ Palace 







Mersenne, Father 


Lamps, Roman 


Mews, The Royal 


Lath and Plaister 


Mezzotinto, Art of 


Laud, Archbishop 


Micrographia, Hook's 




Millington, Dr. 








Modernus Carolus 


Le Pautre 




Libra expansionis aeris 








Liquors, Experiments in 






Montmor, de 




Moon, Pictures of 37 

Moore, Sir Jonas 83,215 

Moorfields 1 14 

Moorgate 114 

Moriay, Sir Robert 3 8 , 3 9, 46 

Morley, Bishop 203 

Mortar 1 24, 1 27 

Motion, Laws of 33, 78 

Navigation, Experiments in 40 
„ Improvement of 52,78 
„ Submarine 23 

Needle, Magnetical jj 

Neile, Sir Paule 37, 38, 49, 58, 80 
Newgate 119 

Newton, Sir Isaac "j^ 

Nice, Council of 122 

Normans 125 


Oil, Tenacity of 8 1 

Oldenburg, Henry 24,66,85,86 

Order, Doric 248 

„ Tyrian 248 

Organ, Speaking 22 

Orphelin 1 06 

Oughtred 5, 82 

Oxford, History of t,$ 

„ Theatre of 216 

„ University of 2 

Pavement, Tesselated 

Peace, Temple of 

Pembroke, Lord 



Perpetual Motion 

Perspective Box 



Petty, Sir William 









Palatine Tower 



Paris, Royal Academy of 49 

Pascal, Dr. 47,48,81 

Pavement 22 

Philosophy, Principle of 33 

Picard 106 

Piles 143 

Pillar, Pompey's 248 

Pillars 124,127,128 

Plaister 1 27 

Planets, Illumination of 22 

Pleiades, Pictures of the 22 

Plot, Dr. 35,42 

Plough, Annals of the 53 

Pointer, John 75 

Popham, Alexander i 

Porta, Jacobus a 154 

Portico 124, 125, 248 

Portland Quarries 1 47 

„ Stone 124, 147, 166, 195 
Pot Earth 143 

Poussin 106 

Powle, Henry 38 

Praesul, Godwin de 1 24 

Praetorian Camp 115, 123 

Way 114 

Printing, New ways of 22 

Pteron 255 

Quarries, Yorkshire 1 24 

Quarries, Portland 147 

Quintinye 106 

Quires 123,124,125,127 



Rag, Kentish 


Rain Guage 






Refraction, Theory of 






Richard, Bishop of London 1 24 
I. 124 

Rieves 49 

Robert 106 

Rock Abbey Stone 1 47, 1 9 5 

Roman Basilica St. Peter 

and St. Paul 123 

„ Causeway 114,123 

„ Colony 113 

„ Remains 114, 115 

Rook 19,49,75,78 

Rowing, Mechanics of 41 

Rubble-stone, Kentish 1 24 

Rupert, Prince 42 

Rusden, Moses 46 

Ruvine 1 06 


St. Bridgets 1 80 

„ Christophers 1 80 

„ Clements Danes 1 8 1 

„ „ East Cheap 181 

„ DionisBack 181 

„ Dunstans 118 

„ „ in the East 182 

„ Edmund the King 1 82 

„ Faith 124 

„ George, Botolph Lane 182 

„ Germains, Castle of 105 

„ James, Garlick Hill 1 82 

„ „ Westminster 182 

„ Lawrence 114 

Jewry 183 

„ Magnus 183 

„ Margarets, Lothbury 1 84 

Pattens 184 

Sacrificing Vessels 
Sailing, New ways of 
St. Albans, Earl of 
„ Alban, Wood Street 
„ Anne and Agnes 
„ Andrews, Holborn 
„ „ Wardrobe 
„ Antholins 
„ Anthonys 


„ Bartholomews Exchange 1 79 

„ Benedicts Fink 1 79 

„ „ Gras 178 

„ Bennets, Paul's Wharf 179 

„ Brides 180 

„ Marks 

„ Martin, Life of 
„ Martins, Ludgate 
„ MaryAbchurch 
„ „ Aldermanbury 
„ „ Aldermary 
„ „ at Hills 
„ „ le Bow 








„ „ „ Dimensions of 

„ „ Magdalen, 185 

„ „ Somerset 185 

Warwick Tower 


„ Matthew, Friday Street 1 87 
„ Michael Basingshall 1 88 

„ „ Cornhill 189 

„ „ Crooked Lane 189 
„ „ Queenhithe 188 

„ Michael, Royal 188 

„ „ Wood Street 188 
„ Mildred, Bread Street 1 89 

Poultry 190 


St. Nicholas Cole Abbey 1 90 

„ Olaves, Jewry 1 90 

„ Pauls I, III, 116, 1 19, 

121, 122, 126, 135 
„ „ Model of 135.138 

„ Peters 112, 123, 148 

„ „ Cornhill 191 

„ „ Westminster 226 

„ Sepulchres 1 9 1 

„ Stephens, Coleman Street 1 9 1 
„ „ Wallbrook 191 

„ Swithins 192 

„ Vedast 192 

Salisbury Church 84 

Sancto Gallo, Julianus 1 54 

Sancta Sophia, Temple of 153 
Sandcroft, Dr. William 1 32 

Santa Maria Major 147,148 

Sarazin 1 06 

Sarum, Bishop of 2 

Savile, Sir Harry i o 3 

Savilian Professor of Astro- 
nomy 2, 19 
Scaffolds 125 
Scarborough, Dr. v 5 
„ Sir Charles 74,82 
Scenographical Instruments 22 
SchefHer i 70 
Sciography, Designs in 22 
Sciotericon Catholicum 2 
Scopas 257 
Seasons, History of 34 
Sebert 159 
Serlio, Sebastian 148, 220 
Severn , 95 
Sewell,John 209 
Sheldon, Dr. Gilbert 2 1 7 
Shepheard, Rev. William i 
Silk, Experiments in 81 
Smith, Dr. 70 


Smithfield j j g 

Society, History of Royal 3 3 

„ Royal 20 

Solomon's Porch 1 67 

Soundings 78 

Sphere, Doctrine of 83 

Spires 125,126 

Spitalfields ii(, 

Sprat, Dr. 33> 39,40,74, 86, 

Steeples 1 24 

Sthael, Peter 42 

Stepkins 98 

Stone, Caen 162, 163 

„ Reigate 162 

Strong 154 

Stucco 128,130,151 

Surgeons' Hall 8 



Tax, Sea-Coal 




Temple Bar 

119, 121 

„ of Diana 


„ The 

119, 120 

Thames, The 

114, 118 

Theories, Improvement of 52 
Thermometer, Self-registering 3 5 
Tholus 129 

Thornhill, Sir James 152 

Timber 126 

Timotheus 257 

Tivoli, Quarries of 147 

Torricelli 47 

Tour, de 1 06 

Tower Hill 114,118 

„ Palatine 1 24 

Tract, Algebraic 1 8 

Tracts, Philosophical 76 


Trade, History of 
Treatise on Gnomonics 
Trigonometry, Spherical 
Trinity Coll. Camb. Library 




Urbino, Raphael 
Urns, Roman 


Valerian, Father 
Vander Diver 
Van Ostal 
Vasco de Gama 





124, 125 


105, 106 

Vespasian, Amphitheatre of 1 48 
Vilcein 106 

Villalpandus 242, 250 

Vivius Marcianus, Monu- 
ment to 115 












Wadham College 


Wallis, Dr. i 

Ward, Dr. Seth 2-, i 

Warwick Church 

Water, Fresh way for 

Watling Street 




Weather, Diary of 







making 23 


45. 46, 59 





Welsh Hills, Heights of 

Westminster Hall 
„ School 

Whale Fishing 

Whitehall, Palace of 


Wilkins, Dr. John 2 

William I. 

Williams, Dr. 

Willis, Dr. 

Winchester Cathedral 
„ Palace 

Wind, Diary of 


Windsor Castle Alterations 214 
„ Dean of i 

Woodward, Dr. 1 68 

Wrecken, The 95 

Wrecks, Recovery of 78 

Wren, Christopher 1 54 

„ Dr. 1, 18, 19 

„ Matthew 1 9, 97 

„ Sir Christopher i , 4, 7, 18,,46, 
jt^, 80, 82, 86, 87, 94, 95, 
117, 120, 124, 125, 126, 
„ Sir Christopher, In- 
scription over Grave 232 

Yorkshire Freestone 





Published in England by Edward Arnold, 
yj Bedford Street, Strand ; and in America 
by Samuel Buckley & Co., loo William 
Street, New York. - 

250 copies. This is No.O O